Violence against women and girls is a major human rights issue. At least one in
five of the world’s female population has been physically or sexually abused by
a man or men at some time in their life. Many, including pregnant women and
young girls, are subject to such violence. This is present in every place
possible; either in public space or even in private space women is getting
harassed and faces violence.
United Nations along with many states works in abolishing violence against women
throughout the world. The United Nations General Assembly and other wings have
adopted lots of declaration to uplift the women and to ensure them the equal
rights as of men. From time to time as per the need and condition United Nations
have adopted various declarations that’s been ratified by many States. And early
20th century trafficking and sexual exploitation identified as a concern within
Though these women rights and equality are recognized by United Nations now, the
root reason of all the benefits women enjoy are through the efforts of women and
many international non-governmental organizations. Only when these Organizations
and women all around the world started to speak for themselves and to raise
their voice for their rights the violence against women where recognized. And
only after this recognition the International Organizations understood the
violence against women is an human rights violation and then they started
concentrating on the upliftment of the women and to ensure equal rights and.
There are various international decelerations and action plans for the
upliftment of the women, they are:
- 1979 - Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
- 1985 – General Assembly Resolution on Domestic Violence
- 1993 - Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
- 1994 – The Special Rapporteur on violence against women
- 1994 - International Conference on Population and Development
- 1996 - The United Nations Trust Fund in Support of Actions to Eliminate
Violence against Women
- 1998 - The International Criminal Court
- 2000 - Security Council Resolution 1325
- 2004 – A Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially
women and children.
- 2008 - An unprecedented global campaign, UNiTE to End Violence
- 2010 - A Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict
- 2010 - Human Rights Council - Resolution 14/12
- 2012 - The UN General Assembly - biannual resolutions on the issue of
violence against women.
- 2013 - The 57th Commission on the Status of Women
- 2020 - The 64th session of the Commission on the Status of Women
Each of these declarations, conventions and resolution has a motive. All these
work towards the upliftment of women. Though the ultimate motive of the above is
upliftment of women and to stop violation against women globally each has its
own goal and objective. Each of the above works on the based on the objective it
has been framed.
Purpose and Objective:
- Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against
This convention was adopted by the United Nations general
assembly in the year 1979, and came into force in the year 1980. This convention
plays a major role in addressing the women’s human rights issue and finding ways
to solve those issues globally. It also monitors each State and also ensures how
each Sate work in order to protect the women’s rights. The conventions ultimate
goal is to achieve “sustainable equality”. The convention has totally 30
articles and a committee is appointed through this article for monitoring the
- General Assembly Resolution on Domestic Violence:
This resolution was adopted by United Nations General
Assembly in the year 1985. The main objective of this resolution is to stop the
violence faced my women at home.
- Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women:
In the 1993 the United Nations adopted this declaration.
This was adopted to completely stop down the violence against women. This
deceleration speaks about the sexual, physical, and even mental violence against
women and the way to stop such violence. This declaration concentrates on
violence against women happening in every place including their home. It
consists of totally 6 Article and also defines “violence against women”. It also
deals with the rights that women are entitled to along with the responsibilities
of the States and UN Agencies.
- The Special Rapporteur on violence against women:
In the year 1994, a special rapporteur was appointed to
check the violence against women, its causes and consequences. This Rapporteur
is a special person appointed to receive information on the violence, causes
and consequences from Government, treaty bodies, non-governmental
organizations, etc. And they have a duty to provide recommendations and ways
to eliminate the violence against women
- International Conference on Population and Development:
In the same year 1994, this conference resulted in the
recognition of the linkages between violence against women and reproductive
health and rights. The Program of Action called upon governments to take legal
and policy measures to respond and prevent violence against women and girls.
- The United Nations Trust Fund in Support of Actions to Eliminate
Violence against Women:
As the only multilateral grant-making mechanism
that supports local, national and regional efforts to end violence against women
and girls, the United Nations General Assembly through the resolution 50/166 in
the year 1996, established UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women.
- The International Criminal Court:
In 1998 the International Criminal Court was
established and came into force in 2000. This court deals with all sort of
sexual crimes against women within the context of war crimes, crimes against
humanity and genocide.
- Security Council Resolution 1325:
This resolution was passed in the year 2000, for
providing special protective measures for women and girls in armed conflict and
highlighted the responsibility of all States to put an end to the privileges
provided for the offenders.
- A Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and
Again in the year 2004, the commission on Human
rights appointed a special rapporteur for monitoring the trafficking in person
and to take necessity steps.
- An unprecedented global campaign, UNiTE to End Violence against Women:
The United Nations Secretary-General launched an
unprecedented global campaign in the year 2008. It called Governments, civil
society, women’s organizations, young people, the private sector, the media and
the entire UN system for the following purposes:
- Adopt and enforce national laws to address and punish all forms of
violence against women and girls;
- Adopt and implement multi-sectoral national action
- Strengthen data collection on the prevalence of violence against women
- Increase public awareness and social mobilization; and
- Address sexual violence in conflict by 2015.
- The Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict:
The United Nations Security Council, in 2010 appointed a
Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict.
- Human Rights Council - Resolution 14/12:
To eliminate all forms of violence against women the human
rights council adopted this resolution in 2010.
- The UN General Assembly - biannual resolutions on the issue of
violence against women:
The resolutions, first adopted in 2012, include the
intensification of efforts to eliminate all forms of violence against women,
trafficking in women and girls, and intensifying global efforts for the
elimination of female genital mutilations. These resolutions are renegotiated
biannually, and the most recent reports were submitted on these resolutions
during the 75th session of the UN General Assembly.
- The 57th Commission on the Status of Women:
In the year 2013 the member states, agreed upon
themselves to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and
girls. This was the conclusion of the 57th commission on the status of women.
- The 64th session of the Commission on the Status of Women:
This is the latest step towards the protection of
women and upliftment of their status. This took place in 2020 where leaders
pledged to rise up the efforts to fully end all forms of violence and harmful
practices against women and girls.
Thus these are the various steps and actions that were taken up globally to
uplift women. Many regional actions by UN and many interstate actions are
taken. Apart from the above various other decelerations, resolutions and
conventions are passed by the United Nations and other International
organizations. All these have been effective, but the ultimate goal has a long
way to go, still many women face lots of violence and challenges. Only when the
States work along with the organizations it can be achieved.