Homo Sapiens have been known to meddle with every natural resource; biotic or
abiotic to develop something which can be used to somehow fulfill their
purposes. The growth and development of human race has always been the central
driving force for humans but the costs incurred in achieving and keeping those
dreams alive have always been subdued by the acme idea. The same had led to
development of competition and conflict among human and wildlife.
Humans and wildlife mostly have positive or no influence on each other but
sometimes their interactions might have negative influence. This influence is
known as human wildlife conflict (HWC). It is defined as 'the interaction
between humans and wildlife where negative consequences, whether perceived or
real exists for one or both the parties when action of one has adverse effect on
the other party.'
These conflicts have been in existence from the very beginning of the human
race. Humans and animals have co-existed and shared resources from a very long
time. Historical data from Nile delta showed that while hippopotamuses raided
crops, the crocodiles attacked livestock in Egypt.
The HWC has contributed to the extinction of numerous species, changes in
ecosystem structure and function and immeasurable loss of human life, crops,
livestock, and property. The absolution and mitigation of this conflict is
central to the conservation and restoration of many species, and debates over
how and whether to coexist with other animals drive social, economic, and
political conflict within and among human communities.
India boasts a high biological diversity range. A mega-diversity country with
only 2.4% of the world's area but a home to 8% of all the recorded species on
the planet including 91,000 animal species and 45.000 plant species. 4
'Biodiversity Hotspots' are a part of India. India harbours 104 national parks,
551 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 131 Marine Protected Areas, 18 Biosphere Reserves, 88
Conservation Reserves and 127 Community Reserves, covering a total of
1,65,088.57 sq km. In total, there are 870 Protected Areas which make 5.06% of
the geographical area of the country which encompasses the extensive
preservation network of the country.
Being a developing economy and one of the most populous countries in the world
with around 17% of the world's human population, the protected area landscapes
are not untouched of human presence. High growth rate of human population growth
has put the wilderness areas under threat due to increasing interference,
deforestation, fragmentation of natural habitats and expansion of agricultural
lands in the forested landscapes.
The expansion of human lands and the conversion of protected areas into
conservation islands surrounded by human-dominated landscapes leads to increase
in the negative interaction between human and wildlife species, particularly
The situations are depressing in the outside protected areas as well, as humans
continue to encroach natural habitats and become prone to conflicts as wild
animals seek to fulfil their nutritional, behavioural and ecological needs. A
close-knit relationship between large mammals such as tigers, elephants, lions
and others with humans and their land use has caused serious conflicts
countrywide over space and resources.
Overgrazing by livestock in the wildlife habitats results in the local
extinction of wild herbivore populations while a disproportionate presence of
wild and domestic ungulates amplifies cases of livestock depredation by wild
India is no stranger to human wildlife conflict. Elephants died of electrocution
in Odisha. According to the Environment Ministry, 1608 human beings were killed
between 2014 and 2017 due to such conflicts which averages to more than one
person every day.
Statement Of Problem
The problem at hand is the lack of awareness and initiative to mitigate and
ameliorate an issue which has been in existence from centuries. The measures
taken and the acts introduced are only a drop of the ocean. Much more intricate,
aggressive and organized plans and measures should be incorporated in order to
resolve a problem of global importance.
It is imperative to act upon this issue with utmost priority. It is a major
concern along the lines of climate change, global warming, environmental
degradation etc. Extinction of species also has far reaching consequences, what
might appear to be irrelevant and worthless today might be an important piece of
the puzzle for the future generations.
The major issues which should be addressed include the anthropogenic actions
like alien species invasion which are not essential for survival should be
prohibited poaching, illegal trade should be banned, proper dedicated
conservation centres should be built, callousness in preservation areas should
be checked and proper cryogenic research facilities should be set up to preserve
the progeny of the endangered species.
Scope Of Study
This study aims at highlighting the underlying issues arising from human
wildlife competition and conflict which are otherwise disregarded when talking
about conservation of natural habitat and wildlife. The study focuses on
bringing out the needles in the haystack so that these problems which now appear
to be small and harmless can be rectified before they become detrimental to the
survival of human race.
The study will also illustrate the other side of the coin- the importance of
The measures taken by the state and central government to resolve the issue
will be critically analysed along with the provision of some international
standards. These measures will include everything starting from the Wildlife
Protection Act(1972), Environment Protection Act(1986) till all the major
regulations passed by state, central and judicial authorities.
Every human action influences the dynamics of the living world. Some changes are
visible at the time and some may lead to some bigger consequences in the future.
The inevitability of influencing the natural course of things through human
intervention has created major rifts in the nature's predetermined plan. This
study will bring out the factors which are not looked upon while considering
Literature on the Human wildlife conflict and associated measures taken by the
government was gathered through online web-based search engines using keywords
such as Human wildlife conflict, crop raiding, livestock depredation, names of
problem species, anthropogenic factors influencing wildlife, measures taken by
central government and alien species invasion. Studies were restricted to India
and search was made with the key words based on biogeographic zones, states and
Online technical databases which were searched to download relevant literature,
primarily included Science Direct, JSTOR, Wikipedia, conservation India, Wiley
Online Library and Google Scholar. The collected literature was then thoroughly
reviewed for major conflict animals, economic loss to humans due to various
conflict events and amount spent on preventive measures.
The challenges of human–wildlife conflict are older than recorded history but an
interdisciplinary field of study focused on human–wildlife conflict and
coexistence, although still relatively new, is growing rapidly. Over the past 20
years, the number of scientific publications addressing human–wildlife conflict
and coexistence has increased almost exponentially. In this review, I synthesize
the current state of scholarship on human–wildlife conflict and coexistence.
I define key concepts, describe the importance of conflict, place it in
evolutionary and historical context, examine broad categories of conflict,
characterize factors influencing conflict and responses to conflict, and
identify future research needs. This topic is too large to cover all aspects of
conflict in depth, so I focus particular attention on large vertebrates and
human–wildlife conflict in the context of wildlife conservation.
Importance Of Conflict
Human–wildlife conflict has significant repercussions on human health, safety,
and welfare, as well as biodiversity and ecosystem health. Impacts of this on
humans can be direct or indirect.
Human injury and death can result when animals bite, claw, gore, or otherwise
directly attack people; during collisions between animals and automobiles,
trains, planes, boats and ships, and other vehicles; and from the transmission
of a zoonotic disease or parasite. Conflict with wildlife can cause direct
material and economic damage to crops, livestock, game species, and property.
Indirect impacts of conflict, more difficult to measure, include opportunity
costs to farmers and rangers associated with guarding crops or livestock,
diminished psychosocial wellbeing, disruption of livelihoods, and food
Human–wildlife interactions vary on a continuum from positive to negative, in
intensity from minor to severe, and in frequency from rare to common. Attacks on
people by apex predators such as tigers, lions, and sharks are now relatively
infrequent but the attacks can be lethal and lead to strong public reactions.
Conversely, conflict between people and common garden pests or birds such as
geese may be more common but provoke less concern.
Conflict frequency can also be highly variable among different geographic
regions. Some households or farms within a community may suffer little damage
whereas neighbours may experience a surplus killing event in which a predator
may kill many animals in one attack, or some properties may be better protected
than others from such incidents.
The most extreme biological impact is extinction. Hundreds of terrestrial and
marine vertebrate species have become extinct in recorded history, and
populations of many remaining species have declined in abundance. The decline of
large, predatory animals in particular has resulted in cascading ecological
consequences for other species and ecosystem services, and many of these
declines are linked to conflict with humans.
Causes Of Human-Wildlife Conflict
Measures Taken By The Government
- Human Population Growth
Demographical and geographical changes place more and more people in the
cross hairs of wildlife. The expansion of lands into protected areas as well
as in urban and rural areas is a common consequence of population growth. It
leads to encroachment in wildlife habitats, constriction of species into
marginal habitat practices and direct competition with local communities.
- Species habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation
Species habitat loss degradation and fragmentation are interconnected with
population growth and land use. In Sumatra, the alteration of forest land
for agriculture and grazing activities has restricted the Sumatran tiger's
home ranges to only a few patches of the forest.
- Ecotourism and increasing access to natural reserves
Recreational activities and growing public interest in charismatic species,
such as large carnivores and endangered species, have increased the human
presence in protected areas and raised concern about capacities to manage
and regulate public access and large-scale use of protected areas.
Associated with the four global trends is a fifth cluster connected to
alteration of natural food and water availability.
- Abundance and distribution of wild prey
It is seen that if the indigenous prey is abundant, predators consume it in
preference to livestock and this impoverishment of prey population is the
major cause of carnivores shifting their diets to livestock.
- Climatic factors
Though climate factors can be controlled to an extent they determine the
predation activities of many animals both directly and indirectly. The
vegetation of an area influences the hunting pattern of lions and leopards.
Climate change is one of the most important and serious threats faced by
people and wildlife and is a focus of considerable research in every
discipline, including biodiversity conservation. Studies of conflict in the
face of changing climate, including strategies for resilience, how climate
change will stress coupled human–natural systems, and how current patterns
of conflict are likely to change in the future, are few.
- Stochastic events
These events like fire are sporadic and hard to predict and control and also
have an effect on human wildlife conflict. During the period 1997-98, an
El-Nino Southern Oscillation caused drought and fires which resulted in
destruction of large area of Sumatran forest. During this, tigers fleeing
areas near Berbak National Park were reported to have killed a person.
- Alien Species Invasion
It occurs when a plant or animal species which is not native to an area
spread rapidly in that habitat which mostly has negative influence on the
species already present there. This is mostly caused by irresponsible human
errors in imports and exports. Some invasions might also lead to the
endangerment or even extinction of the native species.
- The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 (Last Amended in 2006)
This act provides the legal framework for following activities:
- Prohibition of hunting
- Protection and management of wildlife habitats
- Establishment of protected areas
- Regulation and control of trade in parts and products derived from wildlife
- Management of zoos.
National parks and Tiger Reserves are by law more strictly protected, allowing
virtually no human activity except that which is in the interest of wildlife
conservation. Grazing and private tenurial rights are disallowed in National
Parks but can be allowed in sanctuaries at the discretion of the Chief Wildlife
Warden. The amended WLPA does
not allow for any commercial exploitation of forest produce in both national
parks and wildlife sanctuaries, and local communities can collect forest produce
only for their bona fide needs.
No wild mammal, bird, amphibian, reptile, fish, crustacean, insects, or
coelenterates listed in four Schedules of the WLPA can be hunted either within
or outside protected areas. On conviction, the penalty for hunting is
imprisonment for a period ranging from a minimum of three to a maximum of seven
years with fines not less than 10,000 rupees.
The statute prohibits the destruction of wildlife and its habitat by any method
unless it is for improvement or better management and this is decided by the
state government in consultation with the National and State Boards for
The WLPA contains elaborate procedures for dealing with legal rights in proposed
protected areas and acquisition of any land or interest under this law is deemed
as an acquisition for a public purpose. However, with the enactment of The
Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest
Rights) Act, 2006, compliance of various provisions relating to tenurial and
community rights must be ensured.
The 2006 amendment introduced a new chapter (IV B) for establishment of the
National Tiger Conservation Authority and notification of Tiger Reserves.
The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) was constituted vide the 2006 amendment
to monitor and control the illegal trade in wildlife products.
The WLPA provides for investigation and prosecution of offences in a court of
law by authorized officers of the forest department and police officers.
The Indian Forest Act and Forest Act of State Governments
This act gives state government exclusive control over forest areas.
primarily includes and facilitates three categories of forests:
- Reserved forests
- Village forests
- Protected forests
Reserved forests are the most protected within these categories. No rights can
be acquired in reserved forests except by succession or under a grant or
contract with the government. Felling trees, grazing cattle, removing forest
products, quarrying, fishing, and hunting are punishable with a fine or
imprisonment. Although the Indian Forest Act is a federal act, many states have
enacted similar forest acts but with some modifications.
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002
India is a part of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. The
provisions of the Biological Diversity Act are in addition to and not in
derogation of the provisions in any other law relating to forests or wildlife.
National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016)
This Plan is one of the most effective among various acts proposed for the
conservation of wildlife. It focuses on strengthening and enhancing the
protected area network, on the conservation of Endangered wildlife and their
habitats, on controlling trade in wildlife products and on research, education,
The Plan endorses two new protected area categories: conservation reserves,
referring to corridors connecting protected areas, and community reserves
which will allow greater participation of local communities in protected area
management through traditional or cultural conservation practices. These new
categories of protected areas are likely to bring in corridor areas under
The Plan contains various recommendations to address the needs of
local communities living outside protected areas and outlines the need for
voluntary relocation and rehabilitation of villages within protected areas. The
Plan recognizes the need to reduce human-wildlife conflict and emphasizes the
establishment of effective compensation mechanisms. It includes the restoration
of degraded habitats outside protected areas as a key objective.
Wildlife Crime Control Bureau
To combat wildlife related crimes, a Wildlife Crime Control Bureau under the
Director, Wildlife Preservation has been constituted with 5 Regional Offices viz,
Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jabalpur and 3 Sub regional offices at
Amritsar, Guwahati, and Kochi. 5 Border Units located at Moreh, Nathula,
Motihari, Gorakhpur and Ramanathapuram Wildlife Division deals with the policy
and lawmatters and knowledge management for facilitating processes and analysis
for evolution of policy and law for conservation of biodiversity and Protected
Wildlife Division of the Ministry provides technical and financial
support to the State/ UT Governments for wildlife conservation under the
Centrally Sponsored Scheme Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats and also
through Central Sector Scheme – Strengthening of Wildlife Division and
Consultancies for Special Tasks, and through Grants in Aid to the Central Zoo
Authority and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.
The Wild Life Crime Control Bureau has been created under Section 38Y of the
Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. The mandate has been specified under Section
38(z) which includes collection, collation of intelligence and its
dissemination, establishment of a centralized Wild Life crime databank,
coordination of the actions of various enforcement authorities towards the
implementation of the provisions of the Act, implementation of the international
Conventions, capacity building for scientific and
professional investigation, assistance to authorities in other countries for a
coordinated universal action towards control of Wild Life crime and to advise
the government on various policy and legal requirements.
Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats
The Government of India provides financial and technical assistance to the
State/UT Governments for activities aimed at wildlife conservation through the
Centrally Sponsored Scheme viz. 'Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats'.
The scheme has following three components
- Support to Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries,
Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves)
- Protection of Wildlife Outside Protected Areas
- Recovery programmes for saving critically endangered species and
It was launched to intensify enforcement operation with INTERPOL operation.
It was launched to check the menace of the illegal trade through e-commerce
platform. As a significant gesture for commitment of protection to wildlife,
large number of wildlife articles involved in wildlife offences, were burnt in
public, in an event organized at Delhi Zoo on 3rd March 2017, under the
leadership of Hon'ble Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Environment,
Forests and Climate Change.
Conservation of Olive Ridley Turtles in Odisha began with the global recognition
of Gahirmatha rookery in 1974.
The olive ridley turtles face serious threats across their migratory route,
habitat and nesting beaches, due to human activities such as turtle unfriendly
fishing practices, development and overexploitation of nesting beaches for
ports, and tourist centres. Though international trade in these turtles and
their products are banned, they are still extensively poached for their meat,
shell and leather which is then traded in the black market.
The most severe threat faced by these turtles is the accidental killing of adult
turtles through entanglement in trawl nets as a result of uncontrolled fishing
during their mating season. The eggs of these turtles have a huge demand market
around the coastal regions. Over 1.3 lakh turtles have been killed in this
manner in the last thirteen years.
All the five species of sea turtles occurring in India, including the Olive
Ridley turtles, are legally protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife
Protection Act, 1972 and Appendix I of the CITES Convention which prohibits
trade in turtle products.
As the nesting period stretches over six months, the Indian Coast Guard
undertakes the Olive Ridley Turtle protection program under the code name
'Operation Olivia' every year. Coast Guard District No. 7 (Odisha) commenced
Operation Olivia 2014 on 08 Nov 2014 under the coordination and control of
Commander Coast Guard Region (North East).
As part of the operation, fishing boats found close to marine reserve area were
regularly checked by ship's boarding party for confirming the usage of turtle
excluder devices (TEDs). Offenders were warned and reported to the Assistant
A close coordination was maintained with the fisheries and
forest departments during the entire operation. The conservation efforts were
augmented with a dedicated operation from 21-22 Mar 15 and resulted in the
apprehension of five boats with 39 crew for violation of the Odisha marine
Fisheries Regulation Act, 1982. The apprehended boats along with crew were
handed over to Gahirmatha Range Forest officials for further legal action.
Joint Forest Management (JFM)
A large number of Joint Forest Committees have been set up by forest department
to enlist the participation of local communities in the management and
protection of forests and wildlife.
Various Other Measures
- To resolve human-lion conflicts, several mitigation measures have
already been put in place by the Gujarat Forest Department. Compensation
scheme for livestock predation have been formulated. Ex-gratia for damages due to
wildlife is provided by Gujarat Forest Department. Ex-gratia in case of human
injury varies from 2500-10000 and 100000 in case of human death.
- Standard operating procedure have been formulated by the National Tiger
Conservation Authority to deal with the straying carnivore in human
- In human-tiger conflicts, tigers involved in attacks on humans are
either translocated into captivity or killed. Often, it's the only resort
available to the managers for a strayed out or alleged problematic animal.
However, in areas with small population such repeated lethal control may result
in local extirpation of the species, as many non-problem tigers are generally
killed in the process of controlling the problem.
The traditional method of
guarding and fencing was found to be the most effective measure in reducing
livestock losses across protected areas in different biogeographic zones. WWF-India
and the Corbett Foundation, apart from the government, provide interim relief
compensation for loss of livestock and human lives for providing immediate
assistance to the victim. The two biggest problems with this approach are the
high level of donor input required and unavailability of the scheme in remote
areas with potentially high levels of conflict.
- The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and state forest
departments help resolve human–tiger conflicts in India by providing
compensation for livestock injured or killed by wild animals and by providing
cages/traps, tranquilizers and rescue vehicles for capturing problem animals.
After reviewing and analysing all the information in hand, it can be concluded
that negative interactions of humans and wildlife have been extensively studied
in India. It is also evident that great approaches and measures have been
brought to effect by the governments to curb the situation. Both preventative
and mitigation techniques are adopted to deal with the problem from all sides.
Despite all these efforts, there seems to be a gap in expectations and reality.
Some of the facets of the problem have been overlooked including inadequate
compensation to the aggrieved individuals.
Our world is becoming increasingly urbanized, coercing organisms to adjust and
adapt under rapid timescales. Such adjustments are leading to exacerbating
levels of conflicts globally, with the recent global COVID‐19 pandemic a
significant case study. The convergence of human and wildlife populations in
urban areas has substantial feedbacks and influence on regional and
international economies, conservation efforts, and public health initiatives.
Our changing relationships with urban wildlife are affecting how we observe,
conserve, and manage wildlife, all of which will dictate our success in
promoting coexistence. Hence, determining how conflicts arise and change over
time is a major priority for public health, the environment, and society. It is
imperative that evolutionary biologists work with urban planners, wildlife
practitioners, social scientists, and policymakers to create holistic efforts
leveraging the strengths of our communities to benefit all organisms in an
increasingly urbanizing world.
For most state government human-wildlife conflict management seems to be a
non-priority area of interest with meagre to no funds. Lack of resources with
the authorities to compensate the local communities is a major problem. In
Karnataka alone around 1,00,000 claims for compensation for wildlife conflicts
were filed between 2011-19.
Managing these conflicts is a major challenge faced by wildlife managers in
India. Apart from the negative public perceptions towards wildlife and the
Forest or Wildlife Department, managing HWC and invasive species also incurs
heavy expenditure of the limited funds and other resources available to the
department. Human-wildlife interactions and biological invasion may appear as
distinct problems but in many occasions' reduction in native food plants due to
increase in cover of invasive plant species have been stated as one of the
reasons of straying out of wild herbivore in search of food.
The first and foremost solution to a problem is making the people aware about
its existence and clearing their perceptions and misrepresentations on the
topic. Education and training activities at different levels, for instance in
schools or in adult education arenas such as farmer field schools, would have
the objective of disseminating innovative techniques, building local capacity in
conflict resolution and increasing public understanding of HWC. Educating rural
villagers in practical skills would help them to deal with dangerous wild animal
species and to acquire and develop new tools for defending their own crops and
The management of these conflicts is often restricted by guidelines outlined by
local, national or international regulations, laws or treaties. The
ineffectiveness of these policies can be understood by there dependence on
establishment and regulation of these guidelines on a wide range of human
activities. In India, these policies are outdated and contradictory and thus,
need to be amended.
Hunting is usually undertaken as a means to supplement household food
consumption, for financial gain through the sale of animal products (meat skin,
furs, ivory etc.) or for retaliatory killing. The latter is the real problem for
the occurrence of HWC. Persecution by humans in response to a problematic
coexistence with large carnivores has been the cause of the elimination of
several species from a large part of their former home ranges, this is true for
species such as the tiger (Panthera tigris), lion (Panthera leo), puma and
The government should form separate committees to manage wildlife conflicts with
various animals like lions, leopards, elephants etc. The State and central
governments should work in collaboration to bring a nation-wide resolution to
Joint Forest Management committees should be sensitized to the issue and should
be given adequate resources and information to prevent the conflicts from
The endangered species should be protected in whichever way possible-in-situ or
ex-situ conservation. The cryogenic preservation of the sperms and eggs of
highly endangered species should also be done as a preparation for the worst
The government should formulate and promulgate a monitoring agency keeping the
track of wildlife and human activities around protected areas , an organization
relying on statistics and data analysis to counter everyday problems.
More stringent actions should be introduced against illegal trading of animals
and animal products as well as poaching. These practices cause a lot of agony to
the wildlife thus leading to major behavioural changes.
Wildlife is a generator of income through ecotourism and in many developing
countries like India it is one of the most significant sources of national
revenue generation. The tourism industry can increase employment within local
communities by creating additional job opportunities. This approach would
compensate the cost of maintaining wildlife and contribute to changing local
people's negative perceptions towards conservation.
The managers of Kibale
National Park in Uganda, for instance, intend to foster positive attitudes
towards the park and supportive conservation behaviour by the local populations,
though sharing revenues from tourism with the local populations. The government
can also provide indirect compensations to the indigenous communities by sharing
a part of the tourism revenue generated.
The best scenario can be achieved with the mutual participation of wildlife
managers and local communities which would promote integrated community
development as well as the conservation of wildlife.
Rescue Centres are required for sheltering the problematic animals captured from
the field or the stranded wild animals and also their cubs rescued by the
Anti-depredation squad and Local Wildlife Squad which cannot be released back in
their natural habitats due to sickness / injury, or their habit of straying back
into human habitations, or their propensity to cause harm to the life or
property of the people, or their lack of ability to survive on their own in the
In many cases, the captured wild animal needs to be kept temporarily at a
Transit Facility temporarily for treatment or investigation, or while awaiting a
decision by the competent authority about its disposal. The number and location
of Rescue Centres / Transit Facilities would depend upon the extent and
distribution of HWC within the State and experience from the past. Ideally, the
Rescue Centre / Transit Facility should be as close to a conflict zone as
possible and also to a veterinary unit.
Physical barriers must be created around protected areas and forest areas near
human dwellings as preventative measures. All barriers and watch towers should
be planned according to the seriousness of the HWC, the nature of the wildlife
in the area, soil and weather conditions etc.
These are some of the steps which can be adopted by the government for the
mitigation of this problem.
- Wildlife - The Official Website of Ministry of Environment, Forest and
Climate Change, Government of India Ministry of Environment, Forest and
Climate Change (moef.gov.in)
- Operation Olivia 2014.pdf (indiancoastguard.gov.in)
- Harihar A, Chanchani P, Sharma RK, Vattakaven J, Gubbi S, et al. 2013.
Conflating co-occurrence with coexistence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110:E109
- Athreya V., Odden M., Linnell J.D.C. and Karanth K.U. (2011).
Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human-dominated
landscapes of India. Conservation Biology, 25(1):133-141.
- Athreya V., Odden M., Linnel J.D.C. and Krishnaswamy J. (2016). A cat
among the dogs: Leopard Pantherapardus diet in a human-dominated landscape in
western Maharashtra, India. Oryx, 50(01): 156-162.