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Hate speech Hate crime

Hate crime violate various fundamental rights and are the gravest form of discrimination causing harm to individual victims, their community and society. From the victim and community perspective, hate speech and gender-based discrimination are example of these behaviors that cause harm, and both reflect and generate environment for those communities that are regularly targeted. A hate crime is outlined as:
Any criminal offense that is perceived by the victim or the other person, to be driven by hostility or prejudice supported somebody's race or perceived race; faith or perceived religion; sexual orientation or perceived sexual orientation; incapacity or perceived incapacity and any crime driven by hostility or prejudice against an individual UN agency is transgender or gave the impression to be transgender.

These are criminal acts committed with bias motive A common assault is a base offense included in National Criminal Codes¯ for example, if a victim is selected because he/she belongs to or perceive to belong to a National Minority, A bias motive is added to the base offense and the crime becomes a hate crime.

Bias Crimes are Criminal Acts that are already Penalized under the law. However, the hate crime approach requires that criminal justice system is able to ensure that additional harm caused by bias motive is heard by the court so that, where appropriate, they are reflected in the Judgement and the Penalty.

In general, there are two types of Hate Crime laws:
Substantive Offenses and Penalty Enhancement.
Public expression of hate, often referred to as Hate speech, represent a serious concern as they can create environment that are conductive to hate crimes and fuel broad scale conflict. Legal responses to hate speech need to be carefully balanced with the fundamental right to freedom of expression and opinion. While many states regulated hate speech to a greater or lesser degree, there is no consensus as to whether forms of expression that do not incite violence should be criminalized.

Hate speech:
Produce a feeling of exclusion among minority groups and can contribute to alienation, marginalization, the emergence of parallel societies and ultimately, radicalization. When used in political debate, it become a barrier to constructive dialogue between political forces and it undermines democratic values¯.

It includes verbal and other expression that incite hatred discrimination and violence. There has been abundant dialogue over freedom of speech, hate speech and hate speech legislation. The laws of some countries describe hate speech as speech, gestures, conduct, writing, or displays that incite violence or damaging actions against {a cluster a gaggle a bunch} or people on the premise of their membership within the group, or that criticize or intimidate {a cluster a gaggle a bunch} or people on the premise of their membership within the group.

The law could determine a gaggle supported bound characteristics. countries, to boot, in some countries, as well as the u. s., abundant of what falls underneath the class of "hate speech" is constitutionally protected. In alternative countries, a victim of hate speech could request redress underneath civil law, legal code, or both.
 
Freedom of opinion and expression is a fundamental right essential to the good working of the entire society and human rights system. It is featured among fundamental rights in the Universe Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and given legal force through all major International and regional human right.

Some of the Hate speech acts are “ Advocacy, Harassment, Insult, negative stereotyping, stigmatization, threat etc. Self-regulation by public and private institutions (including parliaments and other elected bodies at the national, regional and local levels, ministers and other public bodies) can be most appropriate and most effective approach to tackling hate speech.
 
Written By: Navendu Vijayvergia

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