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Changing Dimensions Of Patent Laws In India

A patent is a proprietary right granted to an invention by a sovereign body. In this study report, we will objectively examine India's Patent Laws and how much they've changed over the years. We began by exploring intellectual property rights and how they have changed. This paper reflects on the numerous improvements and modifications made to the Indian Patents Act since it was passed in 1970. The shifting patent laws in India's pharmaceutical industry are also discussed, as well as how productively they have performed in the industry's favor.

Introduction
Economic policy and legislation together regulate a country's socio-economic growth. Part of the explanation for the connection between creation and law is the recognition that without intellectual property rights, civilization will not be able to create science, cultural, or creative works at their best. In today's world, the scope of products has expanded to include a broad range of operations, covering the whole value chain from raw materials to finished goods.

This is why policymakers offer rewards and advantages to inventors while still ensuring that valuable technologies are shielded from being replicated and misinterpreted. Intellectual property (IP) refers to the cognitive innovations like inventions, artistic works and symbols, compositions, names, and pictures that are used in trade. In today's world, intellectual property rights (IPR) and their security has gained a lot of traction. Since Act VI of 1856 on the defense of inventions, the world has changed dramatically. The foregoing theories are being established by court rulings in this digital age: moral rights, neighboring rights, and author special rights.

Furthermore, as the internet has grown in popularity, the threats of music piracy and plagiarism have multiplied, negatively impacting the Indian economy. In the fact that we accept and value intellectual property rights, the defense provided has always been insufficient and debatable. Science, technology, trade, and economic growth have brought unparalleled dynamism to the world, posing unprecedented challenges to India's IPR security regime. The Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPS), which is administered by the WTO, identifies the current system of intellectual property legislation for all WTO member countries. This has improved India's ability to invest in research and development, specifically in the pharmaceutical industry.

Patent And Laws In India

For a set amount of time, a Patent is an exclusive right granted by a country to prohibit anyone from creating, using, or selling a patented invention (Once the patent is granted, they are valid for 20 years from the date of filing an application, subject to an annual renewal fee). The aim of this legislation is to promote innovations by encouraging their preservation and proper application.

The Patents Act of 1970, which went into effect on April 20, 1972, was the first step in developing Intellectual Property Rights in independent India. Via device patenting, the Act paved the way for reverse engineering. Both member countries were obliged to obey TRIPS Agreement laws after the foundation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the subsequent implementation of the Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement in 1995.

The laws stipulated that product patents be issued for a term of ten years. On March 22, 2005, India revised its Patent Laws to satisfy its TRIPS commitments, repealing its "method" Patent Law and replacing it with a "product" Patent Law. In the years 1999, 2002, and 2005, India's Patent Law was revised to satisfy TRIPS Arrangement criteria and introduce country-specific adjustments. By January 2005, India had reported in accordance with all Trips agreements.

Patents are copyright protections for new innovations. Persons who invent any new system, method, item of manufacturing, or structure of matter, as well as biological discoveries, are given certain privileges. In order to be patented, an invention must follow such requirements, which can vary from country to country. In general, the technology must be novel and practical, or capable of being used in industry. An individual who receives a patent for his invention has the sole right to prohibit anyone from producing, using, selling, or exporting it without his permission. A patent is generally valid for 20 years from the date of filing the claim (for the patent).

https://www.youbiquo.eu/is-it-necessary-to-patent-a-prototype/

Changes Accord In Patent Laws In India

The Indian Patents Act (1970), as revised by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 1999, and the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002, provides the legislative basis for patents.

The following are some of the most important changes brought on by these revisions to the original Act of 1970:
  1. Indians can now apply for patents anywhere in the world with no limitations
     
  2. The word "purpose" is defined in compliance with the TRIPS agreement, and it covers all goods and processes in all fields of technology. Only methods or processes of manufacturing related to food, medicines, and medications were patentable prior to the amendment.
     
  3. The list of products that do not qualify as innovations for granted patents has been revised to include TRIPS Arrangement exclusions. Previously, an invention could not be patented if its main or desired use was illegal, immoral, or harmful to public health. It would no certainly be viewed as an invention if its main or intended use, or industrial exploitation, may be in violation of public morals or inflict significant harm to person, animal, or living species, wellbeing, or the ecosystem. Biodiversity and conventional knowledge security, as well as facts under the non-patentable invention category. Under the amended act, any living entity or nonliving object discovered in existence is not considered an invention.
     
  4. As a result of amendments authorizing product trademarks, the patentee's rights have been brought in accordance with the TRIPS Agreement's clauses.
     
  5. In compliance with the TRIPS deal, reversal of the duty of evidence where a method patent is infringed on has been included. It is now up to the complainant to demonstrate that the device he is using is not the same as the proprietary process supposedly infringed upon.
     
  6. Patent terms are now uniformly 20 years, as required by TRIPS. Previously, a process patent for food, medication, or drug was valid for five years from the date of sealing or seven years from the date of filing, whichever came first, and fourteen years from the date of the patent for some other invention.
     
  7. The allocation of the right licenses has been withdrawn, and compulsory licensing has been brought inline with TRIPS.
     
  8. There are provisions allowing the exclusive use of special marketing privileges. There are provisions for the simultaneous import of proprietary materials.

Changing Dimensions Of Patent Law In The Pharmaceutical Industry

India has a flourishing generic pharmaceutical industry that supplies drugs at some of the lowest costs in the world. The Patents Act of 19701, which repealed the colonial Patents and Designs Act of 1911, claims nearly all of the blame for the advent of the generic industry.

Since the nation's patent law was changed to make it compliant with the Treaty on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, India's generic pharmaceutical manufacturers face a slew of challenges. The two main aspects of the Patents Act of 1970, which had favored generic firms, were modified. Pharmaceutical inventions were protected by product patents, and a uniform 20-year term of patent protection was created.

However, the Indian government took advantage of the TRIPS Agreement's flexibility and included two clauses in the revised Patents Act that could reduce the burden on generic firms. The first was Section 3(d), which forbids patents on small improvements on current goods. The aim of this clause was to remove the risk of "patent evergreening." Section 3(d) means that the generic corporations can continue to do business in the public realm.

The Indian pharmaceutical industry has been a major lead over the last two decades by providing low-cost drugs to a wide variety of countries. The Pharmaceutical sector faces significant obstacles in the ever-shifting field of intellectual property rights. Some of India's primary economic allies, the United States and the European Union, have criticized the possibilities offered by the Indian Patents Act, which has allowed generic drug producers some breathing room in the region.

Conclusion
Intellectual Property Rights can be described as the rights granted to individuals over their mental creations. In today's information age, intellectual property rights (IPR) are a vital weapon. It protects developers and other manufacturers of products and services by giving them time-limited freedom to decide how they are used. It is a privilege for writers, inventors, and all other new innovations that may be special to our world.

A Patent in return for publishing an encouraging public announcement of the invention grants the holders the moral right to prevent anyone from creating, using, or selling the invention for a finite period of time. We might infer from this analysis that Patent Laws have been revised from period to period for proper working and have retained their efficacy not only internationally but also in India. The Indian Patents Act has also been amended multiple times and with required improvements made, especially in the pharmaceutical industry.

The changing nature of the country's patent regime and its effect on creativity in the Indian pharmaceutical industry can be seen in this way, which explains why the pharmaceutical industry is one of the world's largest.

Also, while this research I got to know that people in India are less aware of intellectual property rights due to a high level of illiteracy in terms of patents, copyright, and other related issues. It is our obligation to be mindful of these rules, and the government should keep those programs on a daily basis to inform the public.

References:
  1. Uday S. Racherla, Historical Evolution of India’s Patent Regime and Its Impact on Innovation in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-13-8102-7_12
  2. Transforming Dimension of IPR Challenges for New Age Libraries, NLU Delhi. http://nludelhi.ac.in/download/publication/2015/Transforming%20Dimension%20of%20IPR%20-%20Challenges%20for%20New%20Age%20Libraries.pdf
  3. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/small-biz/legal/recent-developments-in-intellectual-property-laws-in-india-part-2/articleshow/47780087.cms?from=mdr
  4. https://www.findlaw.com/smallbusiness/intellectual-property/what-is-a-patent.html
Written By: Shruti Sharma, 1st year, B.A.L.L.B(Hons. - Maharashtra National Law University, Nagpur

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