"Slavery does not merely mean a legalized form of subjection. It means a state
of society in which some men are forced to accept from others the purposes which
control their conduct" -
Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
India is an independent Union of States
with 28 states and 9 Union Territories
which got independence from British Rule in 1947. The Constituent Assembly of
India wisely drafted the Constitution of India after taking inspiration from the
constitutions of major democracies of the world like France, Germany, South
Africa, Ireland, Canada, Australia, Japan, and the U.S.A. The Constitution of
India adopts the essence of Democracy, Equality, Socialism, and Secularism in
it, with this, it also encompasses the value of human dignity and guarantees six
fundamental rights to its citizens.
The constitution of India adopts the unique feature of reservation. According to
the oxford dictionary, the word 'Reserve'
means something that you keep
for a special reason or to use at later date and the term reservation means a seat,
table, room, etc. that you have booked
. In the Indian context, reservation
refers to the act of reserving a fixed number of seats in government jobs,
legislatures, and educational institutions for the weaker section of society.
The term weaker section includes the people of the country who are socially and
educationally backward due to lack of resources and the prevalent caste system
in Indian society. The reservation policy was introduced for them as affirmative
action, with an idea of ensuring the equality and adequate representation of
backward classes in every service under the state.
In the Hindu religion, the caste system divides people into four categories or
varnas - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and the Shudras. According to Hindu
believes these four varnas originated from Brahma, the creator of the Universe,
Vedas, and people. The caste system is considered the distorted form of the
Varna system. In the hierarchy of the caste system, Brahmins were on the top.
They were supposed to originate from the head of Brahma.
considered intellectuals and they used to work as teachers and priests. Then the Kshatriyas were in the second place, they were, supposedly originated from the
arms of Brahma. Kshatriyas were the rulers and warriors of the kingdoms. The
third place was given to Vaishyas, traders, artisans and farmers. They were
originated from the thighs of Brahma. At the bottom of this hierarchy, were the
Shudras, who were considered to be originated from the Brahma's feet. They used
to do all the inferior jobs of society. This caste system is still prevalent in
our system and it creates the need for the reservation policy in India.
Caste-based discrimination, which leads to the social backwardness of the
people, is the root cause for the origin of reservation policy in India.
The idea of reservation policy in India was originally developed by William
Hunter and Jyotirao Phule in the year 1882. The basic principle behind the
reservation was the Caste System and the malpractice of untouchability in India.
But the prevailing reservation system in today's India was introduced in 1933 by
British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald in the form of the 'Communal Award.
Under the provisions of the communal award, there were separate electorates for
Europeans, Anglo-Indians, Indian Christians, Muslims, Sikhs, and the Dalits. But
on 24th September 1932 when the Poona Pact
agreement between Mahatma Gandhi
and Dr. Ambedkar was signed, it was decided that for Hindus there would be a
single elective with certain reservations for the depressed classes in it.
When India got independence from British rule in 1947, and the country was
divided into two parts India and Pakistan. With the partition, much of the
Muslim population migrated to Pakistan and Hinduism became the most prominent
religion in India. So, when the constituent assembly was framing the
Constitution of India, social discrimination based on the case system was a big
hindrance to equality in society. So, the provision of reservation for the
socially backward classes was introduced in the Constitution of India.
Reservations were initially introduced for a period of 10 years and only for SCs
and STs, but it kept on extending with several changes in it.
In 1991, OBCs were
also included in the ambit of the reservation after the recommendations of the
Mandal Commission. In 2007, reservation was implemented in the All India Quota
Seats in which 15% seats were reserved for SC category and 7.5% for ST category.
On 14 January 2019 when the 103rd Constitutional amendment was enforced; 10%
reservation was given to the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) in the general
category under articles 15(6) and 16(6) of the Constitution of India.
Reservation for the EWS category was given over and above the existing 50%
reservation for SC/ST/OBC categories. On July 29, 2021 the Government of India
has decided to provide 27% reservation for OBCs and 10% reservation for
Economically Weaker Section in the All India Quota Scheme for undergraduate and
postgraduate medical/dental courses which will be applicable from the 2021-22
Reservation Vis-À-Vis Constitution Of India
The Constitution of India ensures the right to equality and prohibits
discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth. With
this, it also guarantees special protection for the weaker section of society.
Under Article 15(4) it provides that:
Nothing shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the
advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or
for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
This enables the state to form special policies to ensure
adequate representation of backward classes like SCs, STs, and OBCs in
educational institutions, public employment, and legislature.
"Equality may be a fiction but nonetheless one must accept it as a governing
Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Article 14 of the Constitution of India provides that The State shall not deny
to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within
the territory of India Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion,
race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Article 14 highlights two aspects: equality before the law and equal protection
Equality before law:
This concept is adopted from the English Common law and it
means that no person is above law and all persons irrespective of their race,
religion, rank, and position must be treated equally. This concept is considered
negative in nature because it denies special privileges in favor of any
individual. It also declares that all individuals are subject to the ordinary
jurisdiction of the court.
Equal protection of laws:
This concept is adopted from the American
constitution. It means the people at equal levels must be treated equally; it
ensures equal treatment in equal circumstances. It is considered positive in
nature. Equality protection of laws is based on the principle that likes should
be treated alike which means people in similar situations must be treated
similarly. It prohibits discrimination between persons who are at the same level
and under the same circumstances. But at the same time, it does not prohibit the
different treatment for the unequals.
The right to equality under Article 14 is not limited to the citizens of India
but is available to every person within the territory of India.
It is a wise man who said that there is no greater inequality than the equal
treatment of unequal's -
In the case of Andhra Pradesh v. Nalla Raja Reddy
[i], it was held
equality will be violated not only when the equals are treated unequally but
also when unequal are treated equally.
The constitution of India follows the principle, Equality among equals and
unequal should be treated differently. So, there is the provision of the
Reservation for the citizens who are considered as marginalized in the society.
Article 15(4) and 16(4) of the Constitution of India provide reservation to the
socially and educationally backward section of the society. It enables the
government at State and Central levels to reserve a fixed number of seats for
SCs and STs in the government services.
Article 15 (4) provides that:
Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of Article 29 shall prevent the State
from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and
educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the
Article 16 (4) provides that:
Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for
the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class of
citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in
the services under the State.
Part XVI of the Constitution of India specifically deals with the Special
Provisions Relating to Certain Classes which Include reservation for Scheduled
Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Anglo- Indian Community, and Other Backward Classes.
Reservation in Educational Institutions
In the year 2005, the government introduced the 93rd constitutional amendment
act. With the enactment of the act, Article 15 (5) was inserted in the
constitution of India. Article 15(5) provides that:
Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of Article 19 shall
prevent the State from making any special provision, by law, for the advancement
of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the
Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions
relate to their admission to educational institutions including private
educational institutions, whether aided or unaided by the State, other than the
minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of Article 30.
This provides reservation to the socially and educationally backward classes in
the relation to admission in public and private educational institutions. But
this amendment was challenged on the ground that it is against the principle of
equality and violative to the basic structure of the constitution.
In the case of Ashoka Kumar Thakur Vs Union of India
[ii] of India, the 93rd
constitutional amendment act, 2005 was challenged. The Supreme Court observed
that reservation provide an extra advantage to those who without such support
dream of university education.
It was held that:
Reservation in Promotion
- 93rd constitutional amendment act does not violate the basic structure of the
constitution as it only moderately abridges or alters the principle of equality.
- Reservation in educational institutions is a part of affirmative action.
- Social and financial status must be studied for the identification of backward
- Caste or economic backwardness should not be the sole criteria of the
reservation. For reservation social, economic, and educational backwardness
should be considered together.
- Creamy layer exclusion principle should not be extended to SCs and STs.
Reservation for SCs and STs in matters of promotion in public employment was a
matter of continuous conflict between the parliament and Apex Court. In 1992, in
the case of Indra Sawhney v. Union of India,
[iii] the Supreme Court held that
Article 16(4) does not allow the reservation in promotion.
Against it, the parliament came with the 77th Constitutional Amendment Act,
1995, and inserted a new clause (4A) under Article 16, which empowers the state
to make the provisions of reservation in the matter of promotion to SCs and STs
in public employment.
Article 16 (4A) of Constitution Of India provides that:
Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision
for reservation in matters of promotion, with consequential seniority, to
any class] or classes of posts in the services under the State in favour of
the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which, in the opinion of the
State, are not adequately represented in the services under the State.
In the year 2000, the legislature came with the 82ndConstitutional Amendment
This amendment inserted a proviso under Article 335 of the
Constitution which states that:
Nothing in this article shall prevent in making of any provision in favour of
the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for relaxation in
qualifying marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation, for
reservation in matters of promotion to any class or classes of services or posts
in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State".
This amendment empowers the state to make provisions regarding relaxation of
qualifying marks or standard of evaluation, for the member of SCs and STs, in
the matter of the reservation in promotion in public employment.
But in 2006, in the case of M. Nagaraj vs Union of India
[iv], the Supreme Court
extend the creamy layer exclusion principle to SCs and STs and case laid down
three conditions for the promotion of SCs and STs in public employment.
- The government has to show the backwardness of the particular
community before introducing the quota for them
- There should be an inadequate representation of the community and it should be
based on quantifiable data.
- Overall efficiency of the public administration should not be affected due to
reservation in promotion.
The Court in this case states that the state is not bound to make reservations
for SCs and STs in the matter of promotions. It is the discretion of the state
whether they want to provide reservations in the promotion or not.
Reservation to Economically Weaker Section
In the 103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019 the new reservation was
introduced by the legislature. This amendment introduced a 10% reservation for
the economically weaker section of the society popularly known as EWS. It
provides reservation to economically weaker sections (EWS) in public employment
as well as admission in public and private educational institutions.
Before this amendment, there was a ceiling limit of 50% on reservations. In
which, 22.5% of available seats were reserved for Scheduled Caste (SC) and
Scheduled Tribe (ST) (7.5% for STs, 15% for SCs). In addition to this 27% of
seats, were reservation was given to OBCs. The total reservation provided before
the 103rd constitutional amendment was 49.5%, which was in conformity with the
rule of 50% ceiling limit on the reservation.
103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019 provides 10% reservation in addition to
the present reservation. It leads to a total reservation of about 60%, which
contradicts the existing rule of a 50% ceiling limit of reservation.
The supreme court in the case of Balaji v. State of Mysore
[v] has ruled that
it would not be possible to predicate the exact permissible percentage
of reservation it can be stated in a general and broad way that it ought
to be less than 50%.; how much less than 50% would depend upon the
relevant prevailing circumstances in each case.
In Indra Sawhney v. Union of India[vi] Supreme Court held that like any other
power conferred by the constitution, power conferred by Article 16(4)
must be exercised reasonably. And the 50% ceiling limit over reservation
should not be exceeded.
Supreme Court in Nagaraj v. Union of India[vii] states that the 50% ceiling
limit of reservation is a part of the basic structure of the
constitution and it acts as a balancing factor between formal and
But contrary to this:
In Appanna v. state of Karnataka
[viii], it was held that the state may make
such provisions or reservations for the betterment and amelioration of the
weaker and economically backward sections and to implement the directive
principle contained in Article 46.
In a case R. Balaji v. State of Mysore
[ix], it was held that:
caste of a person cannot be the sole criteria for ascertaining whether a
particular caste is backward or not. Determinants such as poverty,
occupation, place of habitation may all be relevant factors to be taken
into consideration. The court further held that it does not mean that if
once a caste is considered to be backward it will continue to be
backward for all other times. The government should review the test and
if a class reaches the state of progress where reservation is not
necessary it should delete that class from the list of backward classes.
In Indra Sawhney v. Union of India
[x], the Supreme Court has observed that the
policy of reservation has to be operated year- wise and there cannot be any such
policy in perpetuity. The State can review from year to year the eligibility of
class of socially and educationally backward class of citizens. Further, it has
been held that article 15(4) does not mean that the percentage of reservation
should be in proportion to the percentage of population of backward class to the
total population. It is in the discretion of the State to keep reservation at
reasonable level by taking into consideration all legitimate claims and the
In the favour of 103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, the then finance minister
Arun Jaitley said that "if two individuals are not equal due to birth or for
economic reasons, then they cannot be treated equally. Unequal cannot be treated
equally and 50% cap on reservations imposed by the Supreme Court was only for
caste-based reservations, and the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) reservation
won't be impacted by it."
On July 29, 2021 the Government of India has approved 27% reservation for OBCs
and 10% reservation for Economically Weaker Section in the All India Quota
Scheme for undergraduate and postgraduate medical/dental courses from the
current academic year. This quota will be applicable from the 2021-22 session
The Creamy Layer Exclusion Principle
The creamy layer exclusion principle is considered a very important principle
that helps in fulfillment of the purpose of reservation by providing reservation
to those who genuinely require it for social, educational, and economical
The concept of Creamy layer exclusion was firstly introduced in 1992, in the
case of Indra Sawhney v. Union of India[xi] (also known as Mandal Commission
case). In this case, a nine–judge bench held that:
The Creamy layer, that is, the advanced section among the OBC's must be
excluded from the benefits of reservation. It was also held that this
principle should not be applicable to SCs and STs.
The Apex Court also asked the central government to fix the criteria for the
identification of the creamy layer. In 1993, the government set the ceiling
limit of the creamy layer at 1 lakh. It was subsequently increased to 2.5 lakh
in 2004, 4.5 lakh in 2008, 6 lakh in 2013, and 8 lakh since 2017.
The term creamy layer was described as:
some members of a backward class who
are socially, economically as well as educationally advanced as compared to the
rest of the members of that community. They constitute the forward section of
that particular backward class and eat up all the benefits of reservations meant
for that class, without allowing benefits to reach the truly backward members.
The Application of Creamy Layer Exclusion
Principle to SCs & STs
Chief Justice of India, K.G. Balakrishnan, said that the creamy layer principle
is inapplicable to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes because it is
merely a principle of identification of the backward class and not
applied as a principle of equality.
But in M. Nagaraj vs Union of India
[xii], the Supreme Court approved the
decision of the parliament and extend the creamy layer exclusion principle to
SCs and STs
The court held that:
socially, educationally, and economically advanced cream of Scheduled
Castes/Scheduled Tribes communities must be excluded from the benefits
of reservation in government services in order to transfer quota
benefits to the weakest of the weaker individuals and not be snatched
away by members of the same class who were in the top creamy layer.
It was also observed that:
the whole object of reservation is to see that backward classes of
citizens move forward so that they may march hand in hand with other
citizens of India on an equal basis. This will not be possible if only
the creamy layer within that class bag all the coveted jobs in the
public sector and perpetuate themselves, leaving the rest of the class
as backward as they always were.
The objective behind the implication of reservation policy in India was to
provide extra protection to the socially and educationally backward sections of
the society. And the Creamy layer Exclusion principle is a step heading in the
direction of achieving this objective.
This principle ensures that the fruits of
reservation policy will reach the people who genuinely require it. But it was
argued against the judgment of the Supreme Court, that economic prosperity
cannot be the only measurement for social advancement. Economic backwardness
should be considered along with other criteria such as social and educational
backwardness of the particular class of citizens.
In the case of Jarnail Singh v. Lachmi Narayan
[xiii], Supreme Court reaffirms
the application of the creamy layer exclusion principle to SCs and STs.
International Perspective On Affirmative Actions
The reservation policy is implemented not only in India but also in other
countries. About one-fourth of the countries have policies in the form of
affirmative action, reservations, alternative access, and positive
discrimination to give equal opportunity to the deprived section of the society.
In the Unites States, affirmative actions were introduced in 1946 for American
The countries which most successfully implement affirmative actions are
Japan, the Soviet Union, Cuba, Vietnam, and the countries of East Europe. These
countries implement affirmative action and use it as a tool to minimize
inequality based on race, color, gender, caste, and geographic distinction in
This helps up in the understanding that not only India, but many other countries
are also using reservation as an affirmative action to equalize the
opportunities to the disadvantaged groups or weaker sections of the society.
Arguments In Favour Of Reservation
Affirmative action of reservation has socially and economically uplifted a large
section of the under-privileged and under-represented population of India.
Caste-based reservation help in cope up with the historical negligence and
injustice caused to the socially backward sections of the society.
Reservation to the tribal groups (STs) has helped the members of the tribal
community to improve their representation in educational institutes and services
of the state by minimizing the disadvantages faced by them due to lack of
Reservation to the OBCs has helped the left-out section of society who was
backward in terms of education and other resources, but they were not part of
SCs and STs.
Reservation to the economically weaker section of society (EWS) has helped the
section of society that was socially forward as compared to SCs and STs but was
economically weaker. This section was deprived of education and resources
because of poor financial conditions.
Reservation helps in providing the same level of playing field to every citizen
of the country. It helps socially and educationally backward sections of society
who are deprived of money, education, and other resources. Without reservation,
it was nearly impossible for them to match with the rest of society.
The reservation system in India has improved the delivery of justice to every
section of society by providing free legal aid to the members of SCs, STs, and
women, who otherwise would suffer due to lack of money, knowledge, and
Arguments Against Reservation
- In the socially backward section of society, only the
economically sound people take most of the benefits of the
reservation and the rest of the section remains deprived due to lack
of knowledge and awareness, thus it ruins the aim of reservation,
marginalized section among backward section still remains
- The caste-based reservation policy is promoting the caste
system, instead of abolishing it. People are using it as a tool to
meet their political benefits.
- Quotas based on the reservation are a form of discrimination
against other citizens, which is contrary to the right to equality
guaranteed under the Constitution of India.
- Reservation may adversely affect the educational, economic
growth of India because it does not ensure the efficiency of people
who get selected by way of the quota system in educational
institutes as well as in other sectors.
- Reservation schemes do not elevate the quality of education and
work efficiency of employees, rather degrades it.
- In the caste-based reservation system, the economically backward
section of the upper caste does not get any benefit whereas the
economically well-off section from backward and lower caste enjoys
the privilege of it.
- Reservation agitations may cause social unrest by creating the
feeling of discrimination among the different castes and classes of
Requirement Of Reservation In Modern Era
"Our struggle does not end so long as there is a single human being considered
untouchable on account of his birth."
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
The reservation policy was framed and implemented by the constituent
assembly only for the term of first 10 years after the commencement
of the constitution. But the reservation policy is still in
With this fact, the questions arise that:
To find the answers to these questions we must consider the
different facts together, such as:
- Do we really need this policy in modern times, or it should be abolished?
- Had this policy really helped the backward section of society in the last 70
- Is there any need to revise this policy and instead of caste-based reservation
other principles like economic backwardness should be followed?
- Caste-based discrimination is still prevalent in both rural and urban areas of
- Untouchability is still practiced in a large part of the country. People from
higher caste avoid social interaction with the people from lower caste.
- Socially backward classes are still among the poorest section (BPL) of the
society. Representation of SCs/STs and OBC is still not adequate in the public
- The cases of atrocity against SCs/STs are still common in many parts of the
country. People from lower castes and tribal areas like the northeastern states
of India are still facing violence against them on the basis of their identity.
- Practices like inter-caste marriage are still considered taboo and viewed with
disgust in our society.
- By considering all these facts we can clearly observe that although a large
section of the backward classes has uplifted its educational and financial
status but failed to meet the same social status as others from upper castes in
the society. With this, there is an equally large section of the same class
which is still untouched from the benefits of this policy.
When we discuss the continuation of reservation in perpetuity the Supreme Court
has observed that Reservation will have to stop someday, after some years or
decades, it must come to an end one day. If it is perpetual the entire object is
In the case of M.R. Balaji v/s State of Mysore
[xiv], the Apex Court has ruled
that it does not mean that if once a caste is considered to be backward it will
continue to be backward for all other times. The government
should review the test and if a class reaches the state of
progress where reservation is not necessary it should delete
that class from the list of backward classes.
But to contradict this view, it is argued that, the apparent or official
reservation and its continuation in perpetuity is the outcome of the indirect
reservation system in Indian society. Where the son of a priest becomes a priest
and, son of a scavenger becomes a scavenger. In the temples of India, the
practice of indirect reservation is evident.
The priest of the temples is
appointed only from one caste, that is, Brahman. The same practice is also
followed in other works or professions, the work of sanitization and manual
scavenging is generally performed by people of the lower caste of the society.
This shows that it is indirect and implied caste-based reservation in our
society by which people of a specific caste do specific work perpetually.
"The Out-caste is a by-product of the Caste system. There will be outcastes as
long as there are castes. Nothing can emancipate the Out-caste except the
destruction of the Caste system. Nothing can help to save Hindus and ensure
their survival in the coming struggle except the purging of the Hindu Faith of
this odious and vicious dogma" [xv]
Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
As long as the caste system is prevalent in our society it is very difficult to
ensure equality in our society. To remove social disparity, the caste-based
reservation will also be required. So, to abolish or revise the caste-based
reservation we first must reform our society and abolish the caste system from
Critical Analysis Of Reservation
Equality is the essence of the constitution of India, but the reservation policy
is contrary to the principle of equality. Either the caste-based reservation or
the reservation to economically backward section of the society, the reservation
policy provides special privileges and extra protection to certain classes of
people in the society and it disturbs the spirit of the constitution of India.
The reservation policy was introduced under the Constitution of India as an
ad-hoc policy for a period of 10 years. But it is continued till now and it has
created a feeling of enmity among the people of upper caste people against the
caste-based reservation system, as they are getting less opportunities in jobs
and admissions in educational institutions because of the continuation of
The reservation policy is a barrier to the merit system in the selection
process. In the job recruitments and admissions in the educational institutes,
due to reservation, the deserving candidates do not get their due share, and
people with less efficiency and low merit get selected. It adversely affects the
working efficiency of the whole system at different levels.
The reservation policy is considered as the Political Gimmick, India had seen
many protests in past due to the reservation policy or demand of reservation
policy, like Jats of Haryana, Marathas of Maharashtra, Gurjars of Rajasthan.
These protests are performed by blocking highways, and roads, restricted the
supply of daily needs and damaging railway tracks. So, it acts as an obstruction
in the functioning of the state and the root cause of these actions is mostly
political, where opposition parties try to make political pressure on the ruling
party of the state or country.
The reservation policy was framed by the Chairman of the Constitutional Drafting
Committee; Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar along with other members of the committee,
the intention was to provide reservation as a form of affirmative action so that
the disadvantaged groups can match up with the mainstream society. This policy
was enacted for a period of 10 years, but it is continuing till today by way of
extension because the aim of reservation was not achieved.
To achieve the final aim of the reservation, that is, to overcome the historical
injustice, provide a level playing field for all, ensure adequate representation
of all and to ensure equality among all, the caste system and other
discriminations must be completely abolished, as it will help to reduce the
disparity between the people of the country. But until the final aim is
achieved, it is very important that the fruits of reservation policy must reach
the people who literally require it.
The policy of reservation can be fair and
effective if it acts as affirmative action for the benefit of the educationally,
socially, and economically backward sections of society. To meet the aim of the
reservation policy, its aid should reach the majority of the population which is
considered as an underprivileged section of the society. Classes of people, who
are relatively forward in term of education, finance and social status should
not enjoy the benefit of the reservation.
In the present time, there is a need to revise the reservation policy of India
so that the benefit can reach the marginalized sections of the deprived classes.
But while revising the reservation policy, we must ensure that the benefit of
the reservation should reach the socially, economically, and educationally
backward section of the society. Social, educational and economic criteria
should be taken cumulatively to determine the backward classes of the society.
Exclusion of the relatively forward section, that is, the creamy layer among all
castes, tribal groups, and other beneficiaries of the reservation can be helpful
in making the reservation policy very effective. Reservation should not be
provided perpetually generations after generation. So that the fruits of the
reservation can be provided to people who really deserve this kind of
affirmative action to have adequate representation.
Along with this, equal importance should be given for the abolishment of the
caste system, malpractice of untouchability, and other sorts of discrimination
from our society. So that equality in society can be ensured.
- Andhra Pradesh v. Nalla Raja Reddy 1967 AIR 1458
- Ashoka Kumar Thakur Vs Union of India (2007) 4 SCC 361
- Indra Sawhney v. Union of India, AIR 1993 SC 477
- M. Nagaraj vs Union of India AIR 2007 SC 71
- Balaji v. State of Mysore AIR 1963 SC 649
- Supra Note 3
- Supra Note 4
- Appanna vs. state of Karnataka AIR 1983 KANT 113
- Supra Note 6
- Supra Note 3
- Supra Note 3
- Supra Note 4
- Jarnail Singh v.Lachmi Narayan AIR2018SC4729
- Supra Note 6
- Dr.Ambedkar & Caste, Harijan, February 11, 1933, 3.
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