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An Analysis Of Measures Taken to Resolve Human-Wildlife Conflicts in India

Homo Sapiens have been known to meddle with every natural resource; biotic or abiotic to develop something which can be used to somehow fulfill their purposes. The growth and development of human race has always been the central driving force for humans but the costs incurred in achieving and keeping those dreams alive have always been subdued by the acme idea. The same had led to development of competition and conflict among human and wildlife.

Humans and wildlife mostly have positive or no influence on each other but sometimes their interactions might have negative influence. This influence is known as human wildlife conflict (HWC). It is defined as 'the interaction between humans and wildlife where negative consequences, whether perceived or real exists for one or both the parties when action of one has adverse effect on the other party.'

These conflicts have been in existence from the very beginning of the human race. Humans and animals have co-existed and shared resources from a very long time. Historical data from Nile delta showed that while hippopotamuses raided crops, the crocodiles attacked livestock in Egypt.

The HWC has contributed to the extinction of numerous species, changes in ecosystem structure and function and immeasurable loss of human life, crops, livestock, and property. The absolution and mitigation of this conflict is central to the conservation and restoration of many species, and debates over how and whether to coexist with other animals drive social, economic, and political conflict within and among human communities.

India boasts a high biological diversity range. A mega-diversity country with only 2.4% of the world's area but a home to 8% of all the recorded species on the planet including 91,000 animal species and 45.000 plant species. 4 'Biodiversity Hotspots' are a part of India. India harbours 104 national parks, 551 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 131 Marine Protected Areas, 18 Biosphere Reserves, 88 Conservation Reserves and 127 Community Reserves, covering a total of 1,65,088.57 sq km. In total, there are 870 Protected Areas which make 5.06% of the geographical area of the country which encompasses the extensive preservation network of the country.

Being a developing economy and one of the most populous countries in the world with around 17% of the world's human population, the protected area landscapes are not untouched of human presence. High growth rate of human population growth has put the wilderness areas under threat due to increasing interference, deforestation, fragmentation of natural habitats and expansion of agricultural lands in the forested landscapes.

The expansion of human lands and the conversion of protected areas into conservation islands surrounded by human-dominated landscapes leads to increase in the negative interaction between human and wildlife species, particularly large mammals.

The situations are depressing in the outside protected areas as well, as humans continue to encroach natural habitats and become prone to conflicts as wild animals seek to fulfil their nutritional, behavioural and ecological needs. A close-knit relationship between large mammals such as tigers, elephants, lions and others with humans and their land use has caused serious conflicts countrywide over space and resources.

Overgrazing by livestock in the wildlife habitats results in the local extinction of wild herbivore populations while a disproportionate presence of wild and domestic ungulates amplifies cases of livestock depredation by wild predators.

India is no stranger to human wildlife conflict. Elephants died of electrocution in Odisha. According to the Environment Ministry, 1608 human beings were killed between 2014 and 2017 due to such conflicts which averages to more than one person every day.

Statement Of Problem
The problem at hand is the lack of awareness and initiative to mitigate and ameliorate an issue which has been in existence from centuries. The measures taken and the acts introduced are only a drop of the ocean. Much more intricate, aggressive and organized plans and measures should be incorporated in order to resolve a problem of global importance.

It is imperative to act upon this issue with utmost priority. It is a major concern along the lines of climate change, global warming, environmental degradation etc. Extinction of species also has far reaching consequences, what might appear to be irrelevant and worthless today might be an important piece of the puzzle for the future generations.

The major issues which should be addressed include the anthropogenic actions like alien species invasion which are not essential for survival should be prohibited poaching, illegal trade should be banned, proper dedicated conservation centres should be built, callousness in preservation areas should be checked and proper cryogenic research facilities should be set up to preserve the progeny of the endangered species.

Scope Of Study
This study aims at highlighting the underlying issues arising from human wildlife competition and conflict which are otherwise disregarded when talking about conservation of natural habitat and wildlife. The study focuses on bringing out the needles in the haystack so that these problems which now appear to be small and harmless can be rectified before they become detrimental to the survival of human race.

The study will also illustrate the other side of the coin- the importance of conflict.

The measures taken by the state and central government to resolve the issue will be critically analysed along with the provision of some international standards. These measures will include everything starting from the Wildlife Protection Act(1972), Environment Protection Act(1986) till all the major regulations passed by state, central and judicial authorities.

Every human action influences the dynamics of the living world. Some changes are visible at the time and some may lead to some bigger consequences in the future. The inevitability of influencing the natural course of things through human intervention has created major rifts in the nature's predetermined plan. This study will bring out the factors which are not looked upon while considering these aberrations.

Research Methodology
Literature on the Human wildlife conflict and associated measures taken by the government was gathered through online web-based search engines using keywords such as Human wildlife conflict, crop raiding, livestock depredation, names of problem species, anthropogenic factors influencing wildlife, measures taken by central government and alien species invasion. Studies were restricted to India and search was made with the key words based on biogeographic zones, states and country name.

Online technical databases which were searched to download relevant literature, primarily included Science Direct, JSTOR, Wikipedia, conservation India, Wiley Online Library and Google Scholar. The collected literature was then thoroughly reviewed for major conflict animals, economic loss to humans due to various conflict events and amount spent on preventive measures.

Literature Review
The challenges of human–wildlife conflict are older than recorded history but an interdisciplinary field of study focused on human–wildlife conflict and coexistence, although still relatively new, is growing rapidly. Over the past 20 years, the number of scientific publications addressing human–wildlife conflict and coexistence has increased almost exponentially. In this review, I synthesize the current state of scholarship on human–wildlife conflict and coexistence.

I define key concepts, describe the importance of conflict, place it in evolutionary and historical context, examine broad categories of conflict, characterize factors influencing conflict and responses to conflict, and identify future research needs. This topic is too large to cover all aspects of conflict in depth, so I focus particular attention on large vertebrates and human–wildlife conflict in the context of wildlife conservation.

Importance Of Conflict
Human–wildlife conflict has significant repercussions on human health, safety, and welfare, as well as biodiversity and ecosystem health. Impacts of this on humans can be direct or indirect.

Human injury and death can result when animals bite, claw, gore, or otherwise directly attack people; during collisions between animals and automobiles, trains, planes, boats and ships, and other vehicles; and from the transmission of a zoonotic disease or parasite. Conflict with wildlife can cause direct material and economic damage to crops, livestock, game species, and property.

Indirect impacts of conflict, more difficult to measure, include opportunity costs to farmers and rangers associated with guarding crops or livestock, diminished psychosocial wellbeing, disruption of livelihoods, and food insecurity.

Human–wildlife interactions vary on a continuum from positive to negative, in intensity from minor to severe, and in frequency from rare to common. Attacks on people by apex predators such as tigers, lions, and sharks are now relatively infrequent but the attacks can be lethal and lead to strong public reactions. Conversely, conflict between people and common garden pests or birds such as geese may be more common but provoke less concern.

Conflict frequency can also be highly variable among different geographic regions. Some households or farms within a community may suffer little damage whereas neighbours may experience a surplus killing event in which a predator may kill many animals in one attack, or some properties may be better protected than others from such incidents.

The most extreme biological impact is extinction. Hundreds of terrestrial and marine vertebrate species have become extinct in recorded history, and populations of many remaining species have declined in abundance. The decline of large, predatory animals in particular has resulted in cascading ecological consequences for other species and ecosystem services, and many of these declines are linked to conflict with humans.

Causes Of Human-Wildlife Conflict
  • Human Population Growth
    Demographical and geographical changes place more and more people in the cross hairs of wildlife. The expansion of lands into protected areas as well as in urban and rural areas is a common consequence of population growth. It leads to encroachment in wildlife habitats, constriction of species into marginal habitat practices and direct competition with local communities.

  • Species habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation
    Species habitat loss degradation and fragmentation are interconnected with population growth and land use. In Sumatra, the alteration of forest land for agriculture and grazing activities has restricted the Sumatran tiger's home ranges to only a few patches of the forest.

  • Ecotourism and increasing access to natural reserves
    Recreational activities and growing public interest in charismatic species, such as large carnivores and endangered species, have increased the human presence in protected areas and raised concern about capacities to manage and regulate public access and large-scale use of protected areas.
    Associated with the four global trends is a fifth cluster connected to alteration of natural food and water availability.

  • Abundance and distribution of wild prey
    It is seen that if the indigenous prey is abundant, predators consume it in preference to livestock and this impoverishment of prey population is the major cause of carnivores shifting their diets to livestock.

  • Climatic factors
    Though climate factors can be controlled to an extent they determine the predation activities of many animals both directly and indirectly. The vegetation of an area influences the hunting pattern of lions and leopards.

    Climate change is one of the most important and serious threats faced by people and wildlife and is a focus of considerable research in every discipline, including biodiversity conservation. Studies of conflict in the face of changing climate, including strategies for resilience, how climate change will stress coupled human–natural systems, and how current patterns of conflict are likely to change in the future, are few.

  • Stochastic events
    These events like fire are sporadic and hard to predict and control and also have an effect on human wildlife conflict. During the period 1997-98, an El-Nino Southern Oscillation caused drought and fires which resulted in destruction of large area of Sumatran forest. During this, tigers fleeing areas near Berbak National Park were reported to have killed a person.

  • Alien Species Invasion
    It occurs when a plant or animal species which is not native to an area spread rapidly in that habitat which mostly has negative influence on the species already present there. This is mostly caused by irresponsible human errors in imports and exports. Some invasions might also lead to the endangerment or even extinction of the native species.

Measures Taken By The Government
  • The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 (Last Amended in 2006)
    This act provides the legal framework for following activities:
    • Prohibition of hunting
    • Protection and management of wildlife habitats
    • Establishment of protected areas
    • Regulation and control of trade in parts and products derived from wildlife
    • Management of zoos.
National parks and Tiger Reserves are by law more strictly protected, allowing virtually no human activity except that which is in the interest of wildlife conservation. Grazing and private tenurial rights are disallowed in National Parks but can be allowed in sanctuaries at the discretion of the Chief Wildlife Warden. The amended WLPA does not allow for any commercial exploitation of forest produce in both national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, and local communities can collect forest produce only for their bona fide needs.

No wild mammal, bird, amphibian, reptile, fish, crustacean, insects, or coelenterates listed in four Schedules of the WLPA can be hunted either within or outside protected areas. On conviction, the penalty for hunting is imprisonment for a period ranging from a minimum of three to a maximum of seven years with fines not less than 10,000 rupees.

The statute prohibits the destruction of wildlife and its habitat by any method unless it is for improvement or better management and this is decided by the state government in consultation with the National and State Boards for Wildlife.

The WLPA contains elaborate procedures for dealing with legal rights in proposed protected areas and acquisition of any land or interest under this law is deemed as an acquisition for a public purpose. However, with the enactment of The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, compliance of various provisions relating to tenurial and community rights must be ensured.

The 2006 amendment introduced a new chapter (IV B) for establishment of the National Tiger Conservation Authority and notification of Tiger Reserves.
The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) was constituted vide the 2006 amendment to monitor and control the illegal trade in wildlife products.
The WLPA provides for investigation and prosecution of offences in a court of law by authorized officers of the forest department and police officers.

The Indian Forest Act and Forest Act of State Governments
This act gives state government exclusive control over forest areas.
This act primarily includes and facilitates three categories of forests:
  • Reserved forests
  • Village forests
  • Protected forests
Reserved forests are the most protected within these categories. No rights can be acquired in reserved forests except by succession or under a grant or contract with the government. Felling trees, grazing cattle, removing forest products, quarrying, fishing, and hunting are punishable with a fine or imprisonment. Although the Indian Forest Act is a federal act, many states have enacted similar forest acts but with some modifications.

The Biological Diversity Act, 2002
India is a part of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. The provisions of the Biological Diversity Act are in addition to and not in derogation of the provisions in any other law relating to forests or wildlife.

National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016)
This Plan is one of the most effective among various acts proposed for the conservation of wildlife. It focuses on strengthening and enhancing the protected area network, on the conservation of Endangered wildlife and their habitats, on controlling trade in wildlife products and on research, education, and training.

The Plan endorses two new protected area categories: conservation reserves, referring to corridors connecting protected areas, and community reserves, which will allow greater participation of local communities in protected area management through traditional or cultural conservation practices. These new categories of protected areas are likely to bring in corridor areas under protection.

The Plan contains various recommendations to address the needs of local communities living outside protected areas and outlines the need for voluntary relocation and rehabilitation of villages within protected areas. The Plan recognizes the need to reduce human-wildlife conflict and emphasizes the establishment of effective compensation mechanisms. It includes the restoration of degraded habitats outside protected areas as a key objective.

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau
To combat wildlife related crimes, a Wildlife Crime Control Bureau under the Director, Wildlife Preservation has been constituted with 5 Regional Offices viz, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jabalpur and 3 Sub regional offices at Amritsar, Guwahati, and Kochi. 5 Border Units located at Moreh, Nathula, Motihari, Gorakhpur and Ramanathapuram Wildlife Division deals with the policy and lawmatters and knowledge management for facilitating processes and analysis for evolution of policy and law for conservation of biodiversity and Protected Area network.

Wildlife Division of the Ministry provides technical and financial support to the State/ UT Governments for wildlife conservation under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats and also through Central Sector Scheme – Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies for Special Tasks, and through Grants in Aid to the Central Zoo Authority and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.

The Wild Life Crime Control Bureau has been created under Section 38Y of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. The mandate has been specified under Section 38(z) which includes collection, collation of intelligence and its dissemination, establishment of a centralized Wild Life crime databank, coordination of the actions of various enforcement authorities towards the implementation of the provisions of the Act, implementation of the international Conventions, capacity building for scientific and professional investigation, assistance to authorities in other countries for a coordinated universal action towards control of Wild Life crime and to advise the government on various policy and legal requirements.

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats
The Government of India provides financial and technical assistance to the State/UT Governments for activities aimed at wildlife conservation through the Centrally Sponsored Scheme viz. 'Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats'.

The scheme has following three components
  • Support to Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves)
  • Protection of Wildlife Outside Protected Areas
  • Recovery programmes for saving critically endangered species and habitats.

Operation Thunderbird
It was launched to intensify enforcement operation with INTERPOL operation.

Wildnet
It was launched to check the menace of the illegal trade through e-commerce platform. As a significant gesture for commitment of protection to wildlife, large number of wildlife articles involved in wildlife offences, were burnt in public, in an event organized at Delhi Zoo on 3rd March 2017, under the leadership of Hon'ble Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Environment, Forests and Climate Change.

Operation Olivia
Conservation of Olive Ridley Turtles in Odisha began with the global recognition of Gahirmatha rookery in 1974.

The olive ridley turtles face serious threats across their migratory route, habitat and nesting beaches, due to human activities such as turtle unfriendly fishing practices, development and overexploitation of nesting beaches for ports, and tourist centres. Though international trade in these turtles and their products are banned, they are still extensively poached for their meat, shell and leather which is then traded in the black market.

The most severe threat faced by these turtles is the accidental killing of adult turtles through entanglement in trawl nets as a result of uncontrolled fishing during their mating season. The eggs of these turtles have a huge demand market around the coastal regions. Over 1.3 lakh turtles have been killed in this manner in the last thirteen years.

All the five species of sea turtles occurring in India, including the Olive Ridley turtles, are legally protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and Appendix I of the CITES Convention which prohibits trade in turtle products.

As the nesting period stretches over six months, the Indian Coast Guard undertakes the Olive Ridley Turtle protection program under the code name 'Operation Olivia' every year. Coast Guard District No. 7 (Odisha) commenced Operation Olivia 2014 on 08 Nov 2014 under the coordination and control of Commander Coast Guard Region (North East).
As part of the operation, fishing boats found close to marine reserve area were regularly checked by ship's boarding party for confirming the usage of turtle excluder devices (TEDs). Offenders were warned and reported to the Assistant Director Fisheries.

A close coordination was maintained with the fisheries and forest departments during the entire operation. The conservation efforts were augmented with a dedicated operation from 21-22 Mar 15 and resulted in the apprehension of five boats with 39 crew for violation of the Odisha marine Fisheries Regulation Act, 1982. The apprehended boats along with crew were handed over to Gahirmatha Range Forest officials for further legal action.

Joint Forest Management (JFM)
A large number of Joint Forest Committees have been set up by forest department to enlist the participation of local communities in the management and protection of forests and wildlife.

Various Other Measures
  • To resolve human-lion conflicts, several mitigation measures have already been put in place by the Gujarat Forest Department. Compensation scheme for livestock predation have been formulated. Ex-gratia for damages due to wildlife is provided by Gujarat Forest Department. Ex-gratia in case of human injury varies from 2500-10000 and 100000 in case of human death.
     
  • Standard operating procedure have been formulated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority to deal with the straying carnivore in human dominated landscape.
     
  • In human-tiger conflicts, tigers involved in attacks on humans are either translocated into captivity or killed. Often, it's the only resort available to the managers for a strayed out or alleged problematic animal. However, in areas with small population such repeated lethal control may result in local extirpation of the species, as many non-problem tigers are generally killed in the process of controlling the problem.

    The traditional method of guarding and fencing was found to be the most effective measure in reducing livestock losses across protected areas in different biogeographic zones. WWF-India and the Corbett Foundation, apart from the government, provide interim relief compensation for loss of livestock and human lives for providing immediate assistance to the victim. The two biggest problems with this approach are the high level of donor input required and unavailability of the scheme in remote areas with potentially high levels of conflict.
     
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and state forest departments help resolve human–tiger conflicts in India by providing compensation for livestock injured or killed by wild animals and by providing cages/traps, tranquilizers and rescue vehicles for capturing problem animals.

Conclusion
After reviewing and analysing all the information in hand, it can be concluded that negative interactions of humans and wildlife have been extensively studied in India. It is also evident that great approaches and measures have been brought to effect by the governments to curb the situation. Both preventative and mitigation techniques are adopted to deal with the problem from all sides. Despite all these efforts, there seems to be a gap in expectations and reality. Some of the facets of the problem have been overlooked including inadequate compensation to the aggrieved individuals.

Our world is becoming increasingly urbanized, coercing organisms to adjust and adapt under rapid timescales. Such adjustments are leading to exacerbating levels of conflicts globally, with the recent global COVID‐19 pandemic a significant case study. The convergence of human and wildlife populations in urban areas has substantial feedbacks and influence on regional and international economies, conservation efforts, and public health initiatives.

Our changing relationships with urban wildlife are affecting how we observe, conserve, and manage wildlife, all of which will dictate our success in promoting coexistence. Hence, determining how conflicts arise and change over time is a major priority for public health, the environment, and society. It is imperative that evolutionary biologists work with urban planners, wildlife practitioners, social scientists, and policymakers to create holistic efforts leveraging the strengths of our communities to benefit all organisms in an increasingly urbanizing world.

For most state government human-wildlife conflict management seems to be a non-priority area of interest with meagre to no funds. Lack of resources with the authorities to compensate the local communities is a major problem. In Karnataka alone around 1,00,000 claims for compensation for wildlife conflicts were filed between 2011-19.

Managing these conflicts is a major challenge faced by wildlife managers in India. Apart from the negative public perceptions towards wildlife and the Forest or Wildlife Department, managing HWC and invasive species also incurs heavy expenditure of the limited funds and other resources available to the department. Human-wildlife interactions and biological invasion may appear as distinct problems but in many occasions' reduction in native food plants due to increase in cover of invasive plant species have been stated as one of the reasons of straying out of wild herbivore in search of food.

Recommendations
The first and foremost solution to a problem is making the people aware about its existence and clearing their perceptions and misrepresentations on the topic. Education and training activities at different levels, for instance in schools or in adult education arenas such as farmer field schools, would have the objective of disseminating innovative techniques, building local capacity in conflict resolution and increasing public understanding of HWC. Educating rural villagers in practical skills would help them to deal with dangerous wild animal species and to acquire and develop new tools for defending their own crops and livestock.

The management of these conflicts is often restricted by guidelines outlined by local, national or international regulations, laws or treaties. The ineffectiveness of these policies can be understood by there dependence on establishment and regulation of these guidelines on a wide range of human activities. In India, these policies are outdated and contradictory and thus, need to be amended.

Hunting is usually undertaken as a means to supplement household food consumption, for financial gain through the sale of animal products (meat skin, furs, ivory etc.) or for retaliatory killing. The latter is the real problem for the occurrence of HWC. Persecution by humans in response to a problematic coexistence with large carnivores has been the cause of the elimination of several species from a large part of their former home ranges, this is true for species such as the tiger (Panthera tigris), lion (Panthera leo), puma and leopard.

The government should form separate committees to manage wildlife conflicts with various animals like lions, leopards, elephants etc. The State and central governments should work in collaboration to bring a nation-wide resolution to the issue.

Joint Forest Management committees should be sensitized to the issue and should be given adequate resources and information to prevent the conflicts from happening.

The endangered species should be protected in whichever way possible-in-situ or ex-situ conservation. The cryogenic preservation of the sperms and eggs of highly endangered species should also be done as a preparation for the worst case scenario.

The government should formulate and promulgate a monitoring agency keeping the track of wildlife and human activities around protected areas , an organization relying on statistics and data analysis to counter everyday problems.

More stringent actions should be introduced against illegal trading of animals and animal products as well as poaching. These practices cause a lot of agony to the wildlife thus leading to major behavioural changes.

Wildlife is a generator of income through ecotourism and in many developing countries like India it is one of the most significant sources of national revenue generation. The tourism industry can increase employment within local communities by creating additional job opportunities. This approach would compensate the cost of maintaining wildlife and contribute to changing local people's negative perceptions towards conservation.

The managers of Kibale National Park in Uganda, for instance, intend to foster positive attitudes towards the park and supportive conservation behaviour by the local populations, though sharing revenues from tourism with the local populations. The government can also provide indirect compensations to the indigenous communities by sharing a part of the tourism revenue generated.
The best scenario can be achieved with the mutual participation of wildlife managers and local communities which would promote integrated community development as well as the conservation of wildlife.

Rescue Centres are required for sheltering the problematic animals captured from the field or the stranded wild animals and also their cubs rescued by the Anti-depredation squad and Local Wildlife Squad which cannot be released back in their natural habitats due to sickness / injury, or their habit of straying back into human habitations, or their propensity to cause harm to the life or property of the people, or their lack of ability to survive on their own in the wild.

In many cases, the captured wild animal needs to be kept temporarily at a Transit Facility temporarily for treatment or investigation, or while awaiting a decision by the competent authority about its disposal. The number and location of Rescue Centres / Transit Facilities would depend upon the extent and distribution of HWC within the State and experience from the past. Ideally, the Rescue Centre / Transit Facility should be as close to a conflict zone as possible and also to a veterinary unit.

Physical barriers must be created around protected areas and forest areas near human dwellings as preventative measures. All barriers and watch towers should be planned according to the seriousness of the HWC, the nature of the wildlife in the area, soil and weather conditions etc.

These are some of the steps which can be adopted by the government for the mitigation of this problem.

References:
  • https://www.conservationindia.org/resources/the-legal-framework-for-wildlife-conservation-in-india-2
  • Wildlife - The Official Website of Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (moef.gov.in)
  • www.projecttiger.nic.in
  • https://wildlife.org/resolving-human-wildlife-conflicts
  • Operation Olivia 2014.pdf (indiancoastguard.gov.in)
  • Harihar A, Chanchani P, Sharma RK, Vattakaven J, Gubbi S, et al. 2013. Conflating co-occurrence with coexistence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110:E109
  • Athreya V., Odden M., Linnell J.D.C. and Karanth K.U. (2011). Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human-dominated landscapes of India. Conservation Biology, 25(1):133-141.
  • Athreya V., Odden M., Linnel J.D.C. and Krishnaswamy J. (2016). A cat among the dogs: Leopard Pantherapardus diet in a human-dominated landscape in western Maharashtra, India. Oryx, 50(01): 156-162.
  • www.wikipedia.org
  • https://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/invasive-alien-species-10861

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