The Principle of Equity
Jeremy Bentham (father of Utilitarianism) introduced the utility principle,
which was part of a series of consequential moral theories that assessed an
individual's acts based on their effects. Bentham was ahead of his time in
emphasizing the effects of behavior rather than the motive underlying it.
He didn't think motives mattered, and he thought that good deeds would lead to
good outcomes. The intensity of pleasure and suffering resulting from the
repercussions of our acts, he suggested, will be the most essential concern.
Simply defined, an activity is considered good if it produces pleasure and
negative if it produces pain. As per the concept of Utility, an activity is
praised or condemned based on whether it provides profit, pleasure, advantage,
good, or happiness, or whether it prevents harm, pain, or misery.
The utility principle, on the other hand, is distinct from egoism, which
promotes self-gratification. Utilitarianism states that pleasure should be
pursued for the benefit as many sentient creatures as possible. Humans should
constantly behave so as to generate the greatest benefit for the greatest
number. As a result, a utilitarian would forego personal enjoyment in order to
benefit the collective.
The utilitarian calculation was developed by Jeremy Bentham to help in the
computation of pleasure and misery. Individual actions are evaluated based on
four factors: intensity, duration, certainty, and propinquity. Furthermore, two
more factors had to be incorporated in order to compute for acts categorized as
specific categories, namely fecundity (can the activity have any subsequent
delights) and purity (can it have any subsequent pains). In addition, while
contemplating group activities, there is another factor to consider: the scope
i.e., the number of people suffered.
Bentham was not a believer in the idea of common interests. Instead, he believed
that collective interests are the sum of individual interests, and that
groupings do not withstand by the scrutiny of the people. Furthermore, he
claimed that, because the theory's fundamental priority is suffering, all people
are treated equally when assessing the pleasure associated with an activity.
Lastly, the theory is regarded to be invigorating, interesting, and relevant in
general. The relevance of this idea will continue to grow until the world's
injustices or sins are no longer be capable of providing resources for a better
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