Children square measure perpetually thought-about next to the pious versions of
the Almighty UN agency perpetually attempt to drill happiness, joy, innocence
and hope. the long run of a nation is set by the means it treats its child's and
its ladies, after all, child's imply a hope, a hope to strengthen not solely the
economy of the country, however conjointly to supply the country with virtuoso
human resources UN agency have access to the fundamental amenities essential for
the existence not to mention the tenets of the education in Asian country.
child mustn't be subjected to figure at the expense of his or her education and
dreams. Child labor robs minors of the chance to relish their childhood, visit
college, and have a good shot at success. It condemns them to a lifetime of
restricted opportunities. It is, therefore, necessary to confirm that each child
is protected and not exploited for reasonable labor.
It's not simply the
responsibility of the bogeys to eliminate child labor however conjointly that of
the govt and also the society because it is that the ethical duty of each
subject for the country to confirm that the childhood of our child's is
protected and not barred with instances like that of child labor that arise out
of poorness and helplessness. The paper focuses on numerous problems relevance}
child labor at the side of reference to some judicial pronouncements.
The Child has been the topic of special laws and legal provisions. Thanks to its
tender years, weak body, and inadequately developed mind and understanding, each
child wants protection against ethical and physical damage and exploitation by
others. within the childhood of its life, the child wants special care service
to comprehend its full potential for growth and development. There square
measure regarding three hundred Central and State Statutes regarding child's.
These are enacted with Associate in nursing intention to guard and facilitate
children and reach the goal of child labor welfare enshrined in our National
charter. More these laws square measure applicable to child's in numerous
spheres of life, that square measure regulative, protecting and punitive in
Laws square measure seeking to guard and promote the rights of child.
Beneath the law, child's square measure entitled to special care, help and
essential wants and that they ought to lean the best priority within the
allocation of resources. The paper aims in analyzing child labor from numerous
views by bearing on some judicial pronouncements by shaping the term child labor
from numerous viewpoints and analyzing numerous Articles in Indian Constitution
for defence of child Rights.
Null- the present legislation's aren't enough to forestall child labor.
Alternate - the present legislation's square measure enough to forestall child
The existing legal framework isn't enough to prevent the activity of child Labor
thanks to Inefficiency of statutes
- Whether the present framework is enough to forestall the activity of child
In this paper, the investigator has opted the sources square measure primarily
collected through secondary knowledge like books, journals and numerous
Factors accountable for child Labor
There square measure many reasons concerning causes and abuse of child labor in
Asian country. Indian Socioeconomic condition of is such it provides bedrock for
the event of child labor in several forms.
A number of the necessary factors
- Economic Factors:
poorness is that the root reason for child labor in Asian
country that square measure thanks to numerous reasons like unequal distribution
of land property and assets. Economic compulsions produce pressure on poor
oldsters to place their child's for physical exploitation in early age of life.
- Poor Implementation of Law:
energetic perspective of implementation Agencies
also are the most cause main cause for this Evil. Whether or not it's
agricultural or industrial atmosphere, the child exploitation is frequent. As re
portable by the Committee on the child labor in 1980 is that the worker initial,
worker child labor as a result of their accessible on reservation jealous
standing Kansas affliction my feeling of guilt and shame No he station to try to
to during a standing even be that means job. National Commission of labor
conjointly got wind that very often it's a sense of sympathy instead of the will
828 that weight inside players in implying child work.
- Cast directed Society:
class structure is deeply decayed in Asian country
and also the most of the ancestral work is administrated by one cluster. There's
bound business that is administrated by a specific cluster. In our society bound
'goods trade square measure associated with a specific community and youngsters
starts learning regarding the trade from these elements solely.
- Lack of Awareness:
Lack of awareness of the fogeys and guardians also are one
in every of necessary cause for child labor. The importance of education in long
run isn't proverbial to folks so that they target short term profit through
swing their child aborning force
- Early Marriages:
Marrying at Associate in nursing early age may be a chief
contributory component to over population. Young mother and father square
measure capable of sire an entire heap of child's thanks to the very fact they
keep fertile for a protracted time. Having several youngsters with little or no
resources to support those ends in child labor. Older youngsters square measure
forced to figure so you'll assist their mother and father facilitate the circle
In addition to on top of, there square measure different many causes like
population, lack of Social Security in family, social acceptance of learning
parental business and lacuna in child labor relating law.
Concept of Child Labor
The general plan of child at international level is that a baby suggests that
every individual below the age of eighteen years unless at a lower place the law
applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier (Article one. child
Conventions, 1989). This Convention protects varied kinds of rights in
conjunction with human rights of the children. But at national level, utterly
completely different statutes or legal texts have followed different cohort for
outlining kinds of child's.
This variation is manly supported the subject matter
jurisdiction of the relevant statutes. The Constitution of Asian country
acknowledges child up to the age of fourteen years in Article 21A, twenty four
and 51(k). The child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 acknowledge
fourteen years where as a result of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection)
Act 2000 keep the regulation eighteen years. The ultimate analysis suggests that
fourteen years is regulation at no cost education and prohibition of any type of
labor and eighteen years is for complete criminal liability.
Not all work done by child's need to be classified as child labor that is to be
targeted for elimination. Children's or adolescents' participation in work that
does not have an impact on their health and personal development or interfere
with their schooling is sometimes thought to be being one factor positive.
includes activities like serving to their people around the home, aiding in an
exceedingly} very in private control corporation or earning currency outside
school hours and thru school holidays. These kinds of activities contribute to
children's development and to the welfare of their families; they provide them
with ability's and skill, and facilitate to prepare them to be productive
members of society throughout their adult life.
According to International Labor Organization, the term child labor is
sometimes printed as work that deprives children of their childhood, their
potential and their dignity, that is harmful to physical and mental development.
It refers to work that:
- Is mentally, physically, socially or virtuously dangerous and harmful to
- Interferes with their schooling by;
- Depriving them of the prospect to attend school;
- Obliging them to depart school prematurely; or
- Requiring them to aim to combine school human activity with too long and
In its most extreme forms, child labor involves child's being confined,
separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and sicknesses and/or
left to support themselves on the streets of huge cities usually at an awfully
early age. whether or not or not or not specific sorts of work
usually remarked as child labor
depends on the child's age, the kind and hours of
labor performed, the conditions at a lower place that it's performed and thus
the objectives pursued by individual countries. The answer varies from country
to country, still as among sectors at intervals countries.
The Issue of Child Labor in Asian Country
The child labor could also be a sophisticated and a polemic downside. The
lifestyles and continuance of child labor could also be a challenge to the human
society. Its miles honestly a curse and stigma upon the society; shame for the
theater of cluster, a malady which can together spoil the economic backbone of a
rustic. The practice of infant would be degree impediment inside the way of
human development within the majority the 0.33 world countries beside Asian
The matter of child labor is one in every of essential human rights
issues and a rather affection one. The matter of nestling labor in
underdeveloped and developing international locations is pretty acute and a
typical and it's miles a worldwide development that exists within the majority
of the nations of the globe, but there is distinction solely in degree. One
inside the past, child labor has been a district of the structure inside that
all members contributed their labor to produce for the subsistence and
In rural farming, the paintings of the child become formal a
district of labor, that become needed for the duplicate of the machine and price
of labor taken as an area of infant's socialization for copy of the labor power.
The event of child labor could also be an indication of the disorder associate
de greed associate degree outcome of consumptive gizmo, running on the national
and international stages.
The makers of Constitution were visionary to provide, that child's need to
receive distributive justice in free Asian country. The rights against
exploitation were mentioned inside the draft planned by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, K.M.
Munshi and K.T. Shah. While Dr. Ambedkar's draft just on condition that
subjecting somebody to forced labor or involuntary bondage would be degree
offense, K.M. Munshi's draft Article counseled for abolition of all sorts of
slavery, child labor, traffic in blood line and obligatory labor.
Constitution of India contains provisions in Part III and Part IV of the
Constitution. Several Articles protect rights of the children in various ways.
Prohibits traffic in human being and other similar forms of forced labor.
No child under the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or
mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment
Article 39(e) and (f) requires the State and secure that the tender age of
children are not abused and to ensure that they are not forced by economic
necessity to enter avocations unsuited in their age or strength.
Free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14
Article 51 A (k)
Fundamental duty of the parent or Guardian to provide opportunities for
education to the child or ward between the age of 6 and 14 years.
The Right to Education as fundamental right and it mandates that, the state
shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of age of six to
fourteen years in such manner as the state may, by law, determine.
These constitutional provisions have played fundamental role in the development
of law relating to child.
Legislation and Policies relating to child Labor in Republic of India
Legislation to regulate and regulate child labor in Republic of India has
existed for many decades. the most concern of those legislation's was
prescribing minimum regulation for employment of youngsters and regulation of
operating hours for children; and making certain the health and safety of the
child labourers by prohibiting the use of youngsters in venturesome work. There
square measure variety of child labor legislation's prohibiting the use of
youngsters below fourteen years and fifteen years in sure specific employments
like factories, mines, shipping, transport etc.
However, contrary to our
international commitment and every one proclamations within the country's
Constitution, and despite all the legislative measures, child labor may be a
harsh reality. Thanks to lack of political can and in absence of realistic
measures to tackle the matter the share of child labor within the total working
class of the country unbroken on increasing over the years.
Large numbers of legislation were enacted since 1881 that provides the legal
protection to the operating child's. The children (Pledging of Labor) Act, 1933
followed by the use of youngsters Act, 1938 was the primary statutory enactment
handling child labor that was repealed by the child Labor Act, 1986. The Child
Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 is an outcome of varied
recommendations created by a series of Commissions. This legislation was enacted
to reform the legal live, because the policy of each Prohibition of child labor
in venturesome trade and regulation in different kinds of industries.
The important laws relating to child labor are listed below
- The Children (Pledging of Labor) Act,1933
- The Employment of Children Act,1938
- The Minimum Wages Act,1948
- The Plantation of Labor Act,1951
- Factories Act, 1948
- The Mines Act,1952
- The Merchant Shipping Act,1958
- The Motor Transport Workers Act,1961
- Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act,1966
- Contract Labor (Regulations and Abolition) Act,1970
- Shops and Commercial Establishment Act,1948
- Radiation Protection Rules,1971
- The Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act,1986
The main legislation for the prohibition of child labor is the Child Labor
(Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 which will be analyzed in detail and the
role of judiciary will also be discussed in the light of said Act.
The Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
Various legislation's were enacted since 1881 for more and more extending legal
protection to the operating child's. The children (Pledging of Labor) Act, 1933
followed by the use of Employment Children Act, 1938 was the primary statutory
enactment handling child labor, was repealed by the Child Labor (Prohibition and
Regulation) Act 1986.
It absolutely was associate outcome of varied
recommendations created by a series of Commissions like Gurupad swamy Committee
on Labor 1976 and Sanat Mehta Committee 1984. These commissions were habitual to
reform the legal live, because the policy of each Prohibition and Regulation.
Finally a protracted expected.
The statement of objects and reason within the Act say that there are varied
legislation's that fully command employment of child's below fourteen years and
fifteen years in sure specific employments. However, there's no special
procedure set down in any law for deciding within which employments, occupations
or processes the use of child's to be illegal. There's additionally no law to
control the operating conditions of child's in most of the employments wherever
they're not prohibited from operating and are operating underneath consumptive
The Act objectives to:
- Ban the use of child's, i.e. those that haven't completed their
fourteenth year in specific occupations and processes
- Lay down a procedure to come to a decision modifications to the schedule
of illegal occupations or processes;
- Regulate the conditions of labor of child's engaged in varieties of
employment within which they're permissible to work;
- Prescribe increased penalties for employment of child's in violation of
the provisions of this Act and different Acts that forbid the use of
- Establish uniformity within the definition of child in laws regarding
The introduction of the Bill generated an energetic discussion within the Indian
Parliament within which members cutting across party affiliation debated and
provided rare insights into this old social issue. In course of the controversy
the members particularly took exception to the following:
The condition in Section three says, provided that nothing during this section
shall apply to any workshop whereby any method is carried on by the occupier
with the help of his family or to any faculty established by or receiving help
or recognition from Government.
The members had additionally expressed apprehensions and reservations relating
to the following:
- Past expertise shows that labor laws are never enforced. the child Labor
(Prohibition and Regulation) Act had additionally became yet one more
exercise in futility;
- Unsafe work doesn't become safe just as a result of it's performed at
- Any theme of exemption provided in a very law is certain to be
misinterpreted and misused;
- The intention of state shouldn't be to regularize child labor just as a
result of it exists; and
- A one sided and half-hearted approach of forbiddance child labor in few
institutions and control it in few others while not adopting a holistic or
integrated approach, while not resolution the matter of poorness and
economic deprivation, while not implementing the Minimum Wages Act, while
not resolution the matter of universal entrance and retention of all child's
of school-going age within the formal establishment can serve very little
The apprehension and reservations expressed by the members were real and still
be valid to the present day.
The main options of the current Act are as follows:
Significant Provisions of the child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
- It prohibits employment of child's in most employments as careful within
the Schedule as Processes and Occupations. Most of them are unsafe in nature
however the term unsafe has not been defined;
- It intends to control employment of child's altogether institutions
except those prohibited ones;
- It provides for a baby Labor Technical consultative Committee to advise
the Central Government in matters of additional prohibition, regulation etc.
- Restrictive provisions created fixing the quantity of hours, amount of
labor, prohibition of overtime, double employment, provision of weekly
- Demand of the leader to grant notice to Inspectors, maintenance of
register, show of notice; provision for health and safety also are partially
- It provides for minimum penalty of imprisonment for three months and
most one year and minimum fine of Rs. 10,000 and most fine of Rs.
20,000. most the violations of the restrictive and obligatory provisions are
declared as offense underneath the Act; and
- Any one will file a criticism however solely a Metropolitan functionary
will take cognizance of any offense.
The Act is split into IV parts and carries twenty six sections with one agenda
consisting of Part-A for Occupations and part-B for processes. The preamble to
the Act, states that its miles ―An Act to limit the use of child's in positive
employments and to regulate the conditions of labor of the children in sure
totally different employment.
The Act prohibits the use of anyone United Nations
agency has not completed his fourteenth year aged in occupations and
procedure set forth partially A and component-B vi of the program of the
Act. The prohibition below part II, section three is not absolute because it
will not observe to any workshop whereby any manner is carried on by suggests
that of the occupier with the helpful resource of his family or to any faculty
established by method of, or receiving help or recognition from government.
Critical Analysis of Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
Any law isn't while not defect and also the same with this Act. the children
Labor Act was passed with the Article of achieving 2 contradicting goals i.e.
prohibition and regulation of children labor that isn't in conformity with
Article twenty four of Constitution and also the Act is in favour of regulation
instead of conclusion of Child Labor.
Another major disadvantage is that the absence of any measures for
rehabilitation of the child. The stipulation annexed to section three is abused
by using children in respect of families and work expertise non heritable by
children's. This stipulation helps leaders to create as members of the family of
the youngsters operating in their premises and so continued to use the children;
this is often however the employer escapes from prosecution. Thus burden of
proof is to be fastened on the occupier to prove that the children may be a
member of his or her family.
In addition to the current the age of the children has been otherwise outlined
in numerous laws. There's no a criterion or scientific parameters for outlining
the age of the children so laws results in confusion and uncertainty. The
definition of children's given beneath Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation)
Act, 1986 is in contradiction with international organization Convention on the
Rights of the child, 1989 and Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children)
change Act, 2006. Article 24 of the Constitution indirectly permits the child
labor as a result of Article 24 reads;
No child below the age of fourteen years shall be used to figure in any plant
or mine or engaged in the other unsafe employment.
By reading on top of Article twenty four it's ascertained that Constitution of
India doesn't produce associate degree absolute bar to the use of children below
the age of fourteen years. Their employment is prohibited solely in plant or
mine or in the other unsafe employment. Children below the age of fourteen years
shall be used to figure all told institutions apart from plant or mine or unsafe
Numerous laws and policies regarding child labor and child rights
seem to figure in isolation. There's no nexus between one another. The correct
to education failed to have direct bearing upon the children labor law. Policy
views regarding children's and childhood square measure confused. The correct of
child to Free and required Education Act, 2009 supposed to supply free and
required education all the youngsters of the age 6-14 years. However beneath
Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 egg laying down that
children's below fourteen years will add non-hazardous occupations and processes
may be a mockery in providing justice to the youngsters.
The president of National Commission for cover child of Rights aforementioned
The child labor policy itself is imperfect and existing child labor law was
violating the basic right to education. So there's a necessity to amend the Act
to create it in consonance with the correct to Education (Kavita Chowdhary
2009). The definition of children labor has to embrace children's operating
within the farm-lands. The laws and policies currently ought to indicate to the
international standards ordered down within the U.N. Convention on the Rights of
- Andhra High Court- P. Ramachander Rao Vs State of Andhra Pradesh on
18 March, 2006, THE HON'BLE Dr. JUSTICE G. YETHIRAJULU Criminal Petition No.793
- Hemendra Bhai Vs State of Chhattisgarh on 6 January, 2003, Equivalent
citations: 2003 (97) FLR 402, (2003) IILLJ 645 CG Bench: K Kuranga C.J
- Madhya Pradesh High Court- Bhagwandas and Anr. Vs State Of M.P. and
Anr. On 9 July, 1998, Equivalent citations: (2000) IIILLJ 661 MP Bench: S
- Madhya Pradesh High Court- Bhaiyalal Shukla and Ors. Vs State Of M.P.
And Ors. On 12 March, 1999 Equivalent citations: (2000) ILLJ 640 MP Bench: C
- Madhya Pradesh High Court-Raj Homes Pvt. Limited Vs State Of M.P. and
Anr. on 4 December, 2002, Equivalent citations: (2003) IIILLJ 626 MP Bench: A
- Allahabad High Court-Basudeo Lal Srivastava (D).... Vs Punjab
National Bank on 18 March, 2004, Equivalent citations: 2004 (2) AWC 1871 Bench:
- Allahabad High Court-Mahesh Kumar Garg and Ors. Vs State Of U.P. And
Ors. On 11 April, 2000, Equivalent citations: (2000) 2 UPLBEC 1426 Bench: P Kant
- Allahabad High Court-Matrumal Sharma and Anr. Vs the Chief Inspector
of Shops And ... on 25 March, 1952, Equivalent citations: AIR 1952 all 773Bench:
In spite of several legislative measures by enactment of statutory provisions to
diminish employment of kids in hazardous employment and people injurious to
health, the exploitation of youngsters through different profit makers for their
non-public profits persisted unabated in utter disregard of constitutional
injunction and statutory prohibition. From the evaluation of the relevant
statutory provisions of the Indian laws regarding child labor, it has emerge as
abundantly clear that the statutes range as to the age restriction of an infant
hired or authorized to work in diverse occupations. There may be no law solving
minimum age for employment of youngsters in agriculture.
The Factories Act,
1948, fixes minimal age of 14 while the worldwide Labor enterprise conference
prescribes minimum age for any employment to be 15. Inside the case of
plantations, the age of employment has be non- business employment the minimal
age varies from 12 to 14 years.
Consequently, Indian legal guidelines relating
to baby labor are poor from the global standards as laid down through the global
Labor employer however even then they can be considered first-class in view of
the everyday financial situations of the country. There are plethora of
statutes to save the misuse of children in dangerous employment and to shield
the general rights of the children. But sociological studies have discovered
either the useless nature of these legal guidelines or their blatant violations.
Mockingly overall laxity prevails the enforcement of the provisions with no
longer a great deal proof of conviction. The entire Abolition of child labour
and proper regulation thereof in accordance with the statutory provisions need
to be the cherished and prime objective of a civilized society. It is also
pertinent to country that the Judiciary played a sizable role in protection of
child labors. Many course breaking judgments of the perfect court docket have
performed a fantastic deal by increasing the human rights doctrine.
The obligation for imparting this training is that of the organization.
Judiciary in India played a very substantial position in upholding child welfare
rights. It has taken the lead to save the child from exploitation and enhance
their situations. Judicial mandate definitely demonstrates that proper to
education is important for the proper flowering of children and their character.
Hence the judiciary has always made concrete efforts to safeguard them towards
the exploitative inclinations of their employers, by means of regularizing their
working hours, fixing their wages, laying down guidelines approximately their
health and medical facilities.
The judiciary has even directed the states that
it's miles their responsibility to create an environment where the kid people
can have opportunities to grow and expand in a wholesome manner with complete
dignity in consensus of the mandate of our charter. Hence, it's implied that
hypothesis disproved that the existing legislation's are not sufficient to
prevent child labor. It's the judiciary that plays an important role in shaping
the lives of children.
It may be accepted that trying to enforce law through labor inspectors is not
likely to yield results because law itself has loopholes that can easily take
advantage of. Very recent effort of the Central Government to enhance penalty
through further amendment of the law is likely to yield the same result.
Adopting the principle of compulsory elementary education for the children of
age group 6 to 14 along with compulsory vocational training cum education for
children of age group 14 to 18 who are participating in working market may be
the way out to solve child labor problem permanently.
To eradicate the problem
of child labor permanently notion of penalty oriented law or enhanced penalty to
be supplemented by the incorporation of the principle of compulsory education,
both formal as well as vocational as a compulsory duty on the part of the
employer. It should be introduced into legal system. Emphasis should be given
upon village areas. The panchayati raj system could be made responsive to put
primary education on their agenda for development ensuring universal literacy
program as measure to eradicate child labor.
Non-governmental organizations can
play a bigger role in identifying and monitoring units where child labor is used
and at the same time acting as pressure group stressing the importance of
education. With increasing globalization and integration with the world economy,
India should gear towards adoption of modern technology with skilled labor
forces to compete with global market players.
A child cannot enter into a contract of employment until he/she attains 18 years
of age whereas a child may be engaged in work after he/she attains the age of 14
years. On the other hand, the right to receive compulsory elementary education
is restricted to the age group 6 to 14 which means after 14 years a child may
stop education and enter into a work/ economic activity in need, thereby, the
employment of the children from 14 to 21 as a labor is legal and permitted
subject to certain legal guidelines.
This is the most controversial area of law,
which affects the fate of millions of children in India. Therefore, law needs to
be amended and uniform age criteria i.e. 18 years to be prescribed for work
permit in order to abolish the child labor keeping pace with the age of majority
as per Indian Majority Act.
The stereotypical thinking that poverty is the only root cause of child labor is
not supportable always. The social attitude should be changed and strong
political will is the need of the hour to address the issue.
- Sen, R.K. & Dasgupta, A., 2003. Problems of Child Labour in India, Deep
- Bajpai, A., 2018. Child Rights in India: Law, Policy, and Practice,
Oxford University Press.
- Bajpai, A., 2006. Right Against Economic Exploitation Child Labour. In
Child Rights in India. Pp. 148 206.
- Basu, K., Child Labour and International Labour Standards. In The
Retreat of Democracy and
- Other Itinerant Essays on Globalization, Economics, and India. pp.
- The Children Act, 1960, Juvenile Justice Act, 1986, the Child Labour
(Prohibition and Regulation) Act. 1986 etc.
- http://www.ilo.org/inform/online-information-resources/resource-guides/child-labour/lang--en/index.htm [Accessed
April 1, 2021]
- https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_child_labour.html [Accessed
April 5, 2021]
- http://haqcrc.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/child-labour-in-india-a-situational-analysis-by-haq-centre-for-child-rights.pdf [Accessed
April 7, 2021]
[Accessed April 7, 2021]
- Small Hands Hard Labour in Surat Textile Industry, 17, December, 2013
- Nirmal .Mitra, ―The Slave Children of Mandsour Sunday 8, 14th December,
- The framing of Indian Constitution A study, Vol.V
- Child Labour Act, 1986; Sec. 3, ― No child shall be employed or
permitted to work in any of the occupations set forth in part A of the
Schedule or in any workshop wherein, any of the processes set forth in part
B of the schedule is carried on.
- There are 15 occupations set forth in part-A of the schedule under
section 3. Further employment of child as servants or workers and employment
of children in Dhabas, ( roadside Eateries), restaurants, hotels, Motels,
Tea -Shops, Resorts, Spas or other recreational centres are notified on 10th
- There are 57 processes set forth in part-B of the Schedule
- The Children Act, 1960, Juvenile Justice Act, 1986, the Child Labour
(Prohibition and Regulation) Act. 1986 etc.
Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr.Deepak Subhashappa Sangekar
Authentication No: SP35671227421-03-0921
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