Geographical Indications (GI) are the signs that identify goods as originating
in a specific geographical area/location. GI is a collective right that seeks to
protect economic interests of a community of producers belonging to a particular
region who have specialized in making or manufacturing of a product. At the
domestic level, Indian law ensures that GI protection is available uniformly to
all types of products. However, it is still seen that products like Basmati are
not adequately protected under TRIPs Agreement.
While this kind of protection has the potential to improve economic
opportunities to marginalized sections of society, the lack of it for goods such
as Aranmula Kannadi has raised questions about the norms adopted by the
authorities in protecting the expertise and diligent work of the labours of this
unique mirror in Kerala, who recently had their years of scrupulous work washed
away by a flood.
The article investigates the contentious issue of the lack of
appropriate regulations for the protection of information associated with GI
identification. GI recognition is given to a wide range of items in India, from
the well-known Pashmina to Aranmula Kannadi, Basmati Rice to Madhubani
Paintings. Even after the recognition, there are disputes regarding the
legitimacy of origin of these GI acclaimed products.
This article looks into the protection of geographical indications in India. An
attempt has been made to study this in the light of Aranmula Kannadi
which was given a GI tag in 2005. This however currently stands disputed due to
the allegations of false GI from another organisation which claims to be the
true inventors of the product. Herein, an attempt has been made to look into the
problems surrounding the covenant of a GI in India along with a few loopholes
and some possible solutions to prevent any further malicious use of the
Geographical Indication (hereinafter referred to as GI) has emerged as one of
the crucial instruments for protecting quality and reputation of a good having a
specific geographical origin that indicates its source and quality. GI is an
invention of TRIPS Agreement which requires members of World Trade Organization
(WTO) to provide legal means for preventing the use of GIs in such a way that
misleads the public as to the geographical origin of the good or constitutes
GI is defined under Article 22(1) of TRIPS Agreement as an
indication that indefinites a good as originating in the territory of a Member,
or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or
other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geography. A
product originating in a certain place must have ingredients, characteristics,
quality and goodwill that establishes its connection with its geographical
origin in order to function as a GI or acquire an indication mark.
A clear link
has to be established between the product and its original place of production
since the distinguishing factor of that product results from factors like
specific climate or raw material obtained from that particular region.
The most popular and important GIs for India are Darjeeling tea and basmati
rice. The hilly terrain of Darjeeling region in West Bengal claim ownership of
its native tea. Geographical factors such as height, humidity, sunlight, and
mist contribute to the tea's distinct flavour. The land is fertile, and the
slopes of the hills have natural drainage. All these features are suitable for
production of Darjeeling tea.
TRIPS Agreement and GI Act, 1999
Prior to 1999, there was no specific legislation in India regulating the
geographical indication. However, the Indian Judiciary played a remarkable role
in preventing the misuse of GIs even in the absence of a law. For instance, in
Mohan v. Scotch Whiskey[i], the High Court of Delhi affirmed the order of
registrar of Trademarks who refused to register the mark of applicant on a
�proposed to be used� basis on whisky produced in India consisting of words
Highland Chief and the device of the head and shoulders of a gentleman dressed
in Scottish highland costume wearing, inter alia, feather bonnet and plaid and
edged with tartan, a well-known symbol of Scottish origin.
The driving force for India to enact its own legislation for GI protection was
the Basmati controversy when Ricetec Inc., a U.S. multinational company received
a patent for new lines and grains in the name of Basmati
rice. Despite several
attempts from India, they could not successfully fight back against the
contention that Basmati was not geographic indicator even in India as it was
grown all over India, Pakistan and even in Thailand.
Additionally, it was
observed that even according to the TRIPs, there was no obligation for other
countries to extend reciprocal protection unless a geographical indication is
protected in the country of its origin.[ii] In light of this event, India
enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act
The definition of GI under this act, though similar to TRIPs, is much
more explanatory. It explicitly includes agricultural, natural or manufactured
goods, the characteristics of which, apart from being attributable to
geographical origin, one of the activities of either production or processing of
the manufactured good takes place in that locality. The duration of protection
for the geographical indication is ten years which can be repeatedly renewed for
another ten years upon application in the prescribed manner by the proprietor.
Registration of GI is mandatory to claim any rights with respect to GI.[iii] The
benefits of registration can be discussed as follows:[iv]
- The registered proprietor and authorized users can claim a right to
infringement in the event of an infringement;
- The authorized users receive exclusive right to the use of the GI of the
Therefore, while registration of GI is not mandatory in India, Section 20 (1)
doesn�t give legal backing to unregistered GIs. Thus, registration of a GI gives
its registered owner and its authorized users the right to obtain relief for
Aranmula KannadiHistory and Origin
Aranmula kannadi, meaning the Aranmula mirror, is a handmade metal-alloy mirror,
made in Aranmula, a small town in Pathanamthitta, Kerala, India. It is an
ancient and unique combination of craft that had existed even during the Vedic
period of Indian history. The history of the Aranmula Kannadi (Aranmula Metal
Mirror) lies across centuries, and its making is deeply rooted in the
transcendence of tradition, the strength of devotion and purity of dedication.
Existing since the Vedic period, the Aranmula Kannadi is a rare and unique piece
of craft whose creation is only known to a few families in the Aranmula village
in Kerala�s Pathanamthitta district. The inimitable feature of this exclusive
product is that it does not require the silver nitrate coating to develop a
reflective nature to be called a mirror. The distinguishing feature of the
Aranmula Kannadi from a regular mirror is that while the latter reflects images
from its coated layer, the former does so directly from its surface. The makers,
who are extremely skilled artisans claim no distortions in the images.
The origins of the Aranmula mirror are fascinating to learn about. According to
the locals, the king had invited many Viswabrahmana artisans to Aranmula at the
time. These artisans were brought in from Sankarankovil, Tamil Nadu, for some
excellent building work inside the Parthasarathy Temple. Before returning home,
these artisans presented the King with a magnificent crown that featured a
gleaming metal mirror in the middle.
The King was so taken aback by these artisans' unique metallurgical abilities
that he allowed them to stay and even arranged for them to live near the
temple's 'Theke Nada.' Although two of those families were said to have settled
quickly, one was said to have returned due to a decrease in employment. Since
then, generations of Aranmula Kannadi artisans have guarded the recipe as a
Vishwakarma family secret. They used to produce mirrors for royal families using
the secret recipe for several years before selling them to visitors and
It is not just the craftsmanship that distinguishes the Aranmula mirror. It's
one-of-a-kind because it's a front-reflecting metal mirror. This distinguishes
it from plane glass mirrors, which absorb light from the back side of the glass.
This unique product has the unique feature of not requiring the silver nitrate
coating to acquire a reflective quality in order to be considered a mirror. The
difference between the Aranmula Kannadi and a normal mirror is that the former
displays images directly from its base, while the latter does so from its coated
substrate. The makers of Arnamula Kannadi, who are extremely skilled artisans,
claim that the images do not get distorted in these mirrors.
Since light is refracted as it travels through the glass and back, we can see a
blurred reflection in plane mirrors. Coating a standard plane mirror increases
reflection, which is most noticeable in smaller mirrors or bathroom mirrors.
This is why, based on the height, consistency, and location of a traditional
household mirror, it can appear differently.[vi] The light shines directly from
the upper surface of the Aranmula mirror. When an index finger is positioned on
an ordinary mirror, a slight distance appears between the finger edge and its
reflection; however, this gap disappears when the finger is placed on an
Process of Creation
Craftsmen continue to use conventional, indigenous methods and materials to
create the refracting marvel known as Aranmula Kannadi. To make a great mirror
product, it takes years of practise, a lot of attention, and a lot of patience.
Built from the scratch, Aranmula mirrors are typically divided into three types:
back stand, fixed stand, and hand mirror.
There are two distinct stages involved
in the making of Aranmula Kannadi:
The first stage involves creating a mould centred on the desired form of the
mirror, and then casting approximately 80 mirrors from the single mould. The
artisans labour with utmost diligence under the scorching sun in a thatched
workshop to produce a flawless mirror. The procedure begins with the development
of the alloy. Craftsmen use a method similar to the lost wax process to melt all
of the metals, the names of which are only recognised by the Aranmula Kannadi
making families and craftsmen in the village. They call it the Vishwakarma
family password, and no one else knows what metals make up this mirror.
The next step is to cast the mould with the alloy in a furnace that has been
stoked by a fire. The crude mirror that is made from the molten alloy is then
cut, filed, polished, and eventually placed on a brass frame after the moulds
are cooled and broken. To ensure the optimal finish and the mirror's refletive
surface, the mirrors are normally cleaned for weeks at a time. Once the whole
process is complete, the beautiful mirrors are fixed in elegant ornamental
frames. This entire process is time consuming and scrupulously done.
GI to Aranmula Kannadi
An application was made by the Vishwa Brahmana Aranmula Metal Mirror Nirman
Society (VAMMNS) on 08-12-2003, to grant the Mirrors a Geographical Indication
for its unique manufacturing process. The secretary of the Society, in Aranmula
applied for it stating that the secret ingredients of the metal mirror are known
only to his family. His application elucidated on the entire process down to
Once satisfied with the uniqueness and secrecy of the product, the
Geographical Indications Registry granted the patent to VAMMNS in 2005 for the
�Aranmula Kannadi� under Class 20 pertaining to �handicraft�. After the grant of
GI certificate in 2005, the protection has been renewed after ten years and now
the Geographical indication owned by the Society is valid till 2023. [viii]
Threat to Original GI
In 2015 a family constituted as the Thikkinampallil Aranmula Metal Mirror Nirman
Family Charitable Trust filed a petition in the GI Registry against the Vishwa
Brahmana Society questioning its legacy over the Aranmula Kannadi. The Trust
filed for its own GI under the name Thikkinampallil Aranmula Kannadi
that the process of manufacturing it is inherited from predeceased members of
the Thikkinampallil family who are the actual inventors of the Kannadi.[ix] The
inimitable method, which the Trust members claim to have inherited from their
forefathers is more or less the same as described by VAMNNS with a few minor
changes in the proportions of the metals. The application by this Trust is under
examination by the Board and no final decision has been given as to which
organisation should be the true owner of the GI.
Misfortune of 2018
Due to exceptionally high rainfall during the monsoon season, Kerala experienced
the worst floods in nearly a century, putting all 14 districts of the state on
red alert. The Indian government declared it a Level 3 Calamity, or a serious
Thirty-five dams were opened for the first time in history,
out of a total of fifty-four in the province. The floods wreaked havoc on
people's lives, livelihoods, and land. A total of 483 people were killed, 15
went missing, and over a million people were displaced.
The producers of Aranmula Kannadi were also harmed by the disaster. The prepared mirrors were
irreversibly destroyed, workstations were swept away, and raw materials became
When people were struggling to recover from the trauma of the flooding and
resume their normal lives, the craftsmen brought to light the issues that had
forced them to close their shop temporarily. The mirror moulds are constructed
from clay collected from the paddy fields near Aranmula. However, the river
deposited a dense layer of slush over the paddy fields as a result of the
This current coating of clay was unsuitable for the moulds, so a dense
sheet of sand and mud had to be removed in order to get the proper content.
time-consuming mission couldn't be completed quickly enough to get the craftsmen
back in operation while still ensuring that their homes didn't fall apart.
Second, when they were buried in water, weapons like chisels, hacksaw blades,
and hammers rusted. These tarnished instruments, which are an important part of
their trade, may not be used to fill, engrave, or embellish the frame's designs.
Aside from all of the advantages, making the mirror is also a relatively
environmentally friendly operation. The material used is environmentally
sustainable and locally sourced. The mould parts can be ground again, and the
alloy fragments can be remelted, but there is very little waste and much of the
stuff is recycled. As a result, it is critical to improve the Aranmula
Community's current situation.
Problems in Protection of GI
The radical loosening of the territorial linkage between GI goods and GI regions
in the concept of geographical indications is currently one of the most
profound problems with GI. Although this territorial relation has never been
absolute since the first appearance of national laws governing the usage of
geographical names, the current tendency seems to favour a much looser concept
of GIs in terms of the products' actual geographical origin, materials, and
The conventional basis for awarding exclusive rights
on GI specifically - the deep relation between the goods and the land - is the
geographical linkage between the GI and the products and the regions.
When GIs fail to distinguish goods that are completely local, they no longer
fulfil the purpose for which they are constitutionally covered � providing
reliable knowledge about the geographical origin of products to customers, thus
incentivizing local production. Instead, GIs are used as marketing tools to
promote GI goods on the foreign market, using the GI brand.
In today's world, GI is becoming increasingly economic, and legal security is
becoming increasingly important to ensure its business credibility. Unfair use
of GI and market practises will result in revenue loss for legitimate right
holders of GI and will also deceive customers. In recent years, there has been
an increase in GI registrations in India. Though developed countries mainly use
GI for food items, Indian legislation has expanded GI to a diverse range of
goods ranging from handicrafts to flowers and spices. As a result, the Aranmula
mirror, along with various silks, saris, textiles, and embroidery patterns, has
joined soaps, incense, various varieties of jasmines, several strains of rice,
tea, betel leaf, and chillies in receiving the GI label.
Article 22 of TRIPs, according to some scholars, is not good enough. Originally
drafted to defend GI effectively, it is now primarily being used as a statute
against unfair trade practises and for consumer rights, detracting from its
original aim of IPR protection. A manufacturer outside of a particular
geographical area may still use the GI as long as the true origin of the
commodity is shown on the label. This means that an Aranmula mirror could be
produced from, say, Houston, Texas, enabling an American manufacturer to profit
from the prestige and consumer goodwill developed by Keralite artisans over two
An excellent example will be premium quality tea grown in the hilly regions of
Darjeeling in West Bengal�the formerly Darjeeling Tea in India's eastern
province. This tea has a distinct consistency, flavour, and a worldwide
reputation dating back more than a century. Geographic roots and manufacturing,
in particular, have led to such an extraordinary and distinct taste. While
Darjeeling tea is produced in 10,000 tonnes, it is estimated that 40,000 tonnes
of tea is sold as Darjeeling tea in the world market. The consumers of these
30,000 tonnes of tea, which is not Darjeeling tea, are being misled into
believing that they are consuming Darjeeling tea when in fact they are not.
Most of the tea coming into the world market as counterfeit Darjeeling tea
seems to be coming from countries like Kenya and Sri Lanka. The other source is
said to be Nepal. Nepalese tea is produced in similar geographic conditions to
that of Darjeeling tea. Around 60 per cent of the Nepalese tea is exported to
India and most of the Nepalese tea estates/gardens are owned by Indians.
are allegations that Nepalese tea is imported into India which is then
repackaged as Darjeeling tea and exported to other countries.[xii] Nepal is a
small producer and exporter of tea in the world market. If contemporary
commercial reputation becomes the benchmark, the boundary with trademark or
unfair competition law breaks down and the justification for GIs, as a separate
regime based on the causal connection between product and place, collapses.
The Aranmula Kannadi, for example, had sufficient security and legitimacy thanks
to the GI tag it received more than a decade ago. The catastrophic floods, along
with the Thikkinampallil Family's claims, have left the artisans in despair and
have given up hope for the continuation of their divine art. You can also
challenge the authenticity of the inventors of the mirror's latest argument by
asking why they approached the GI Registry after almost a decade. While
resolving this dispute, the government and the GI Registry must also investigate
flood-related damages and work for the upliftment of artisans as well as the
promotion of the art.
Furthermore, once GIs are registered, there are almost no arrangements for
quality management, which explains the proliferation of applications in India.
Quality management is a critical concern in European countries. Once a commodity
is awarded GI after careful tests and testing, there is little chance of fakes,
which is not the case in India.
A GI tag in India not only brings with itself a brand equity for the product but
also demands premium in the market. Hence, a lot of background work needs to be
conducted before an official application is made, and the absence of this in
India leads to an enormous number of rejections. A recent instance for this is
the �Hyderabadi Biryani� as the applicants could not prove its historical origin
along with supporting documents. This provision will prove to be a formidable
hurdle in India, a country where in regions like the North East, which boast of
far wider oral history and conventions than written proof.
To exemplify, the case of Assam could be taken into deliberation because the
traditional wine rice called �Judima� (made by Dimasa tribe of Dima Hasao, one
of the autonomous hill districts of Assam). Assam government underwent
difficulties in registering under Geographical Indicator category due to
inability in gathering sufficient documentary evidence. It is only after
recurrent efforts that recently Judima qualified to be registered as a GI.
However, this is a growing issue in GI registration in India and our experts
have again and again questioned the rationality of this law which is proving to
be a hurdle towards India�s development in the IPR sector.
Owing to the economic and cultural value of GI, legal security is extremely
important. Economically, GIs serve two functions: on the one hand, they allow
indigenous producers to gain market awareness and create goodwill for their
products, and on the other, they protect customers from counterfeit
goods.[xiii] Without adequate legal safeguards, rivals who do not have valid
rights to the GI can take unfair advantage of its prestige. Such unethical
trading activities cause revenue loss for legitimate right-holders of the GI and
even confuse customers. Furthermore, such activities could ultimately damage the
GI's goodwill and credibility.
They provide enormous value to local communities
by producing goods that are firmly rooted in their history, culture, and
geography. They further encourage rural growth and new employment prospects in
manufacturing, processing, and other related services.[xiv]
One of the key factors and foundations of geographical indication in India is
the production of high-quality products and their preservation; as long as the
geographical indication remains, the commodity is remembered for the original
taste and flavour that drew it to the GI in the first place.[xv]
The European Union's regulation on the protection of names pertaining to
agricultural commodities and foodstuffs allows consumers to make informed
decisions by having detailed facts on the origin of particular items that relate
to their hometown. Furthermore, they have a comparative edge to manufacturers
who have the GI over their competitors.
It is a GI's responsibility to ensure consistency consistent with geographical
roots. The new legal system on GI, however, still lacks the rigour and teeth to
guarantee it. It is critical in our country to maintain customer interest in
order to protect the reputation of GI.
Some of the recommendations are as
Effective verification of the goods: Effective verification and controls at multiple levels in the supply chain
will ensure compliance with product specification before placing it in the
market. If we have officers placed at levels of the supply chain which leads
to the, final product being manufactured for the market they will keep a
check on the quality of the product so that quality is not sacrificed for
profit and the trust of the consumers can also be retained.
Inspection and market monitoring: There is a need to monitor the use of names to ensure a regulatory
enforcement. As a result, inspectors from the GI department in Chennai can
visit all factories to ensure that the original standard of the good that
fetched it the GI tag in the first place is not undermined years.
Furthermore, before issuing an extension after the initial ten-year term has
expired, the department must include an audit and report on the state of the
goods and their production performance.
Historic continuity of the product: The term "continuity" means that the
product's current credibility is built on its previous popularity. One of
the most important tasks here is to explain the distinctive features that
set this product apart � features that have kept it distinct from similar
cheeses, textiles, or crafts.
Finally, in terms of the product's history, the aim is to establish a causal
link between the product's distinguishing or distinguishing characteristics,
which have maintained the product's historic as well as contemporary popularity,
and natural and/or human factors within the geographical area of origin. This
should be a safety review to ensure that the commodity has maintained its
indigenous and aboriginal features, making it worthwhile to extend the GI era.
Long and cumbersome procedure of registration: On closer
inspection, it can be speculated that the current administrative requirements
for the process of GI registration are extensive and cumbersome, and that a
quicker process is available only to the claimant or a third party, not the
Registry. The Registry may take as long as it takes to communicate the
shortcomings in the application after the applicant has completed his part, but
the complainant must respond within a month.
The same holds true for all of the
other moves in the protocol. However, the Registry is not time-bound in order to
efficiently review the various applications that it receives and to avoid any
abuse of privileges enjoyed under the GI tag. It is suggested that the
Government could establish another GI Registry to reduce the workload on the
office at Chennai and for ensuring a faster processing of pending GI
In case more branches are open, it could be possible that in such
a case, people could misuse the advantage and file application in another office
after it being rejected from one. To avoid this, an online database should be
maintained where all the applications can be uploaded to make it easier for each
office to be aware if the application is already rejected. Also, new people can
be hired if there is a shortage of manpower to maintain and keep the record up
Furthermore, since the procedure established for GI provides for filing
for an objection, it can be questioned why the members of the Thikkinampallil
Aranmula Metal Mirror Nirman Family Charitable Trust took twelve years to object
to the GI received by the Vishwabrahmana Society. This brings out another
loophole in the entire process- that the application shouldn�t only be
published in the Journal but in such a conspicuous place in the area for
which it is applied. This is important because it will make more people
aware who can then file an objection if they have any.
Promoting goods bearing Indian geographical indication in the export
market: In order for geographical signs to be profitable, a real plan
must be implemented. In the current situation, India lacks a ministry that is
well positioned to run a good GI campaign for its betterment and international
acclaim. It is critical to provide a structure or an organ by which the various
government ministers and policymakers involved in GI may coordinate their
efforts. A regulatory process is urgently needed to provide additional
safeguards for geographical signs.
As a result, in order to encourage the sale
of products, it is important to advertise the commodity and make it known;
otherwise, neither customers nor foreign firms will be aware of it. As a result,
our everyday wage labourers are being mistreated and underpaid while the
importance and atypical nature of their jobs is unknown to the general public.
Second, India is missing money that could be gained by publicising and promoting
these conventional and intricate products and taking them home to the target
audience. If these rules are followed, exploitations such as Darjeeling Tea, one
of the oldest and most popular GI goods, will not have to go through the ordeal
All of these documents indicate that India's existing legislative system for GI
needs to be improved. Quality management and customer preferences should be
prioritised by including multi-layered quality control processes as a
prerequisite for registration. India boasts of many locally manufactured
products that are unique and fundamental to the deep and rich Indian culture and
heritage, and the legislation in its current form, with a few changes and
diligent enforcement, will work wonderfully and propel India to new heights in
the world IPR programmes and initiatives.
The ability of a GI to uplift marginalized communities of society is its most
defining characteristic. Since it is a common right, it will effectively secure
the wellbeing of artisans or other local people who specialise in products that
are peculiar to certain geographic areas.[xvi] As a result, careful preservation
of such GIs is critical in order to discourage commercial organisations that are
not registered users of GI from profiting from the prestige that indigenous
communities have painstakingly built up.[xvii]
GI conservation is critical for India because of its rich cultural heritage and
varied geography, all of which contribute to the availability of a large range
of native items that are unique to particular regions. Despite the fact that the
GI Act aims to establish a proper legislative framework for the same, the GI
Registry has repeatedly refused to meet the Act's minimum requirements. Given
that the legislative framework for GI security in India is still in its early
stages, it is reasonable that the GI Registry does not want to set too high a
threshold for eligibility because it would deter many people from even trying to
obtain a GI. However, granting GI registrations to everything and anything with
a geographical name falls short of the larger goals of establishing a GI scheme.
The GI Registry's lack of diligence is promoting individual applicants like
Tirupati Laddu, whose primary goal is to obtain exclusive rights over a
commodity by using a GI. And before this, Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) filed a
GI application to register Jamnagar
as a GI for gas, diesel, and LPG.[xviii]
While RIL later abandoned the proposal, the fact that such an
application was permitted to continue to the stage of advertising demonstrates
the weak requirements of the GI Registry's review process, which could have
serious consequences for the future of GI security If the GI Registry does not
impose more strict yardsticks for granting GI, it will lose its effectiveness as
an IPR tool. Greater diligence on the part of officials is needed to ensure that
GI remains an important platform for advancing collective rights.
The stark difference between the security afforded to globally renowned and
reputed products such as basmati rice and Darjeeling tea is striking, while
lesser recognised commodities such as Banaganapelle mangoes, Khandhamal Haldi,
or Aranmula Kannadi are sidelined due to a lack of media coverage.
believed that the storms that engulfed Kerala in August, 2018 are likely in
every other Indian capital, and that failure to mandate or take precautions in
such circumstances would be fatal, destroyable, and annihilating to such unique
embodiments that have proven to be India's pride and testament to its
traditional aura. As a result, in such a desperate situation, it is critical
that we not only raise awareness and information about our traditional and
ethnic merchandise, but also protect and conserve their work in a way that
protects it from natural disasters and other threats that impede the growth and
expansion of their traditional knowledge and art.
Written By: Tanya Singh
- AIR 1980 Del 125 (India
- Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement,
Art. 22, Jan 1,1995, (1869 U.N.T.S. 299).
- The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act,
Section 20, 1999, No.48 of 1999, Acts of Parliament, India
- The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act,
Section 21, 1999, No.48 of 1999, Acts of Parliament, India
- Aranmula Kannadi, Aranmula Kannadi- The Metal Magic for Prosperity!,
- GI, IP India Services, Journal 3, Aranmula Kannadi,
- GI, IP India Services, Application 535, http://ipindiaservices.gov.in/GI_DOC/535/535%20-
- Ramesh Babu, Floods threaten to take shine off Kerala�s famed mirror
artisans, Hindustan Times, Sept 24, 2018.
- Government of India, Geographical Indications Journal No. 95 http://www.ipindia.nic.in/writereaddata/Portal/IPOJo
- The New York Times, Don�t Call It Darjeeling, It�s Nepali, accessed
- Kasturi Das, Protection of Geographical Indications, An Overview of
Select Issues with particular reference to India, (Centad Working Paper No. 8,
- European Commission, Geographical Indications, http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/accessingmarkets/intellectual-property/geographicalindications/.
- Suman Sahai, Protecting Basmati, Economic and Political Weekly, Feb. 28 -
Mar. 6, 1998.
- Madabhushi Sridhar, GI for the Tirupati Laddu: Whose Interests Protected,
- Kasturi Das, Protection of Geographical Indications, An Overview of
Select Issues with particular reference to India, (Centad Working Paper No.
- Varupi Jain, Does Jamnagar Diesel Equal Basmati? India Together (July
15, 2006), http://www.indiatogether.org/2006.jul/eco-relGI.htm.
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