Women empowerment means uplifting women to be economically self-sufficient,
independent, and having positive regard to empower them to confront any
troublesome circumstance. The empowered women ought to have the option to take
an interest during the process of decision-making. This paper attempts to
analyze the status of women in India and the necessary steps which have been
taken to prevent crime against women and enhance their situation.
Welcome to the women's world,
Here you'll get the illusion of equality, carefully hiding the essence of
Women empowerment refers to the upliftment of the spiritual, the political,
social, educational, and economic strength of women and their communities. In
India women empowerment heavenly depends upon the geographical conditions as it
may vary from urban to rural societies as well as social status as caste. Though
there are plenty of policies operating on the level of national as well as
international level but still it has been noticed that India has been still
lacking to some extent mostly on the rural level.
According to a survey, it has been noticed that 50% of the the population
comprises women in society but still, we don't have an exact sex ratio as it
still depicts more men as compared to women. It is very obvious to say that
women have been worshipped as goddess, either we talk about navratras or
sarawati pooja female goddess has been worshipped but at the same time women
were treated as slave in the same society.
Objective Of The Research
- Society should know about the need of women empowerment
- To access the awareness towards the society.
- Factors that are influencing empowerment of women.
- Schemes that has been laid by the government
- To identify the issue of gender justice
- Obstacles that has been arriving on the path of women.
- Suggestions and role of law in the light of findings.
This paper is basically descriptive and analytical in nature. Through this
paper, an attempt has been made to analyze women's empowerment in India. The
data used is purely from secondary sources according to the need of study.
Crimes Against Women In India
Indian society faces an extensive list of crimes when it comes to crimes against
women. All over the sub-continent, women are encountered with rapes, acid
attacks, honor killing, dowry deaths, and many such heinous crimes. According to
the data released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), 3,886 per million
reports have been filed in 2017 for crimes against women. These statistics have
shown a rapid increase with 3,793 per million reports in 2016.
Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code defines rape as sexual intercourse done by
a man with a woman without her consent and will. The definition of rape was
amended and it was further interpreted as any sexual act amounting to the
derogation of sexual dignity of a woman. Any form of penetration done by a man
into a female's private parts is considered rape.
India has been characterized as one of the countries with the lowest per capita
rates of rapes. 
Most rape cases are not even reported because of the fear of
humiliation of the victims. 98% of the rapes were committed by someone known to
the victim. The rates of conviction of the offenders also have observed a
downfall over the last 4 decades. Out of all the rape trials in India, one out
of four lead to a conviction. Forth most common crime against women in India
As per the exception to section 375 of the IPC, sexual intercourse between a man
with his own wife, where the wife is not under the age of 15 years, is not
rape. The wife's consent is based on the common law rule of marital
exemption where the wife has already given her consent to the husband by
Sexual offenses by husbands against their spouse is mostly ignored by society,
in recent times law has changed for the betterment of the current situation but
this is still one of the silent social evils that continue to degrade the
dignity of the female body and objectify women as inferior to the male of the
house as well as the society.
Gang rape is defined under section 376D of the IPC as where a woman is raped by
one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common
intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the the
offense of rape�
Some cases of gang rape have even showed a grudge of the members of the gang
against the victim, the thirst to humiliate and harm the female draws the
offenders to commit such a heinous crime.
Dowry death is another form of evil that is prevalent in Indian society. Section
304B of IPC deals with dowry which states that the death of a woman caused by
any burns or bodily injury or occurs otherwise than under normal circumstances
within seven years of her marriage and it is shown that soon before her death,
she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband or any relative of her
husband for, or in connection with, any demand for dowry, such death shall be
called dowry death
India has the highest number of dowry-related deaths in the world according to
the NCRB. The victim not only is subjected to physical harm and cruelty but also
faces immense mental and emotional torture and harassment. Some of these deaths
are disguised in the form of accidents and suicides.
In 2012, 8,233 dowry death cases were reported across India. This means bride
burning happens every 90 minutes, or dowry issues cause 1.4 deaths per year per
100,000 women in India.
One of the most violent and traumatizing forms of crime against women is an acid
attack or acid throwing. It involves throwing toxic acid or similar forms of
coercive substance onto the person with an agenda of disfiguring, harming or
killing her. The practice of acid attack not only physically renders a female's
whereabouts but also harms her self-image and confidence. The most common kinds
of acids used to victimize a person are sulfuric and nitric acids.
Approximately 1,483 acid victims have been found in the period of 5 years,
2014-18, according to the statistics given by the NCRB. Section 326A and 326B of
the Indian Penal code provide the definition and the punishment relating to acid
throwing and acid attacks.
Domestic violence, also known as domestic abuse is a kind of violence that
happens in a domestic setting, mostly in marriage. Many forms of domestic
violence such as physical, mental, emotional, reproductive, verbal, and others
can be evident in Indian households. According to a National Family and Health
Survey in 2005, the total lifetime prevalence of domestic violence was 33.5% and
8.5% for sexual violence among women aged 15-49.
Section 498A of the IPC defines the meaning and punishment for domestic
violence. The term cruelty mentioned in the section gives a brief insight as
to any form of the voluntary and willful act which harms a woman physically or
even drives her to take her own life. Domestic violence is in many cases not
reported by the victim because of the fear of further torture by her spouse or
his family, and even parental pressure and norms formed by society.
Talking about Nirbhaya to Hyderabad rape case it can be said that women of India
still have a threat on them.
According to national crimes record bureau, 52% of the women were found the
victim in crimes reported in India. India has been named the most dangerous
country in the world for women in a recent Thomson Reuters Foundation Survey.
Apart from this, it should be proud to say that, though women are still
fighting with their empowerment but at the same time there are personalities
like aruna jayanti, zahabiya khorakiwala , chitra Ramakrishna , shikha Sharma
who have touched the sky.
Gender Justice In India
Though the constitution guarantees gender equality, it has not been implemented
in the country, in spite of more than 60 years of independence - Justice V.
Over an extensive stretch of time, Gender Inequality and differences existed in
practically all social orders of the world and henceforth the issue in regards
to sex disparity in India is certainly not an ongoing improvement.
confounded arrangements of conceptions that are stereotypically ascribed to
women are passed on age by age in light of the fact that these over a range of
time became social standards and have not been addressed. Gender Equality aims
to balance in the number and in the relative power, status, and role of women in
Gender is essentially a socio-culture term that contains in itself the socially
credited roles, ascribes, and practices given to a man and a woman in the
society. Consistently we have seen that Indian culture has subjugated the mind
of women, she has been segregated from the very commencement of birth through
Indeed, even before birth, female feticide and sex-specific premature
birth, battering during pregnancy, constrained pregnancy, and so on are
exceptionally normal in a nation like India. After birth, as well as women
throughout her life cycle, faces segregation and brutality. She faces passionate
and physical maltreatment, differential access to nourishment and therapeutic
consideration, genital mutilation, sexual maltreatment by relatives and
outcasts, assault, inappropriate behavior at the working environment, dealing,
constrained prostitution, endowment-related viciousness, and so forth.
The Preamble of the Constitution obviously expresses that fairness ought to be
given to all residents as far as status and opportunity. It must be comprehended
that guarantying Rights to individuals of a network gets futile except if and
until those Rights are similarly delighted in by all individuals from the
network. The composers of the constitution planned for guaranteeing equity of
status and opportunity through the Preamble.
The Preamble of the Constitution
buries Alia discusses social, political, and economic equity for all citizens of
the nation. The Preamble discusses social equity which ought to be comprehended
in the light of guaranteeing cancellation of a wide range of imbalances that may
result from disparity in wealth, status, class, caste, sex, race, title, and so
Economic equity guarantees that each individual ought to get his only
levy for the work given by him/her independent of caste, creed, sex, status, and
so forth. Political equity guarantees that superfluous differentiation among
people in political issues ought not be permitted. Honorable lives contain in
themselves the essence of equality and freedom.
Why There Is A Need For Women Empowerment?
Reflecting on the Vedas Purana of Indian culture, women is being worshiped
such as LAXMI MAA, goddess of wealth; SARSWATI MAA, for wisdom; DURGA MAA for
Even though women are still deprived of:
- Decision making power
- Freedom of movement
- Access to education
- Domestic violence
- Sexual harassment and trafficking
- Nutritional health and sanitation
- Employment opportunities and so on
We will celebrate one more Women's Day on 8 March. As we do as such, it is the
ideal time to check out how women in India, which contain a large portion of the
nation's populace, have advanced as far as social and economic status, which
underscores their strengthening. It is pitiful to take note of that except for a
couple of high achievers; ladies are still underrepresented in professional and
In the UN Human Development Report's (2019) Gender Inequality Index, India is at
the position 95th, out of 129 nations. In the Gender Gap record (World Economic
Forum) 2019, India's position is 108th out of 144 countries due to rising
differences as far as women's wellbeing and interest in the economy. In terms of
women's health and survival and economic participation India is now ranked in
the bottom five.
Ways To Empower Women
Out on the roads, women battle an implicit war each day. Believe it or not,
there is no place of refuge for women anywhere, since the greater part of these
terrible cases happen inside homes and workplaces. While the legislature needs
to start severe laws for the wellbeing and security of women, we also need to
keep our eyes open for wrongdoers.
An educated girl can not only live life on her own terms, she can very well
change the world. As responsible citizens, it is our duty to take that first
step. From that urchin girl who begs for alms to that ragpicker who lives under
the bridge, every girl needs and deserves to be educated. Teach one, teach all,
and open new pathways for her bright future.
safety isn't simply battling crooks yet additionally making a sheltered,
survivable condition for women everywhere. Guarantee a sheltered, comprehensive
condition and regular health check-ups.
Save a Girl
We center around women empowerment once in a while, yet in what capacity will we
start the means referenced above when there will be no woman? girls in numerous
part of the world including India is murdered before birth. The reason are many,
however, the outcomes are horrendous.
Teach Job Skills
A small skill is enough for a woman to start a career. Be it gardening, sewing
or craftsmanship, these efforts can help them start a small-scale business of
their own. Share new ideas with them and help them learn because women
empowerment begins with small initiatives
Raise your voice against gender inequality
Most importantly, raise your voice. Stand beside every woman and help decline
the pervasive sexual orientation the difference in all the strata of society.
Give her freedom
"Don't stay out till late, stay within your limits.
" At each progression, we
will in general imply restrictions on women. This is the ideal opportunity to
change the condition. Try not to tie them in the chains of conventional
perspectives. Give them the opportunity they deserve. On the off chance that you
wish to change something, change perspective and see what incredible achievers
women can turn into.
Women Empowerment Schemes
It is a direct web-based promoting stage propelled by the Ministry of Women and
Child Development to help women business people, Self Help Groups (SHGs), and
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to feature items made and benefits
rendered by them. This is a piece of the 'Digital India' activity.
Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao
The "Spare the Girl Child"
development was propelled on 22 January 2015, it is a
joint activity run by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, the Ministry
of Health and Family Welfare and the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao - The plan was propelled with an underlying subsidizing
of Rs 100 crores. It fundamentally focuses on bunches in Uttarakhand, Bihar,
Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Delhi, and Haryana.
One-Stop Centre Scheme
Famously known as 'Sakhi,' it was actualized on first April 2015 with the 'Nirbhaya'
finance. The One Stop Centers are built up in different areas in India for
giving asylum, police work area, lawful, medicinal and directing administrations
to casualties of viciousness under one rooftop coordinated with a 24-hour
Helpline. The toll-free helpline number is 181. Here is a rundown of Sakhi
focuses the nation over.
These focuses can be reached for:
- Emergency Response and Rescue Services
- Medical Assistance
- Help in lodging FIR/NCR/DIR
- Psycho-social help/counseling
- Legal aid
- Help police/courts by providing video conferences facility
The Support to Training and Employment Program for Women (STEP) Scheme aims to
give aptitudes that offer employability to women and to give capabilities and
ability that empower women to become independently employed/business people. A
specific venture will be for a length of as long as 5 years relying on the
nature, sort of exercise and the number of recipients to be undertaken.
Divisions incorporate Agriculture, Horticulture, Food Processing, Hand-looms,
Tailoring, Embroidery, Handicrafts, computers, and so on.
IT empower benefits alongside delicate aptitudes (soft skills) and the ability
for the working environment, for example, communicated in English, gems and
jewelry, travel and tourism, hospitality, and so forth.
Nari Shakti Purushars
The Nari Shakti Puruskars are national-level honors perceiving the endeavors
made by ladies and foundations in rendering recognized administrations for the
reason for ladies, particularly powerless and underestimated ladies.
Women need specific human rights because of women's disadvantaged social
position. More money being spent on male members of the family on their
education and health and young men having more choice and control over their
access to higher education. Grooms receive and don't have to pay dowry and men
have more control over domestic decision-making.
For example: the use of
contraception, the number of children, etc.
The rights enshrined in the constitution for women in India are as follows:
Article 14: Equality before the law
The the state shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal
protection of the laws within the territory of India. This provision provides
equality to those who are discriminated in Indian society. It safeguards the
dignity of all the minor sections including women.
Article 15: Article 15 prohibits discrimination on the grounds of sex,
religion, race, caste or place of birth.
No citizen has the right to
discriminate against the individual on the basis of aforesaid criteria. The
state shall not discriminate any person and deprived them of any legal justice.
Directive Principles Of The State Policy:
The directive principles ensure that the state shall promote the welfare of the
people in all areas of the society including economic and political justice.
Article 41: Right to work and education
Article 41: directs the state to provide with an equal work opportunity and
Article 42: Provisions for a just and humane condition for work and maternity
Sexual Harassment Of Women At Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition And Redressal) Act, 2013:
The recent development in society called for proper acknowledgment of the
problems faced by working women all of India. The act provides safety to women
at the workplace and also ensures to safeguard the dignity and honor of females.
Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956:
This act not only strives to abolish women trafficking but also has the purpose
to counter prostitution. All over the world women, children and men are
trafficked for the purpose of prostitution and forced labor, which is also
prevalent in India. ITPA plays a great role to eradicate this social evil.
When we welcomed you into the women's world, the new era, and in the dawn of new
beginnings. We welcomed a women prime minister, a female president, and women in
our defense forces. We saw the female athletes getting us gold and actresses
getting national awards. We accepted the change in our workforces and began the
new era. Still, somehow the problem and difference continue to persist.
The legal and political reforms, lead the women of 21st-century walk hand in
hand with the men of 21se century but the basic ideology had still not changed.
A woman everyday fights with patriarchy at home and then go to her office. She's
not stopped to leave her house but before leaving she needs to cook and clean
and do all other household chores because it's her duty and still in the
majority of homes in this country, men do not do even the basic chores of their
The time is changing and we need to change with it. the open arms that men
showed to the women in workforces, they need to walk with some pride into their
own kitchens. As a society, we need to change the basic aspects and accept that
if women are equal to men, so are men equal to women. Women empowerment starts
within our families, workplaces, and neighborhoods. Appreciate those superheroes
who start their day much before you and end it much later.
- Gregg Barak. Crime and Crime Control: A Global View: A Global View. ABC-CLIO.p. 74
- Sirnate, Vasundhara (1 February 2014). "Good laws, bad
implementation". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Sethi, Abhijeet Singh (19 March 2015). "3 years after Delhi rape,
conviction rates same". IndiaSpend.com. Retrieved 22 February 2017
- Sec. 375, IPC, (45 of 1860)
- Sec. 376D, IPC (45 of 1860)
- Sec. 304B, IPC (45 of 1860)
- Provisional 2011 Census Data, Government of India (2011)
- Women's Empowerment in India National Family and Health Survey.
Written By: Mridul Y Suri.
- Student of The GGSIPU University, DWARKA, pursing BBALLB(5th year)
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