File Copyright Online - File mutual Divorce in Delhi - Online Legal Advice - Lawyers in India

Alcoholism In Teenager

Family functioning is impaired by addiction. This adjusts how families communicate and the positions that everyone performs. Addiction becomes the focus of the family[1]. To be fully grasped, Gruber and Taylor[2] make a cogent case that addiction must be viewed from a family viewpoint. Most of the study and psychiatric history has concentrated on people with opioid addiction or disorders of dependence[3].

It is possible to see perspectives into family functioning of an alcoholic through intimate accounts that tell the story from the viewpoint of one family or one teenager[4]. Seven aspects of family functioning that are impaired by addiction have been defined by Velleman[5]: responsibilities, rituals, routines, assets, communications, confrontation, and social life.

Specifically, Usher, Jackson, and O'Brien[6] all aimed at households that have a teen consuming alcohol or narcotics. These scholars state in their work that the harmful consequences of substance usage that a parent may encounter are seen in several young people's lives, including education, wellbeing, and family relationships, but the causes of the results are not immediately seen.

They note that:
... interaction with the justice system or family issues are generally the sources of drug abuse identification...(pág. 210). Jackson and Mannix[7] note that, before they are noticed, the issues are usually very ingrained. Parents would mostly be liable for handling the concerns.

Jackson, Usher and O'Brien[8] stated in a qualitative analysis that households are divided by teen substance usage when teens have "significant and continuing illegal drug use." (pág. 323). They add that all facets of family life are influenced by the usage of drugs. This involves parents who fear that the family is being ripped apart while still seeing young people as "complex, challenging, frustrating and incredibly stressful" (p. 323). This same study talks about parents who are feeling betrayal and lack of faith in the infant. Families are feeling "permanent turmoil" (p.329). Parents report being "torn between having to offer care for their child impacted by drugs and having to ensure their other children's safe usage of the family home has been influenced by a secure atmosphere" (p. 329).

Orford and his colleagues[9] noted that families have entered a stage where they can explicitly discuss, accept, or refrain from the issue of dependency. Smith and Estefan[10] identified in an analysis of the report that dependency influenced communities very widely, but that there were obstacles to reporting or communicating about the issues. It was viewed as dangerous to reveal family information, which increased the desire to safeguard secrets. They often thought the heavier responsibility was borne by the woman, since there is a lot of external expectation to excel in the position of primary caregiver.

Usher, Jackson and O'Brien[11] described eight main patterns of how households endured extreme substance addiction in a young person:
  1. the mechanism of verifying suspicions
  2. attempting to establish limits;
  3. confronting the family's effects of drug usages;
  4. suffering with remorse and shame;
  5. seeking to maintain the child safe;
  6. mourning the child's loss;
  7. living with guilt; and
  8. surviving with embarrassment; and
  9. trying to keep the child safe; Related wide-ranging influences were noticed by Barnard [12].

Butler and Baud[13] indicated that parents disagreed about how the habits resulting from drug dependency should be referred to and handled. Parental contact was impaired, which rendered problem-solving more complex as the behaviors of the youth developed beyond their management[14].

Substance reliance in young people is distinct from the experience of adults[15]. The teenager, for example, has a more challenging time linking recent behavior with longer-term consequences, values, and beliefs. Attitudes reflect their level of growth; their physiological reactions reflect cognitive growth. In the teenage stage of growth, associated behavioral health problems sometimes occur, and may exacerbate the perception of the issues by parents.

Studies done of households where a parent is a substance-dependent entity specifically indicate that communities are greatly impaired. When it is a teenager who has the alcohol abuse, the study is very minimal. The current paper attempts to explain how parents have faced and coped with problems of drug dependency that occur with their young people.

For centuries, alcoholic drinks have become part of social existence, and it has often been challenging for cultures to recognize or restrain their use. "Drug use is the third-largest potential risk for sickness and injury in the world; it is the biggest risk in middle-income nations" (WHO, 2011). In emerging and underdeveloped nations, alcoholism is a current big concern. This is now becoming an international health and social problem. (2011 WHO) India is usually called a conventional society of 'dry' or 'abstaining'[16].

It has one of the world's biggest alcohol product markets, though. India is the dominant alcohol manufacturer in South-East Asia (65%) and accounts for approximately 7% of the overall alcohol product imports to the area.[17] Data and research studies linked to alcohol remain restricted in India. It clarified that it remains challenging to access and gather data on the development and sales of alcohol. Major gaps in the geographical, gender and social groups often face significant constraints on extrapolating results based on limited samples[18].

Knowledge about the incidence of psychoactive drug use among students and drug use habits has been missing since the last general population study in Manipur in 1988[19]. In one of the studies[20], the prevalence of drug use in Imphal (> 50%) was greater than that recorded in most research studies amongst school children around 10 and 18 years of age in various Indian cities, including Khushwant's Gorakhpur (18%-25%) [Khushwant, 1992] Kapil, and Delhi by Kapil (40 percent and 13 percent ).[21]

Alcohol is the most commonly consumed product in all nations, except Mizoram, as per the source used in the WHO, 2004 'Global Survey on the size pattern and patterns of drug addiction in India.' WHO 2004 estimates that in India, household spending on alcohol ranges from 3% to 45% of revenue. Its true effect, though, is on the community and personal complexities underlying their cultures. In India, domestic violence and the deterioration of welfare have made substance addiction the single most significant concern for women. With the one in 3 persons slipping below the poverty line in India, the economic consequences of spending on alcohol are of particular concern.

A heavy drinker often faces some detrimental economic consequences, in addition to the money expended on alcohol. This involves decreased salaries (due to missing work and decreased work efficiency), improved wages (due to missed work and reduced job efficiency), Hospital bills for illness and incidents, court costs for drink-related violations, and diminished credit eligibility. (2004, WHO).

Definition of Alcohol:
Alcohol is the most used psychoactive drug on the market and a specific type of embodied substance culture[1]. For centuries, it has become a profoundly significant societal, technological, political, and religious product. Alcohol refers to a collection of distilled liquids dependent on ethanol that can be either commercially manufactured or home brewed.

Definition of Youth:
As a definition, youth has traditionally been described as a category of human beings throughout the world who have come to the end of adolescence and have not yet attained the full rights and responsibilities of adult life[2]. The youth era is further described as the period among boyhood and adult age[3]; a person attends maturity level[4]; a process of transformation where a person transitions from childhood to adulthood[5].

Various world elite organizations have provided various youth interpretations; the United Nations Secretariat/UNESCO/ILO has identified youth as a 15-24 age cohort; the UN Habitat/Youth Fund (age 15-32); UNICEF/WHO/UNFPA (age 15-24); the African Youth Charter (age 15-35). Ashramas, such as Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha, and Sanyasa, move through some stages of life in the Hindu tradition. The most prominent of these, namely Brahmacharya, approximately correlates to the youth of the Hindus. (Translated from Wikipedia)

Number of Indian teenagers consuming alcohol increases:
The number of Indian teens drinking alcohol is growing disturbingly, as per a survey by the WHO and the NIAA. Several of the causes are shifts in society and an insatiable desire for booze, but what is the solution? In India, particularly in metropolitan areas, where it has been embraced as a way of social interaction, not only among adult as well as among adolescents, but the taboo about alcohol has also declined substantially.

Around 30 per cent of India's population drinks alcohol daily, as per the World Health Organization (WHO). Another research by the Organization for International Cooperation and Growth shows that the number of under-15 boys who did not include alcohol declined from 44 percent to 30 percent and declined from 50 percent to 31 percent for children (OECD). This change in consumption habits has led to simple liquor supply, addiction to alcohol at home, excitement, social pressure, and its connection with a certain form of lifestyle.

More teens are now drinking alcohol, as per Dr. Rajesh Kumar, who operates SPYM, a de-addiction center in Delhi, and the causes are still the same: social pressure and the desire to belong in a community. For many adolescents, he notes, 'Try at least once' is how it begins. Psychiatrist Dr Avinashi De Sousa, based in Mumbai, claims that alcohol is always taken as a sign of prestige. For people, it is in their capacity to tolerate the quantity of liquor," he continues.

Although adolescent liquor use was traditionally confined to gatherings, overnight vacations, and sleepovers, it has been a modern norm now to carry alcohol to college. All has shifted dramatically, more so in India, where drink supply is in abundance without even any supervision. Bacardi's Breeze has around 4 percent alcohol in it, but you do not need to go to a liquor store to purchase it since it is readily accessible in daily shops,' challenging modern-day parenting.

Parents have been liberal in India. They encourage kids to drink Breeze or sometimes drink wine. It is possible that these kids will then go on to pursue liquor and other strong liquor. These days, parents do not know how and when to say no. Everything they want is to be the boyfriend of their girl. Who is going to be a mom if everyone is going to be a friend? Parenting is also critical! A great deal is expected in Indian metro cities.

Although schools have placed the pressure on parenting, family finds themselves in a tough position where they believe it is easier to be a peer than to remain as an outsider. Children would either be in touch with it and inform them what can be achieved and what degree or be ignorant of their lives, and they will do what they want. Alcohol use is rampant among children. Alcoholic drinks are a part of it as high school kids' party. It has also hit school premises these days. Children smuggle alcohol in shampoo bottles on out-station journeys. They are partying and that is the way it is.

Why drinking has an age limit
It is statistically known that the earlier an infant begins to drink, the greater the risk of reliance on it. That is why the drinking limit is 21-25 years old. Another theory is that a man's brain grows up to age of 18-20. Underage drinking may also impact the mechanism of growth and is therefore prevented, Dr Kumar says. Alcohol is a brain depressant that is easily ingested from the liver and the small intestine into to the blood. It can cause harm to vital organs, including that of the liver and/or the brain, if ingested over a sustained period. It often includes ethanol or ethyl alcohol, an intoxicating agent that causes mind-altering symptoms, and even a tiny amount of it will affect the judgement used to make choices, like the running of a vehicle. Thus, as has been in the past, drinking and driving contribute to traffic injuries.

What's happening around the world
As per the NIAAA, by the ages of 15, around 35 percent of adolescents worldwide had at least one (1 beer, and by the age of 18, around 65 percent of adolescents had at least 1 drink. Of the 190 nations, 61 per cent have such an age limit of 18 or 19 years. The United States and 11 other nations are 21 years old, and India is about 18-25. In all 16 Muslim nations, though, it is banned, according to Procon.org, though others have exceptions for non-Muslims.

Preventing Underage Drinking Within A Developmental Framework

Complex habits are the product of a complicated interaction among genes and the climate, such as the choice to quit drinking or to avoid consuming alcohol. Biological and physiological adjustments that arise throughout puberty, for instance, can stimulate risk-taking activity, contributing to early alcohol experimentation.

This behavior then forms the atmosphere of the infant, as he or she prefers peers and circumstances that encourage more drinking. Continued consumption may contribute to neurological responses that involve much stronger alcohol usage or dependency, such as anxiety disorders. In this sense, juvenile substance consumption habits may represent the initiation of an improvement of digital that may contribute to addiction and alcoholism. Even so, not all younger people who drive this road see the same results.

Perhaps the better approach to consider and discourage the usage of alcohol by minors is to interpret consumption as it relates to progress. From biology and behavioral traits to social and environmental influences, this "whole scheme" solution to adolescent consumption takes into consideration the special vulnerability and protective factors of a single adolescent. In this sense, growth requires not just the intrinsic risk and durability of the adolescent, but also the present circumstances that help influence his or her actions[6].

At varying speeds, children develop. Developmental study takes this into consideration, understanding that there are cycles of accelerated growth and reorganization during puberty, alternating with periods of sluggish growth and body system incorporation. Periods of accelerated changes, where social or cultural influences affect the biology and actions of teenagers more intensely, could be the ideal time to prioritize intervention delivery[7]. Interventions that concentrate on these crucial stages of growth could change the child's life course [8], maybe putting him or her on a road to escape substance issues.

To date, studies have been unable to establish a single track for all or even most young people that forecasts the path of substance usage. Instead, results offer clear proof within this community of broad developmental variance in drinking habits [9].

Conclusion
Alcohol is readily accessible and sold vigorously in culture today. And the consumption of alcohol tends to be viewed by certain persons as a natural part of growing up. Yet, as demonstrated by the amount of alcohol-involved motor car accidents, murders, suicides, as well as other incidents, alcohol consumption is harmful not just for the alcoholic, but also for community. People who start alcohol early on in life run the risk of developing major alcohol issues later in life, including alcoholism.

They are therefore at increased risk of a range of harmful effects, including unsafe sexual behavior and low school success. Identifying teenagers at highest risk until they grow will help stop issues. And creative, holistic preventive methods, such as Project Northland, have proven effective in minimizing substance experimentation, as well as the challenges that surround young people's use of alcohol.

Alcohol is not a drug that is ordinary. Although it holds connotations of enjoyment and sociability in the minds of many, its usage has numerous and pervasive adverse effects. On a global viewpoint, initiatives need to take into consideration particular circumstances in diverse cultures to minimize the damage induced by alcohol. Two aspects of alcohol intake are average amounts ingested and drinking habits which need to be addressed in attempts to minimize the incidence of alcohol-related issues. An example of interventions which can reduce the health risk of alcohol is the prevention of the mixture of drinking and driving.

Throughout the world, alcohol affects lives and populations tremendously, especially in developed nations, and its contribution to the total burden of illness is projected to rise in the future. The rises in the overall amount of alcohol consumption per person in countries such as China and India and the more unhealthy and unsafe drinking habits among young people are especially troubling developments. To maintain track of alcohol use and its effects and to increase consciousness among the public and politicians, national surveillance programs must be established. Both policymakers and interested people are responsible for fostering dialogue and formulating meaningful public health strategies that mitigate alcohol-induced damage.

In India, underage alcohol use remains a significant public health and safety problem, creating severe personal, social, and economic repercussions for youth, their communities, neighborhoods, and the country. An emerging body of studies on the impact of the consumption of underage alcohol on human growth and development brings additional impetus to the public and private sectors' decades of attempts to discourage and eliminate alcohol consumption.

In late teenage years, pervasive consumption by young people and the rise of substance addiction and dependency are intertwined with developmental cycles. It is also important to approach the avoidance and elimination of underage drinking within a developmental context that takes into consideration the complex mechanisms of human growth and development, the impact of social systems in the teenage community and the recognition of self attributes in the choice of the adolescent to drink. Because teenage growth takes place in many contexts in American society, including families, friends, education, extracurricular and community events, part-time jobs, the community itself, and the culture, every American has an obligation to help protect teenagers from the possibly harmful effects of alcohol usage.

As the Call to Action makes evident, by our individual and collective actions, each of us has a critical part to play in avoiding and decreasing underage drinking, ensuring that the future provided by America to its youth is neither shortened nor hindered by the effects of alcohol consumption. This Call to Action is precisely that: a call to all Americans to help the Surgeon General in a nationwide campaign to combat early, continuing, and human developmental drinking by minors. Underage substance consumption is a concern for all, and the remedy is the obligation of all.

End-Notes:
  1. Dietler Michael. 2006. 'Alcohol: Anthropological/Archaeological Perspective'. Annual Review of Anthropology, 35: 229-249.
  2. Friedman, F.G. (1971). Youth and Society. McMillan Company, 2nd edition, p. 27
  3. Onions, C.T. 1947. 'The shorter Oxford dictionary on historical principles. Oxford University Press, London. 2: 324.
  4. Davis, K. 1959. 'The myth of functional analysis as a special method in sociology and anthropology'. American Sociological Review. 24: 751-772.
  5. Bauman, Z. 1967. 'Some problems in contemporary education. The missing social function of youth'. International Social Science Journal. 19 (3) 325-328.
  6. Sroufe, L.A., and Rutter, M. The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development 55:1729, 1984. PMID: 6705619
  7. Greenough, W.T.; Black, J.E.; and Wallace, C.S. Experience, and brain development. Child Development 58:539559, 1987.
  8. Masten, A.S. Regulatory processes, risk, and resilience in adolescent development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1021:310319, 2004.
  9. Steinman, K.J., and Schulenberg, J. A pattern-centered approach to evaluating substance use prevention programs. In: Damon, W.; Peck, S.C.; and Roeser, R.W.; eds. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, Vol. 101: Person-Centered Approaches to Studying Development in Context. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003. pp. 8798, Schulenberg J.; O'Malley, P.M.; Bachman, J.G.; et al. Getting drunk and growing up: Trajectories of frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 57:289304, 1996
Footer:
  1. Barnard, M. Drug Addiction and Families; Jessica Kingsley Publishers: London, UK, 2007.,
    Conyers, B. Addict in the Family: Stories of Loss, Hope and Recovery; Hazelden Press: Centre City, MN, USA, 2003
  2. Gruber, K.J.; Taylor, M.F. A family perspective for substance abuse: Implications from the literature. J. Soc. Work Pact. Addict. 2006, 6, 129.
  3. Reiter, M.D. Substance Abuse, and the Family; Routledge: London, UK, 2014., Brown, S.; Lewis, V. The Alcoholic Family in Recovery: A Developmental Model; The Guilford Press: New York, NY, USA, 1999., Zohhadi, S.; Templeton, L.; Velleman, R. Service Provisions for the Children and Families of Alcohol Misusers: A Qualitative Study; University of Bath, Mental Health Research and Development Unit: Bath UK, 2004.
  4. Lewis, M. Memoirs of an Addicted Brain: A Neuroscientist Examines His Former Life on Drugs; Doubleday: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2011
  5. Velleman, R.; Templeton, L. Alcohol, drugs, and the family: Results from a long-running research program within the UK. Eur. Addict. Res. 2003, 9, 103112.
  6. Usher, K.; Jackson, D.; O'Brien, L. Adolescent drug abuse: Helping families survive. Int. J. Mental Health Nurs. 2005, 14, 209 214.
  7. Jackson, D.; Mannix, J. Then suddenly he went right off the rails: Mothers' stories of adolescent cannabis use. Contemp. Nurse 2003, 14, 169179
  8. Jackson, D.; Usher, K.; O'Brien, L. Fractured families: Parental perspective of the effects of adolescent drug abuse on the family. Contemp. Nurse 2006, 23, 321330.
  9. Oxford, J.; Natera, G.; Davies, J.; Nava, A.; Mora, J.; Rigby, K.; Bradbury, C.; Bowie, N.; Capello, A.; Velleman, R. Tolerate, engage, or withdraw: A study of the structure of families coping with alcohol and drug problems in south west England and Mexico City. Addiction 1998, 93, 17991813.
  10. Smith, J.M.; Estefan, A. Families Parenting Adolescents with Substance AbuseRecovering the Mother's Voice: A Narrative Literature Review. J. Fam. Nurs. 2014, 20, 44154441.
  11. Usher, K.; Jackson, D.; O'Brien, L. Shattered dreams: Parental experiences of adolescent substance abuse. Int. J. Mental Health Nurs. 2007, 16, 422430
  12. Barnard, M. Drugs in the Family: The Impact on Parents and Siblings; The Rowntree Foundation: England, UK, 2005.
  13. Butler, R.; Bauld, L. The parents' experience: Coping with drug use in the family. Drugs: Educ. Preven. Policy 2005, 12, 3545.
  14. Denton, R.E.; Kampfe, C.M. The relationship between family variables and adolescent substance abuse: A literature review. Adolescence 1994, 29, 475495.
  15. Crowley, T.J.; Whitmore, E. Why adolescent addiction is different. In Addiction: Why cannot They Just Stop: New Knowledge, New Treatments, New Hope; Hoffman, J., Froemke, S., Eds.; Rodale Press: New York, NY, USA, 2007; p. 110
  16. Bennett, et al. 1993. 'Boundaries between normal and pathological drinking: a cross-cultural comparison'. Alcohol Health and Research World, 17, 190195.
  17. A K Mathur. 2014. 'Alcoholic Beverages Industry in India: An exploratory Study'. Eduved Global Management Research. Vol.1, Issue 1. Nov-Dec 2014
  18. Saxena S. 1999. 'Country profile on alcohol in India'. Riley L, Marshall M (eds). 1999. Alcohol and public health in eight developing countries. Geneva: World Health Organization, page- 3760
  19. Singh AD, et al. 1992. 'Survey of drug abuse in Manipur state'. A report- Manipur: Committee for Prevention of Drug Abuse (COPDA), Indian Medical Association, Manipur State Branch.
  20. Somorjit N, et al. 2011. 'Prevalence and pattern of substance use among the higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur, India'. The National Medical Journal of India; vol.- 24, No. 1. Page 11-15.
  21. Kapil U, et al. 2005. 'Consumption of Tobacco, Alcohol and Betel Leaf amongst School Children in Delhi'. Indian J Pediatr. 2005; 72:993.

Law Article in India

Ask A Lawyers

You May Like

Legal Question & Answers



Lawyers in India - Search By City

Copyright Filing
Online Copyright Registration


LawArticles

Section 482 CrPc - Quashing Of FIR: Guid...

Titile

The Inherent power under Section 482 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (37th Chapter of th...

Whether Caveat Application is legally pe...

Titile

Whether in a criminal proceeding a Caveat Application is legally permissible to be filed as pro...

How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi

Titile

How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi Mutual Consent Divorce is the Simplest Way to Obtain a D...

Copyright: An important element of Intel...

Titile

The Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) has its own economic value when it puts into any market ...

The Factories Act,1948

Titile

There has been rise of large scale factory/ industry in India in the later half of nineteenth ce...

Law of Writs In Indian Constitution

Titile

Origin of Writ In common law, Writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrati...

Lawyers Registration
Lawyers Membership - Get Clients Online


File caveat In Supreme Court Instantly