What is a negotiation theory
- Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. It is a
process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument
- In any disagreement, individuals understandably aim to achieve the best
possible outcome for their position (or perhaps an organization they
represent). However, the principles of fairness, seeking mutual benefit and
maintaining a relationship are the keys to a successful outcome.
Conditions of negotiation theory
- Certain conditions must be met before the tenets of negotiation theory
can be applied:
- First, it is presumed that all parties involved in negotiations are
rational and of average intelligence.
- It is also presumed that these parties actually wish eventually to reach
an agreement and will actively work toward that end.
- Finally, it is generally presumed that each individual is working to
achieve the best possible outcome for his or her own interests.
Specific forms of negotiation are used in many situations: international
affairs, the legal system, government, industrial disputes or domestic
relationships as examples. However, general negotiation skills can be learned
and applied in a wide range of activities. Negotiation skills can be of great
benefit in resolving any differences that arise between you and others.
Stages of Negotiation
In order to achieve a desirable outcome, it may be useful to follow a structured
approach to negotiation. For example, in a work situation a meeting may need to
be arranged in which all parties involved can come together.
The process of negotiation includes the following stages:
- Clarification of goals
- Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome
- Implementation of a course of action
- Preparation in negotiation basically means to prepare before time what
all important points you are going to say for like, when an important
negotiation is looming to ignore it or wing it off is often not the answer
to the questions asked.
- The best negotiators according to a study are the ones who are engaged
in the negotiation preparation throughout the preparation process.
- That's what exactly means taking plenty of time to analyze the process
and also to take time in your positions, and to let them that is the other
side to think their best wants and alternatives.
- Also, before taking any kind of negotiation a decision should be taken
as to who will be taking the meetings, when are the meetings going to take
place and where in the meeting the all the problems will be discussed.
- Also, time should be set like there should be certain kind of time-limit
which is to be set where the preparation of the negotiating process will
- Regarding to a particular organization there can be certain rules of the
organization or kind of policies which is to be followed or obeyed
- Undertaking, this preparation for negotiation will help avoid the
disputes and conflicts that had arose in the disagreement.
- Preparation will help to save time and not just wasting it unnecessarily
before the agreement starts.
- During this stage, individuals or members of each side put forward the
case as they see it, i.e., their understanding of the situation
- Key skills during this stage include questioning, listening and
- Questioning over here will automatically will help clear the doubts of
the person asking it and also the person who is heading the process or the
one who is speaking on the other side will get to know the what kinds of
questions and doubts the other person has.
- Listening on the contrary, is one of the most important things while any
meeting is held because this is how you get so many information's and get to
know more about the points on the topic in any argument.
- Clarification, is also of greater importance when talking about the
negotiation and the meetings held in here.
- Because it works on both of the sides, that is, the one who asks
questions regarding the meeting, after getting an appropriate answer back to
it the person's viewpoint and thought process that is the mind gets
- And the person who clarifies it gets to know more about the question
being asked and also the viewpoint of others and what they think.
- Clarifying Goals
- From the discussion, the goals, interests and viewpoints of both sides
of the disagreement need to be clarified.
- It is helpful to list these factors in order of priority. Through this
clarification it is often possible to identify or establish some common
ground. Clarification is an essential part of the negotiation process,
without it misunderstandings are likely to occur which may cause problems
and barriers to reaching a beneficial outcome.
- Negotiate Towards A Win-Win Situation
- The win-win situation means that, both sides of the parties thinks
that they have gained something in a positivity and that their viewpoints are
of much importance and that their viewpoints are been taken into
- A win-win outcome is usually the best result. Although this may not
always be possible, through negotiation, it should be the ultimate goal.
- Suggestions of alternative strategies and compromises need to be
considered at this point. Compromises are often positive alternatives which
can often achieve greater benefit for all concerned compared to holding to
the original positions.
- Agreement can be achieved once understanding of both sides' viewpoints
and interests have been considered.
- It is essential to for everybody involved to keep an open mind in order
to achieve an acceptable solution. Any agreement needs to be made perfectly
clear so that both sides know what has been decided.
- Implementation Of The Course Of Action
- From the agreement, a course of action has to be implemented to carry
through the decision
- The implementation of the course of actions is further achieved as
Strategic Planning and Action Planning.
- Strategic thinking is often looked upon as something that only certain
people can do. Somehow, the idea of 'strategy' and 'strategic thinking' has
developed a mystic aura. The other side of the coin is that everyone who has
leadership aspirations includes 'strategic thinking skills.
- Action planning is the process of turning your strategy and goals into
action. Taking your ideas and planning how to make them reality.
- In other words, action planning is working out what exactly you need to
do to get where you want to be. Whether those are personal goals or
organizational goals doesn't matter, as the skills required are the same.
- Failure To Agree
- If the process of negotiation breaks down and agreement cannot be
reached, then re-scheduling a further meeting is called for. This avoids all
parties becoming embroiled in heated discussion or argument, which not only
wastes time but can also damage future relationships.
- Mediation skills are also very much important and also it plays a very
effective role in when there is a failure of an agreement.
- Mediation is the involvement of an impartial third party to support and
help those involved in a conflict to find a resolution.
- The key difference between negotiation and mediation is that in
negotiation, the parties involved work out their own agreement. In
mediation, they have the support of the third party, the mediator, to help
them come to an agreement.
- Mediation, whether formal or informal, can often help solve conflicts
that have gone beyond the negotiation stage.
Steps For Improving The Negotiating Process And Skills
- There are times when there is a need to negotiate more informally. At
such times, when a difference of opinion arises, it might not be possible or
appropriate to go through the stages set out above in a formal manner.
- Nevertheless, remembering the key points in the stages of formal
negotiation may be very helpful in a variety of informal situations.
- In any negotiation, the following three elements are important and
likely to affect the ultimate outcome of the negotiation:
- Attitude- All negotiation is strongly influenced by underlying attitudes
to the process itself, for example attitudes to the issues and personalities
involved in the particular case or attitudes linked to personal needs for
- Knowledge- Knowledge is very important and plays a crucial role when in
negotiation. Knowledge about any of the subject matter related to the
negotiation or its process will further help the process to smoothens down
that is it will be easier to understand about the meeting's matter.
- Interpersonal Skills- Effective interpersonal skills are generally
demonstrated by skilled negotiation and the capability of selecting and
applying different communication techniques, such as active listening or
self-revelation, to suit a given situation.
Negotiation Skills In Practice
- Negotiate the process:
Over here do not think that the person you are
negotiating with is on the exact same page as you he/she may not. So, it is
always better to prepare well in advance about how you are going to negotiate
and what will be your agenda throughout the meeting, what will be the subject
matter, when will be the meeting held, etc. as such
- Build rapport:
small talk regarding on any subject-matter relating to
any kind of project during negotiating will not always be feasible. You and your
counterpart maybe more collaborative other than small talks may not be feasible
as it will ruin the meeting and thereafter will lead to disturbing the whole
project. So, for building a good rapport with your counterparts or with your
clients it is very essential to make the information in the meeting very
subjective and also detailed.
- Listen actively:
listening should be very accurate so that the other
person who you are talking with will also understand if you are listening to
them or not. This will tell the other person more about your interpersonal
- Ask good questions:
You can gain more in integrative negotiation by
asking lots of questions—ones that are likely to get helpful answers. Avoid
asking yes or no questions and leading questions, such as Don't you think
that's a great idea? Instead, craft neutral questions that encourage detailed
responses, such as Can you tell me about the challenges you're facing this
- Search for smart tradeoffs. Whenever there is any negotiating with your
parties then always there is an issue which raises in the meeting and that
is Pricing. In questions as such you should always capitalize the presence
and d make the pricing and pricing strategies should be reliable and should
also meet the finances of both the sides of the parties. Specifically, try
to identify issues that your counterpart cares deeply about that you value
less. Then propose making a concession on that issue in exchange for a
concession from her on an issue you value highly.
- Be aware of the anchoring bias:
Ample research shows that the first number mentioned in a negotiation,
however arbitrary, exerts a powerful influence on the negotiation that
follows. You can avoid being the next victim of the anchoring bias by making
the first offer (or offers) and trying to anchor talks in your preferred
direction. If the other side does anchor first, keep your aspirations at the
forefront of your mind, pausing to revisit them as needed.
- Present multiple equivalents offer simultaneously (MESOs). Rather than
making one offer at a time, consider presenting several offers at once. If your
counterpart rejects all of them, ask him to tell you which one he liked best and
why. Then work on your own to improve the offer, or try to brainstorm with the
other party an option that pleases you both. This strategy of presenting
multiple offers simultaneously decreases the odds of impasse and can promote
more creative solutions.
- Try a contingent contract. Negotiators often get stuck because they
disagree about how a certain scenario will play out over time. In such
cases, try proposing a contingent contract-in essence, a bet about how
future events will unfold.
- Plan for the implementation stage:
Another way to improve the long-term
durability of your contract is to place milestones and deadlines in your
contract to ensure that commitments are being met. You might also agree, in
writing, to meet at regular intervals throughout the life of the contract to
check in and, if necessary, renegotiate. In addition, adding a
dispute-resolution clause that calls for the use of mediation or arbitration
if a conflict arises can be a wise move.
What Is Counselling?
- Negotiating is a core management activity. It is also a life skill, as
people are involved in domestic and other negotiations, mainly informally,
on a daily basis
- Negotiations are not a mystic art; the processes can be analyzed and
skills systematically developed. While it is true that some people have more
innate ability than others, putting this ability into practice often
- Most learning will be by experience, but, as with skills generally, the
learning process can be accelerated by coaching, reading and formal
training. These other methods of learning may also lead to a higher level of
- In the marketing world and in management , negotiations and its skills
play the most important role
- The amount of negotiation that managers have to do seems to be
significantly increasing. Whilst negotiations with trade unions are
generally easier than they were when unions were more powerful, in many
areas' negotiations are becoming more difficult and more frequent.
- The increasing pace of change causes organizational arrangements to be
reviewed more frequently. This can involve reviewing both commercial
contracts, and conducting negotiations with employees about changes to the
way they work. Failure to do this can affect the very survival of an
- In addition, a general excess of productive capacity in the world,
boosted by technological development and globalization, has turned many
industries and services into a buyer's market. This has created chronic
pressures for producers and providers of services to simultaneously increase
quality and reduce costs. The mismatch between expectations and available
resources in the public sector has also created increasing pressure to offer
value for money.
- It is particularly important for managers to develop the habit of
reflecting on the way that they, and others, negotiate. The increasing
amount of time spent in negotiations creates a considerable opportunity to
learn from the skills that are used and the mistakes made.
- Negotiating is not solely the province of specialist negotiators. All
managers are likely to be involved in some level of negotiation. Whilst most
negotiations will be small-scale, their cumulative effect is considerable.
- Organization of their own department may also involve much informal
negotiation. This is likely to include allocation of work, logistical
working arrangements and the quality control of what is done.
Who are the counsellors?
- Individuals working in an organization or students in a school are very
important and quite a valuable asset. Similarly, they too have emotions and
feelings. However, sometimes emotions, as well as feelings, become
overwhelming and people lose their confidence.
- There are many reasons behind that. Nonetheless, they have a negative
impact on the quality of their life. Counselling is a type of therapy which
helps the individual overcome their problems.
- Moreover, it helps them gain their lost confidence. Therefore, counselling refers to the process of helping a person face their problem and
Types of Counselling
- The people who carry out the counselling process are known as
counsellors or therapists. There are various types of counsellors depending on
their field of specialization.
- They spend years studying the specific field and practicing their
- Counsellors can be found everywhere from a school to hospitals and
from rehabilitation facilities to workplaces. Some also maintain a private
There is a number of counselling which take place these days. They are mainly
divided as per the various fields. This allows people to choose the counsellor
as per their specific problem. Moreover, this assures the counsellor doing the
work is a specialist in their respective field.
The following are the most
common types of counselling:
- Marriage and Family Counselling
- Educational Counselling
- Rehabilitation Counselling
- Mental Health Counselling
- Substance Abuse Counselling
What Are Counseling Approaches?
- Marriage and Family Counselling:
- People often face a lot of problems in their marriage and family life.
Sometimes, these troubled people find it hard to come up with their life.
This results in constant fights with their partners or family members.
- Marriage and family counselling comes in here. In other words, it
helps people with these problems.
- They take them into confidence and prescribe solutions that will help
them overcome their problems.
- Educational Counselling:
- A student who is fresh out of school or college is often clueless as to
which career to choose.
- This is completely normal for kids of that age to feel like that.
Furthermore, sometimes even working individuals feel like that in the midst
of their careers. This is nothing to worry about.
- Educational counselling helps these people in choosing their career
- They conduct seminars and orientations or private sessions where they
discuss the interest of their client and offer solutions accordingly.
- Rehabilitation Counselling:
- This type of counselling refers to a practice where the counsellor helps
people with their emotional and physical disabilities
- Furthermore, these counsellors teach these people ways to live
independently and maintain gainful employment.
- It evaluates the strength and limitations of their patients. In short,
they help people in guiding them and assisting them to lead independent
- Mental Health Counselling:
- Mental illnesses have become very common these days. Awareness has
helped people identify the symptoms of it and visit mental health counsellors.
- Mental health counselling helps people deal with issues that impact
their mental health and well-being. Some of the mental illnesses are depression,
PTSD, ADHD, Bipolar disorder, and more.
- This counselling focuses on these issues and helps in resolving them
for a healthier life.
- Substance Abuse Counselling:
- Substance abuse counselling is a form of counselling which helps
people in treating them and supporting them from breaking free from their drug
and alcohol addiction.
- It helps people discuss the cause of this addiction and reach to the
root of it. The counsellor thereby suggests coping strategies which make a
positive impact on their lives. Moreover, they also provide them with practicing
skills and behaviors which helps in their recovery.
- Mindfulness is a specific way of intentionally paying attention. One
negative thought can lead to a chain reaction of negative thoughts
- This approach encourages people to be aware of each thought, enabling
the first negative thought to be 'caught' so that is seen as just a 'thought' and not a fact.
- This breaks the chain reaction of negative thoughts giving a mental
'space' in which the person can re-center themselves in the present.
Mindfulness is likely to appeal to therapists who have developed a long-term
- Mindfulness-Based Counseling is an increasingly popular approach aimed
at helping clients to increase relaxation while removing negative or
- This technique helps to teach clients how to deal with emotional
stressors reflectively instead of reflexively (Hofmann et al., 2010).
- Different types of mindfulness meditation approaches may be applied as
part of Mindfulness Counseling, such as yoga, breathing meditation, sitting
meditation, body scan, and sound scan.
- Body scan involves gradually attending to different parts of the body
while tensing and then relaxing muscles.
- With sound scan, responses to sounds are adjusted so that their aversive
impact is reduced.
- While mindfulness approaches are often added into CBT and other forms
Approaches To Counselling
- A counselor's approach is a reflection of their training and coaching
- For example, a therapist trained in behaviorism will view a client's
behavior as a function of reward and punishment systems. Behavioral
counselors primarily focus on how behavior is impacted by environmental
factors, as opposed to thoughts or unconscious motivations.
- Counseling approaches and coaching styles also are differentiated by how
therapists interact with clients. For example, client-centered counselors
tend to focus on a client's innate goodness and use a nondirective style of
- Generally speaking, counseling approaches are guided by theory and
research, both of which inform the method of practice.
Written By: Presha Naik
- Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Theory
- Psychoanalysis or psychodynamic theory, also known as the historical
perspective, has its roots with Sigmund Freud, who believed there were
unconscious forces that drive behavior. The techniques he developed, such as
free association , dream analysis (examining dreams for important
information about the unconscious), and transference (redirecting feelings
about certain people in one's life onto the therapist) are still used by
- In general, psychotherapists and counselors who use this approach direct
much of their focus and energy on analyzing past relationships and, in
particular, traumatic childhood experiences in relation to an individual's
current life. The belief is that by revealing and bringing these issues to
the surface, treatment and healing can occur.
- According to some really high researches it is very clear now that this
technique can actually change the client's behavior positively.
- It is thereafter said that this technique can be in a way more intensive
in comparison with the short-term memories because this technique actually
changes the behavior of the client which were very much ingrained due to
their past life and or due to their emotional traumas that they had faced in
their past life.
- Behavioral Theory:
- Behavioral theory is based on the belief that behavior is learned.
Classic conditioning is one type of behavioral therapy that stems from early
theorist Ivan Pavlov's research. Pavlov executed a famous study using dogs,
which focused on the effects of a learned response.
- For instance, when a dog is kept in a small space where he was given the
food only when a bell uses to ring, so over here the dog was changed
according to his behavior like his behavior was changing as in whenever the
bell will ring, he will get food. So after somedays after this experiment was
processing the dog started to salivate as soon as the bell was rung.
- So, in the above used example it can be thus concluded that over here
that is in the behavioral theory the salivation of the dog and the ringing
of the bell was thus can be said as pairing or the behavioral thing that the
dog related it.
- B.F, Skinner used this technique on the dog for a better
- According to him rewarding for a behavior should be increased as it
directly increases the likelihood towards a certain kind of behavior. And
thus, punishments to decrease the occurrence of such behavior.
- Cognitive Theory
- In the 1960s, psychotherapist Aaron Beck developed cognitive theory.
This counseling theory focuses on how people's thinking can change feelings
- Unlike psychodynamic theory, therapy based on cognitive theory is brief
in nature and oriented toward problem solving.
- Cognitive therapists focus more on their client's present situation and
distorted thinking than on their past.
- Cognitive and behavioral therapy are often combined as one form of
theory practiced by counselors and therapists.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, has been found in research
External to help with a number of mental illnesses including anxiety,
personality, eating, and substance abuse disorders.
- The following principles guide Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy:
- Mental health disorders involve key learning and information processing
- Behaviors are better understood by exposing their true functions.
- New adaptive learning experiences can be used to substitute prior
maladaptive learning processes.
- Therapists use a scientific approach to therapy by creating hypotheses
about patients' cognitive and behavioral patterns, intervening and observing
outcomes, and reframing original hypotheses as needed
- Humanistic Approach
- Humanistic therapists care most about the present and helping their
clients achieve their highest potential.
- Instead of energy spent on the past or on negative behaviors, humanists
believe in the goodness of all people and emphasize a person's self-growth
- Humanistic theories include client-centered, gestalt, and existential
therapies. Carl Rogers developed client-centered therapy, which focuses on
the belief that clients control their own destinies.
- He believed that all therapists need to do is show their genuine care
- Existential therapists help clients find meaning in their lives by
focusing on free will, self-determination, and responsibility.
- Holistic/Integrative Therapy
- Holistic and integrative therapy involves integrating various elements
of different theories to the practice.
- In addition to traditional talk therapy, holistic therapy may include
nontraditional therapies such as hypnotherapy or guided imagery.
- The key is to use the techniques and psychotherapy tools best suited for
a particular client and problem.
- There are various therapies that counselors can choose to study, but the
type of theory matters less than the success of the relationship between
client and therapist.
- Person-Centered Therapy
- Devised by Carl Rogers and also called Client-Centered or Rogerian counselling, this approach enables the client to come to terms with
negative feelings, which may have caused emotional problems, and develop inner
resources. The objective is for the client to become able to see himself as a
person, with the power and freedom to change, rather than as an object.
- Gestalt Therapy
- This therapy focuses on the whole of the client's experience, including
feelings, thoughts and actions. The client gains self-awareness in the `here
and now' by analyzing behavior and body language and talking about bottled
- Existential Therapy
- Existentialism is a philosophy aimed at examining the question of human
existence. It is often associated with 19th and 20th-century writers and
philosophers such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Soren Kierkegaard, Albert Camus, and
- Existential thinking is also inherent in ancient Greek philosophy going
as far back as Socrates from 469 to 399 BCE (Flynn, 2009).
- Existential Therapy does not attempt to cure a person nor diminish
specific symptoms; rather, it seeks to explore and question aspects of the
human predicament (Corbett & Milton, 2011).
- The client is viewed as ever changing and always in the process of
becoming (Dryden, 2007).
- Existential therapists operate from the client's perspective to explore
what it means to be alive. They work with the client to examine unfulfilled
needs and potential, and how to make rational choices. While this counseling
approach is still evolving, research has indicated significant reductions in
anxiety and depression symptoms.
- Rational Emotive Therapy
- Albert Ellis developed Rational Emotive Therapy in the mid-1900s. It is
a type of CBT in which a person's distress is perceived as a function of
irrational or faulty thinking.
- The therapist works with the client to examine their cognitive
appraisals of how an event may have created an outcome (Gonzalez et al.,
- In other words, it is the client's belief about a situation, rather than
the situation itself, that is the focus of treatment.
- Unlike Client-Centered Therapy, Ellis's Rational-Emotive approach is
active and directive, intending to help clients avoid self-defeating beliefs
and ultimately experience a more positive sense of wellbeing
- Reality Therapy
- Reality Therapy was developed by William Glasser in the 1950s. Its
principles stem from Alfred Adler's ideas about the social context of human
behavior (Wubbolding, 2010). It is based on choice theory, which focuses on the
power of individuals to control their behaviors
- While not all aspects of life are within our power to change, human
beings are always faced with opportunities to respond rationally or
responsibly – or not (Peterson, 2000).
- Reality Therapy helps clients to establish greater control over their
lives while enhancing the ability to build meaningful and effective
relationships. It is a present-day, non-symptom-focused approach in which
the counselor takes on a friendly, positive, and nonjudgmental stance.
- Reality Therapy promotes individual responsibility for actions while
helping clients make decisions that are in line with the visions they have
for their lives.
- Systemic Therapy
- Systemic Therapy underscores the influence of how patterns across
systems (e.g., family, school, and employment) influence behaviors and
psychological issues. A Systemic approach aims to treat the underlying
system rather than focusing on the problem itself (Carlson & Lambie, 2012).
- For example, Systemic Therapy is often used for family counseling, as it
identifies dysfunctional patterns of communication and other behaviors
across family members.
- Family involvement, which may be cross-generational, entails having
family members work with the therapist to develop healthier roles,
interactions, and dynamics.
- Narrative Therapy
- Narrative Therapy enables individuals to become experts in their own
lives. Each of us has a story we tell ourselves about who we are as a
person. Because we derive meaning from our stories, they shape and influence
how we perceive and respond to the world around us.
- By impacting our decisions, these narratives influence our ability to
enjoy meaningful and satisfying experiences. Narrative counselors work
collaboratively with clients to create alternate stories using a
nonjudgmental, respectful approach (Morgan, 2000).
- Ultimately, clients are guided in re-authoring their stories in a way
that is more consistent with their life goals.
- Creative Therapy
- Creative Therapy involves the use of different art mediums aimed at
improving mood and other aspects of wellbeing.
- For example, Music Therapy consists of the monitored use of music to
promote clinical change.
- Music Therapy may be used in multiple ways, such as in combination with CBT or other types of therapy.
- Performing music may also foster positive feelings that reduce stress
and promote healing. The scientific literature indeed supports a link
between Music Therapy and reduced psychological symptoms such as anxiety.
- Interpersonal Counseling
- Interpersonal Counseling is a diagnosis-focused approach in which the
client's disorder is regarded as a medical illness that requires
intervention (Markowitz & Weissman, 2004).
- In this sense, any fault or self-blame is diminished for the client. The
role of interpersonal relationships and attachment on mental health outcomes
is also an important target for this type of counseling.
- It is a time-limited approach during which clients learn that their
psychological issues are linked to environmental stressors. Interpersonal
counselors are supportive and compassionate, serving as client allies.
- Such therapists suggest ways for clients to deal with situations in a
way that promotes self-efficacy and reduces symptoms (Markowitz & Weissman,
2004). Based on clinical trials, Interpersonal Therapy has been effective at
treating psychiatric disorders, especially depression.
, a student, from SNDT Law College. The
further article is about the negotiation and the how negotiation skills are been
practiced. There are various conditions also which are very important while
negotiating to this the article also reads further as the parts of counselling
which is the key thing in law. Counselling and various of its approaches which
are thus mentioned in further.