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Impact Of Economic Factors On Juveniles In India: A Critical Analysis

Juvenile delinquency is an enormous problem in India by which most of the youth spoil their lives. Because of juvenile crime and related problems youth, their families, and the entire society suffer multiple problems and consequences. Not only does the problem affect the victims of the crime; it also affects the juvenile delinquents' family, their future, and society as a whole. The most obvious people affected by juvenile delinquency are the victims.

There are various factors leading to juvenile delinquency in India. Psychological, social, political, and economic factors are the major factors leading to the consequences of juvenile delinquency in India and the various countries in the world.

In this paper, I am going to discuss the main perspectives of the economic factors and their impact on juveniles in India. Furthermore, I am going to discuss the determining economic factors leading to juvenile delinquency, various theories supporting economic factors, case studies, current news about the juvenile delinquency related to economic factors in this pandemic period, and the prevention of juvenile delinquency in India. Prevention is better than cure should be implemented in the case of juvenile delinquency so that the society can progress with the healthy juveniles in the healthy environment in India.

Introduction:
In simple words, Juvenile delinquency is the participation of children under the age of eighteen years in illegal activities in society. The degree of delinquency varies from one to another and it remains unnoticed unless and until the particular act becomes the concern of society. Since adolescence is the transitional period of life, during this phase one passes through rapid evolutionary changes in one's physical, mental, moral, spiritual, sex, and social outlook.

They become emotionally unstable and frequent mood change is observed. It is a period of anxieties, worries, conflicts, and complexities. Therefore during this period, they do certain things in order to satisfy one need or the other which often leads them to become delinquent. Delinquent children belong to that category of exceptional children who exhibit considerable deviation in terms of their social adjustment and are consequently also labeled as socially deviant or socially handicapped.

They display criminal behavior and are punishable under legal procedure. Violation of social norms and values threatens the peace of society and is therefore considered a criminal act. The nature and kind of the crime may range from very mild to severe, however, they are all antisocial and hence are subjected to legal criminal acts.

In this sense, they are very much like criminals and antisocial elements. In legal terminology, however, they are referred to as delinquents and not as criminals. On whole, juvenile delinquency is a legal term that denotes acts of varying degrees of social consequences from mere naughtiness to major assault punishable by law.

Act of delinquency may include:
  1. Running away from home without the permission of parents.
  2. Habitual behavior beyond the control of parents.
  3. Spending time idly beyond limits.
  4. Use of vulgar language.
  5. Committing sexual crime.
  6. Visiting gambling centers etc.
Poverty, accordingly, is only one of a number of factors associated with juvenile delinquency.[1] Among these other factors are bad housing, broken homes, mothers working, parental negligence, over severity, over leniency, rejection, boy and girl gangs, delinquent and criminal traditions, and other neighbourhood conditions contributing to the delinquency of the child. Low income is rather directly related to meager conditions of family life and insufficient provision in the home for wholesome recreation.

Therefore, an adequate minimum and stable family income is probably the most significant factor in the prevention of serious cases of delinquency which now is appearing in our juvenile courts and is committed to industrial schools and reformatories. Stable and adequate income, together with its consequences in the improvement of family life and neighborhood conditions would be a powerful preventive influence in reducing juvenile delinquency.

Provisions Related To Juvenile Delinquency:

Sec 2(35) of Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act,2015 states Juvenile means a child below the age of eighteen years.

Juvenile Delinquency means child tending to commit a crime, it includes Child in conflict with law as specified in sec2(13), a child who is alleged to found to have committed an offense and who has not completed eighteen years of age on the date of commission of such offenses.

Sec 2(14) states child in need of care and protection means a child:
  1. who is found without any home or settled place of abode and without any ostensible means of subsistence; or
  2. who is found working in contravention of labor laws for the time being in force or is found begging, or living on the street; or
  3. who resides with a person (whether a guardian of the child or not) and such person:
    1. has injured, exploited, abused, or neglected the child or has violated any other law for the time being in force meant for the protection of child; or
    2. has threatened to kill, injure, exploit or abuse the child and there is a reasonable likelihood of the threat being carried out, or
    3. has killed, abused, neglected, or exploited some other child or children, and there is a reasonable likelihood of the child in question being killed, abused, exploited or neglected by that person, or
  4. who is mentally ill or mentally or physically challenged or suffering from terminal or incurable disease, having no one to support or look after or having parents or guardians unfit to take care, if found so by the Board or the Committee; or
  5. who has a parent or guardian and such parent or guardian is found to be unfit or incapacitated, by the Committee or the Board, to care for and protect the safety and the well-being of the child; or
  6. who does not have parents and no one is willing to take care of, or whose parents have abandoned or surrendered him; or
  7. who is missing or runaway child, or whose parents cannot be found after making reasonable inquiry in such manner as may be prescribed, or
  8. who has been or is being or is likely to be abused, tortured, or exploited for the purpose of sexual abuse or illegal acts; or
  9. who is found vulnerable and is likely to be inducted into drug abuse or trafficking; or
  10. who is being or is likely to be abused for unconscionable gains; or
  11. who is a victim of or affected by any armed conflict, civil unrest, or natural calamity; or
  12. who is at imminent risk of marriage before attaining the age of marriage and whose parents, family members, guardians, and any other persons are likely to be responsible for solemnization of such marriage.

Economic Determinism:

Carl Marx (1818-1883 stated that early exponents located crime in the conflicts of behavioral norms and saw crime as being rooted in poverty, misery and depravity.
Aristotle, the Greek Philosopher stated that poverty endangers revolution and crimes originate from poverty.
Donald Taft stated that crime is a mere phenomenon of prosperity rather than adversity
Beccaria And Bentham stated that crime rate rises when poverty increases in times of economic depression

Relationship Between Economic Structure And Crimes:

  1. Inverse View: when economic conditions are favorable, the incidence of crime is comparatively low but in times of economic depression, criminality records an upward trend. (William Aldrian Bonger, Dutch scientist strongly supported this contention)
  2. Direct Or Positive View: The crime rate shows an increase in periods of prosperity and decreases during periods of economic depression. (Enrico Ferri supported this contention by performing the research explicitly in his work Law of Criminal Saturation)

Theories Of Economic Crimes:

Marxist Theory:
Crimes emerge solely out of capitalist domination of society.
Unfair division of labor and capital would eventually lead to a conflict between rich and poor.
Communism would replace capitalism
The poorer sections of society remains oppressed through the coercion of the legal system and their discontentment generates crimes as stated by Richard Quinney who supported the Marxist ideology.

W.A.Bongers's Economic Theory:
In his doctoral thesis, Criminality and Economic conditions, he established the relationship between poverty and delinquency
Influence of economic conditions on delinquency are due to the capitalistic economy which breeds disparity and unequal distribution of wealth.
Economic cycles of inflation and deflation are frequent by which inflation results in bankruptcy and insolvency which in turn makes the affected persons lead an anti-social life and leads to criminality[3]

The employment of children and women furnish soothing ground for criminality despite effective legislative restrictions banning their improper utilization in industrial establishments.

Robert K. Merton Theory:
In social strain theory, he stated that mismatch between cultural prescribed means and socially prescriptive goals lead to deviant behavior
The children who are in facilitated family background and economic background are in conformity with the society and no criminality is found in them.

Differential Opportunity Theory:

Cloward And Ohlin: stated that the anomie tradition influenced by Emile Durkheim and later articulated by Robert K. Merton places attention on the economic pressures that could lead to deviance and juvenile delinquency.

Social Disorganization Theory:

Shaw And Mckay: stated that poverty is the common problem for the highest crime rates in neighborhood.

Gang Sub-Culture Theory:

COHEN, in Delinquent Boys, The culture of the gang stated that the working class boys problem is one of the 'status frustration' who acts as a thrust into the competitive system where achievement is judged by the middle-class standards of behavior and performance which in turn leads to juvenile delinquency.

Case Study 1:
Dibya Nayak (name changed), a 16 years of age kid from Barbil close Bhola Garage, Keonjhar was indicted for the robbery of link wires under area 379 I.P.C, he has been in this adolescent home for under a half year, and has been taken to the court for just a single time.

He has never achieved school and is the center child of his folks. His dad Madhur Nayak matured 36 years of age is an uneducated day-by-day wage work gaining Rs 3900/ - month to month. His mom Padma Nayak matured 33 years of age is additionally an uneducated day by day wage work gaining around Rs 3120/ - month to month. Their family condition is exceptionally poor and their sustenance is additionally extremely poor. He likewise has another three sisters and one more youthful sibling.

They remain in a ghetto territory. He says that he gets a kick out of the chance to stare at the TV and more often than not he used to go through alongside his companions, and he likewise says that he has peer bunches whose impact 30 has two senior siblings who fill in as a day by day wage workers and win Rs 120/ - every day and are paid with a low wage, as they are hitched and have their own family so it winds up troublesome for them to support their employment.

As there is no reprobate record in the family yet he has been gotten by the police and has been asserted as a killer. He remains in the ghetto zone under a covered rooftop. He says that he enjoys watching activity motion pictures, and he is likewise keen on playing cricket coordinate alongside his companions instead of doing the study. His lone help was the non-classmate companions.

This demonstrates there is a solid associate impact that has redirected him from doing his investigations and connecting with himself in other superfluous works. Before being captured he used to fill in as an establishing laborer in a song press processing plant, in Jamali. As per him, he has not carried out the wrongdoing rather it has been conferred by some other International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue 2886 town colleagues and in this manner he was gotten by botch. He was gotten alongside his other six kindred companions who are remaining with him in this short remain home.

This reprobate kid clarifies the episode by saying that "the police came in the night with a warrant request of a man who was remaining only alongside his home, seeing these numerous villagers accumulated and began contending with the policeman After this individuals began beating the policeman with sticks, and meanwhile one villager beat so barely on his head that it prompted the passing of the policeman."

This guilty party says that he didn't know about this occurrence yet at the same time the police got him, and now he is sitting tight for a long time to finish so that subsequent to discharging from here he will complete a decent activity which demonstrates his inspirational demeanor towards work.

According to said by the managers that this adolescent never used to tune in to his folks and was one of the stiff-necked youngsters among his kin. He is suited with recreations, examination, and another professional preparing including classes given by the Ravi Shankar's Art of living, and formal training in a struggle with the law by his teachers in consistent interims, which satisfies his requests.[4]

Case Study 2:
Manoj Dalai a 16-year-old kid from Loponga, Keonjhar and has been charged for Carouse (substantial drinking) under segment 47 (a) B and O Excise Act, he was gotten by the police and was kept in Ram Chandra police headquarters for one day. It has been under a half year of his remaining.

He has been to class yet has just gone to till upper essential level and he is the center child of his folks. His dad Manua Dalai matured 42 years of age is an ignorant individual who fills in as a cultivator and procures Rs 7000/ - month to month. His mom Subasini Dalai matured 38 years of age is additionally an ignorant lady who invests her energy in caring for the minding and raising of her kids and other family exercises.

He has two senior sisters and two more youthful sisters and no other part to procure so it winds up troublesome on the part of his dad to give him exactly 31 cash and other essential offices. He lives in a ghetto and in reverse territories. Directly he occupies sound wellbeing and stable mental condition.

The casualty has portrayed that he didn't have any wine bottle in his pocket when he went to go to the capacity or meal which was sorted out in the period of Makar Sankranti, one individual came and put the container in his pocket and fled. Meanwhile, the police got him and place him in Ram Chandra Police Station, and kept him there for one day. He had been to Chennai for artisan work and used to procure Rs 8000/ - month to month, yet he returned over from the dread of Tsunami.

Nowadays he is filling in as an assistant and is procuring Rs 100/ - every day. He says that he has no enthusiasm for learning engine bicycle International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue 2887 repairing which is being educated by the instructor in the Observation Home, however, he loves sitting in front of the TV, playing recreations alongside his companions, and furthermore he used to jump at the chance to invest the vast majority of his energy alongside his associate mates because of which he began embracing the terrible social propensity for drinking, biting tobacco, beetle, and he additionally says that he because of his companions his day by day routine was influenced.

Because of the inspiration and indoctrination from his companions he has submitted this offense. In this short remain home, he goes to the classes which are being given in the Observation Home. He says that there is no other wellspring of amusement other than staring at the TV, playing diversions and classes which are given in this Home in this way, he is fulfilled by the classes and different offices that are being given in this Home. In the wake of meeting this reprobate kid, I found that he has a duplicitous identity and this occurred because of the absence of parental inconsiderateness.[5]

Case Study 3:
A delinquent caught by the hands of Justice at the young age of 17 years, Hyder Ali the son of Mohammad Siddique was looking towards a bright future. However, being brought up in a constringent environment of political agenda and dominance, a poverty-ridden home and being influenced by the wrong friends resulted in Hyder resorting to drugs (Chars) at an age as young as 13 years. Hyder began working as a salesman at a local market from the age of 11 and earned a mere Rs. 3,500 per month.

Being the eldest sibling in a family of 3 brothers and 3 sisters with an ailing mother and an unemployed father, Hyder learned the hard way of survival and feeding the mouths dependent on him. His ailing mother and one younger brother also tried to support the family by working as servants and earning an additional Rs. 4,000 per month. Although, he tried to obtain an education while he was working he could only study till the 8th Grade.

However, being a resident of an area, where a local political party is heavily influential, Hyder became involved with the wrong friends at the age of 13. These friends persuaded him to taste the freedom provided by Chars and soon he became an addict. This lapse in judgment caused his first arrest in 2011 where he was enjoying his usual Chars in the evening at a park with his friends when a police officer caught them. However, the privileged friends were released by paying a bribe.

This initiated his arduous journey into the world of the inhumane prison environment. His first time at the Youthful Offenders Industrial School was for nearly a month however, he was released on bail. During his initial welcome at the Prison, Hyder was made to work as a sweeper inside the Prison. However, he did not suffer any peer pressure from the other under-trial prisoners. Upon release, Hyder again contorted to his original drug habit and in August 2013, was caught by the police on a stolen bike. He adamantly opposed having been involved in theft however, he said If I had an opportunity, I would never have done it again.....it's all about opportunity.

During his second experience at the Prison, he was once again made to do labor and at the same time, he made a few friends inside the prison. One of them is a fellow re-offender. For Hyder, life before the prison was filled with worries and responsibilities. The responsibility of feeding his family, the responsibility of providing his siblings with an opportunity to be educated, and the responsibility of marrying his three sisters off into respectable homes. Hyder stated that at least within the vicinity of the Prison he can think of himself other than his family for once in his life.

According to Hyder police officials physically abuse any under-trial prisoner who dares to misbehave or befall from the stringent Prison rules. However, at the prison, Hyder enjoys religious classes, enabling him to learn about the religion and make peace with his circumstances. At present Hyder also enjoys computer classes which familiarizes him with the operating technique for computers. Moreover, Hyder feels free from the political and religious ambiance that he faced regularly outside the prison. According to Hyder, he is happy with his life in prison however, he reiterates the need to provide economic independence to juveniles to eradicate future recidivism.[6]

Juvenile Delinquency During Covid-19 Pandemic Situation:

Minor Darkside Out In Lockdown :[7]

Even as Kochi recorded a steady decline in the number of crimes committed by minors over the last four years, incidents registered this year during the Covid-induced lockdown show a concerning trend. As per the data provided by the Ernakulam District Crime Records Bureau, nine cases involving 15 minors made it to police records in the past few five months of lockdown. In the whole of 2019, the city reported 19 juvenile crime cases.

Mirroring a statewide trend, the city had recorded a significant reduction in juvenile crime cases in 2018 with only 29 being reported that year as compared to 60 in 2017. However, if the latest data is anything to go by, 2020 may break the declining streak. Among the category of crimes minors are mostly implicated in, ordinary theft and motor vehicle theft cases take the top position followed by those relating to Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act. Six cases of ordinary theft and robbery have been reported this year, almost five times higher than other crimes.

According to Arun B Nair, assistant professor of psychiatry at Government Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, stealing from homes and neighborhoods, and hiding cameras in washrooms to capture nude videos are some of the frequent crimes committed by children.

There has also been a trend in which children are exploited by the drug mafia to peddle narcotics. More often, the reward for peddling is not money but a packet of cannabis.That is how they are pushed into becoming both criminals and addicts, he said.

Experts point to multiple bio-psycho-social reasons which lead minors to indulge in delinquent behavior. Genetic factors, adverse familial environment, social conditioning, peer influence, and fluctuating hormones during puberty are contributing elements. Common psychological issues observed in children who eventually indulge in anti-social activities are conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Pandemic Forces Jobless Youth To Turn To Crime:[8]

Ameer Ahmed, 28, earned a decent salary as a receptionist at a Bengaluru hotel. He had no criminal history. But Covid changed all that. He lost his job and couldn't find another. A desperate Ahmed came across a person from Visakhapatnam who had stuff that could help him earn big money. It turned out to be ganja.

Ahmed, while searching for potential customers near a Peenya factory, was arrested and jailed. Sameer Kumar Shah, 25, too lost his job like Ahmed. Desperation drove him to use a photo of a woman manager of a women's fashion store, impersonate her and send messages to her colleagues asking for money to be deposited in a bank account on the pretext of the woman's mother needing treatment. One even deposited Rs 4,500.

When the woman learned of it, she filed a complaint with East Cyber, Economic & Narcotics (CEN) police, who nabbed him in July. In another incident, daily wage workers from a village near Jamkhandi taluk in Bagalkot district targeted elders wearing jewelry after being denied jobs at construction sites. On being arrested, they confessed to robbing as they were jobless. Police officials said that though crime has not increased, the pandemic-triggered job loss has resulted in more first-time criminals -- like Ahmed, Shah, and the daily wage workers.

Retired Assistant Commissioner of Police BB Ashok Kumar said, There are instances of circumstances pushing people with no criminal history to commit crimes like chain snatching. Such incidents will stop only when the economy improves. S K Umesh, a retired Superintendent of Police, said, As many lost their livelihoods, they started committing crimes.

At a higher primary school in Jattenahalli village, miscreants stole three gas cylinders worth Rs 3,600, while in a similar incident in KR Nagar police limits, rice bags, kitchen utensils, and gas cylinders were stolen from the government high school in Hampapura village. Mysuru city police registered over 14 murder cases, while Mysuru district police registered 15 during April-September, post Covid-19 outbreak. The period saw 26 burglaries, 110 theft cases, and 15 chain-snatching incidents in the city limits, while 53 burglaries, 124 thefts, and 5 chain-snatching cases in the district.

Former DG&IGP ST Ramesh said economic slowdown results in unemployment and various business establishments undergo loss or close down. When sources of income dry up, people tend to look for shortcuts to earn money and crime becomes an option. In such unprecedented times, police vigil may not succeed in putting down crimes. The only solution is for the economy to improve, he says.

Need To Set Up Protection For Kids During Pandemic: Supreme Court Judge:[9]

Supreme Court judge Justice S Ravindra Bhat, who chairs the court's Juvenile Justice Committee, has emphasized the need to step up measures to ensure better care, protection, and well-being of children during the second wave of Covid-19. Speaking at a review meeting held by the committee in coordination with UNICEF, Justice Bhat pointed out that there are children who lost either or both parents to Covid-19 or are without parental supervision and care when their parent/s are in hospital or under medical care.

These children are more vulnerable now than ever before. Concerted efforts should be made by all the key stakeholders to ensure the care and protection of children during the second wave of Covid, he said.

Prevention Of Juvenile Delinquency In India:

Prevention is necessary for the delinquent children and the need of the hour in our country. Delinquency Prevention is the broad term for all efforts aimed at preventing youth from becoming involved in criminal, or other antisocial, activity. Increasingly, governments are recognizing the importance of allocating resources for the prevention of delinquency. Prevention services include activities such as substance abuse education and treatment, family counseling, youth mentoring, parenting education, educational support, and youth sheltering.

Preventive Programmes Of Juvenile Delinquency:

There may be two kinds of programs for preventing juvenile delinquency:
  1. Individual Programme The individual program involves the prevention of delinquency through counseling, psychotherapy, and proper education.
  2. Environmental program involves the employment of techniques with a view to changing the socio-economic context likely to promote delinquency.
These two forms of preventive approaches are reflected in the following strategies, which are adopted in crime prevention programs.
  1. Individual Programme
    1. Clinical Programme
      The object of this clinic is to provide aids through Psychiatrists Clinical Psychologists and Psychiatric Social workers to help the Juveniles delinquents in understanding their personality problems. Taft and England have listed the function of clinics as follows:
      • To participate in the discovery of pre delinquents
      • To investigate cases selected for study and treatment.
      • To treat cases themselves or to refer cases to other agencies for treatment.
      • To interest others against in psychiatrically oriented types of treatment of behavioral disorders in children.
      • To reveal the community's unmet needs of children.
      • To cooperate in the training of students intending to specialize in the treatment of behavioral problems.
    2. Educational Programme
      The impacts of educational institutions are very significant in the countries where almost every child going to school and the preventive programs can be launched in an effective manner through the schools. Teachers should not discriminate among the students; they should be treated equally and provided the moral education which is very helpful to the students for their life stand. Moral education is a significant factor for the students, which decides their life. They should be able to understand the difference between right and wrong ideas which are favorable for them and which are not.
    3. Mental Hygiene
      This method is also helpful in prevention and treatment of Juvenile delinquency. To prevent the mental conflict and to bring about a proper mental adjustment in childhood and value of mental therapy in curing a mental disturbance cannot be overemphasized. The mission of life must be determined and energies must be directed towards the fulfillment of the high mission. The development of high sentiment and values in the child also prevents Juvenile Delinquency. In October 1944, on the occasion of inauguration of the Indian Council for Mental Hygiene Dr. K.R. Masani, the then Director of Indian Institute 72 of Psychiatry and Mental Hygiene, said that the application of mental Hygiene was wide and varied and in Education, Law, Medicine, the Public health industry, mental hygiene played an important role in preventing delinquency and crime.
    4. Parent education
      Every community should ensure opportunities for parental educations, which will help to make good homes, improve the family relationships, and education and care of children. Some educational programs inform parents on how to raise healthy children.
    5. Recreational programs
      The recreational programs are a good check on delinquency. Recreation programs enable youths to mix up with other adults and children in the community and develop friendships. Such positive friendships may assist children in later years. Youth programs are designed to fit the personalities and skills of different children and may include sports, dancing, music, rock climbing, drama, karate, bowling, art, and other activities.

      It is believed that the energies of youth can be very well channelized into pursuits like sport games and other healthy activities, which would counteract delinquent among the participants. The establishment of recreational agencies like sports, playgrounds community centers, concerts drama, puppet shows are very necessary for preventing delinquency and developing social group work and youth groups. In rural areas, recreational agencies should provide open-air meeting halls, playgrounds for sports and cultural activities. Youth organizations and groups/agencies should take and assume the responsibility for organizing these programs so that Juvenile may be kept away from delinquency.
    6. Removal of inferiority complex, fear, apprehension may sometimes lead the child to commit a crime under wrong and misplaced belief/impression of proving himself. Children deserve encouragement to become confident and good-spirited people. Discouragement pulls them behind in their life. They should be properly to face various good and bad phases of life and their failures should not be criticized. Praise cheer, sympathy, and love should be showered to banish the inferiority complex.[10]
  2. Environmental program
    Community Programs The basic aim of the community program is to reach the people in need of help instead of people approaching the workers and agencies. Another significance of this program is that the participation of the local community is considered to be more important and the role of professional leadership is sought to be kept at the minimum level. Marshal B. Clinard has outlined the key supposition of these programs as follows:
    • Local people will participate in efforts to change neighborhood conditions.
    • And they do not accept an adverse social and physical environment as natural and enviable
    • Because self-imposed changes in the immediate Environment will have real significance to the resident and consequently will have a more permanent effect.
    1. Publicity
      This method can also be very useful in preventing Juvenile Delinquency. The newspapers, magazines, radio, television and motion pictures, etc. should show the juvenile delinquency in proper perspective honestly and should also present real reports about the various wrong done by the juveniles and analyze its true causes and also protect the juvenile against false and misleading reporting. The actual the position should be presented and produced before the society about their delinquent behavior so that they may be properly assessed.
    2. Parental love and affection
      Child needs unconditional, immediate, and true love, care, and protection of his mother and father. On account of deprivation of such love and care the child may develop frustration and dissatisfaction leading to crime. So parental love, care, and protection are very necessary for the child to prevent him from committing or doing the crime. So parental love, care, and protection are very necessary for the child to prevent him from committing or doing the crime.
    3. Family Environment
      Family factors which may have an influence on offending includes the level of parental supervision, the way parents discipline a child, parental conflict or separation, criminal parents or siblings, and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Many studies have found a strong correlation between a lack of supervision and offending, and it appears to be the most important family influence on offending.

Conclusion:
Children are the future of our country. It is the responsibility of everyone to ensure that they have a safe and friendly environment to live in. As per the statistics, there is a huge leap in the rate of juvenile delinquency in the last decade in developing countries like India.

Poverty and unhealthy family background lead to the increase in JUVENILE DELINQUENCY in India. The main purpose of the juvenile laws is to treat, rehabilitate and reform juvenile delinquents. As the juvenile crime rate is increasing, this is high time that the necessary steps should be taken and an amendment should be made in the present law to be enacted and enforced in a strict manner.

The exploitation of children is the other main factor that varies in nature as physical, sexual, or psychological, or as a combination. The abuse has a long-lasting and profound effect on a child's life. The problem of child abuse is a serious one and it is unlikely that it gets solved any sooner. Also, the reason why this has prolonged is that society has affected the children in a negative way, and in the society there are factors such as family influence, social environment, mental disorder, and sexual abuse.

This develops in young people with low self-influence, social environment, mental disorder, and sexual abuse. This develops in young people's low self-esteem and they go through mental trauma which later correlates with delinquent behavior. Most economic research on crime and delinquency has focused on how lawbreakers can be deterred through the criminal justice system and on the relationship between legal employment and illegal activities. This relationship between work and crime may be far more intricate than many economic models have implied thus far.

Determining optimal enforcement policies becomes even more problematic when individual choices are aggregated across a wide range of individuals. The increase in juvenile crime has also revealed the inadequacies of the economic models in explaining non-rational behavior and crime. Economists also need to consider how best to include environmental and behavioral factors (e.g., peer group pressure, family and community, status) in research that seeks to explain this phenomenon.

Suggestions:
Mere proper implementation and amendments of the Juvenile Justice Act cannot help reduce juvenile delinquents. Juveniles involved in crimes are just not criminals but also the victims of this sick society. Juvenile delinquency can be stopped at an early age, provided that due care is taken in the home and in the school.

Parents and teachers play a significant role in nurturing and molding the mind of the child. There is no proof that harsher laws will lead to fewer crimes. An effective deterrence strategy should target an individual's short-term preferences that need to be identified across individuals with different motivations and reasons for engaging in crime. The ideal is gradually gaining the wider acceptance that juvenile delinquent needs the sympathy and understanding of our society and not just the heavy hand of the law.

Instead of labeling the juvenile delinquents, necessary steps should be taken to give them a scope of rectification. However, as far as India is concerned poverty plays a major role in a child's life. This is one of the major causes because of which children incline themselves towards criminal acts. Poverty forces a child to get involved in criminal acts. Poverty does different things to different people, for some its pressure can cause anti-social behavior. Social-media today is having more negative than positive imprints on young minds. There is a growing concern that social media which undoubtedly inform, educates, and entertain has become a source of contamination in a child's minds.

They tend to provide sensational information about the crime, i.e. the types and techniques of the weapons. This type of violence and vulgarity alleges to induce viewers for committing rapes, robbery, assault, or murder. In India, a developing country where the literacy level is low these types of actions have more impact on the general attitude and behavior. Structural breaks in the family, except in the case of death of any family member leads to tension, quarrels, and disruption of peaceful living have a traumatic effect on the children.

Though, in some circumstances, the family environment tends to improve the atmosphere. The main reason behind such improvement is the inter-personal communication and conditions of the family members. It is widely believed that early-phase intervention is the best approach to prevent juvenile delinquency.

Control of delinquency needs effective implementation of Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 with full public awareness and proper orientation and training to professionals and law enforcement agencies. Government should put more emphasis on useful and attractive beneficial long-term schemes for juveniles so that they feel motivated to join the mainstream of society.

Thus they regain their self-confidence, which is generally lost because of the callous attitude of society. The approach of the agencies like police involved in the system may be more of reformative character rather than pure penal. The objective may be to reform the delinquents, rather than to punish them.

References:
  • Ernest W. Burgess, The Economic Factor in Juvenile Delinquency, 43 J. Crim. L. Criminology & Police Sci. 29 (1952-1953)
  • Criminology & Penology (including Victimology) by Prof.N.V. Paranjape Eleventh edition (2019) pg no.903
  • Criminology & Penology (including Victimology) by Prof.N.V. Paranjape Eleventh edition (2019) pg no.120
  • International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Volume 120 No. 5 2018, 2881-2892 ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version) url: http://www.acadpubl.eu/hub/ Special Issue (2886)
  • International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Volume 120 No. 5 2018, 2881-2892 ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version) Url: http://www.acadpubl.eu/hub/ Special Issue (2887)
  • A Qualitative Study of poverty as a major indicator of recidivism in juvenile delinquents by Shaheer Ellahi Khan, Shabeeb Anwar ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SITE 8 (1637)
  • The New Indian Express, published on 21st August 2020 04.12 AM; By Swetha Kadiyala
  • The New Indian Express, published on 15th November 2020 10.23 AM; By Team TIE
  • The Indian Express, published on May 9, 2021, 2.11.29 AM; By Express New Service, New Delhi
  • Juvenile Delinquency in India Causes and Prevention Kiran Phogat, in Journal of Advances and Scholarly Researchers in Allied Education \Multidisciplinary Academic Research (2019)
End-Notes:
  1. Ernest W. Burgess, The Economic Factor in Juvenile Delinquency, 43 J. Crim. L. Criminology & Police Sci. 29 (1952-1953)
  2. Criminology & Penology (including Victimology) by Prof.N.V. Paranjape Eleventh edition (2019) pg no.903
  3. Criminology & Penology (including Victimology) by Prof.N.V. Paranjape Eleventh edition (2019) pg no.120
  4. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Volume 120 No. 5 2018, 2881-2892 ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version) Url: http://www.acadpubl.eu/hub/ Special Issue (2886)
  5. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Volume 120 No. 5 2018, 2881-2892 ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version) Url: http://www.acadpubl.eu/hub/ Special Issue (2887)
  6. A Qualitative Study of poverty as a major indicator of recidivism in juvenile delinquents by Shaheer Ellahi Khan, Shabeeb Anwar ISSN 1013-5316;CODEN :SINTE 8 (1637)
  7. The New Indian Express, published on 21st August 2020, 04.12 AM; By Swetha Kadiyala
  8. The New Indian Express, published on 15th November 2020, 10.23 AM; By Team TNIE
  9. The Indian Express,published on May 9, 2021, 2.11.29 AM ; By Express New Service, New Delhi
  10. Juvenile Delinquency in India Causes and Prevention Kiran Phogat, in Journal of Advances and Scholarly Researches in Allied Education \Multidisciplinary Academic Research (2019)

    Award Winning Article Is Written By: Ms.Sarala Jayakumar
    Awarded certificate of Excellence
    Authentication No: SP124935977889-07-0921

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