The Trademark Compendium
Trademark is a distinct symbol, logo, word, or multiple words that are legally
registered or established through their use as a representation for their
particular brand or product. It basically protects brands names and logos been
used on goods and services. Trademark is one of the branch of intellectual
property rights which is already been protected by the virtue of law. Trademarks
are unlike patents, which tries to protect the original work of author.
Registration Of Trademark
The registration of trademark must adhere to the provision of section 18 of
Trademark act, 1999, which explicitly provides the procedure established for a
registration of particular trademark, businessmen are allowed to file a
trademark application where the business is been established or in other case.
The holder of the business can file an application through an agent or attorney.
After the application, a particular trademark is determined on the basis of
their eligibility and availability of a particular trademark, then it is
reviewed by the trademark officer if the application filed is complete after
completion of all the formalities the trademark officer allots the application a
number, after the trademark is registered, the particular number becomes the
In accordance with the objection raised on application filed, if the examiner
raises an objection the status of the application will show objected. Usually,
according to the virtue of law the objection can be raised under sec 9 and sec
11 of the act.
Section 9 of the said act gives absolute grounds for raising an objection.
Section 9 rejects any mark that is:
- Deceptive about the nature of the goods or services,
- Deceptive about the quality of the goods or services.
Section 11 of the said act also provides relative grounds for refusal. If the
examiner objects under this section it will be mostly due the marks have certain
similarities with an already registered trademark. Under section 11 applicant
has two option either to prove that his mark is distinctively different from the
conflicting mark and can definitely by distinguished as two separate marks or
must get no objection affidavit from the owner of the conflicting registered
After this procedure, examiner issues an examination report within a period of
one month which the applicant is obligated to reply to the particular
examination report within one month and is the application is rejected, the
applicant can appeal at the intellectual property appellate board within 3
months of issue of rejection order from the registrar. Moreover, if the
application is accepted with any objection raised by the registrar after
examining the report issued by the examiner then the mark has to be published in
the official gazette, as per section 20 i.e. advertisement of application.
Infringement Of Trademark
The legislation tries to protect the trademarks in India. The trademarks Act,
1999 explicitly lays down the rules which deals with registration, infringement
and protection regarding a particular registered trademark. In India, the
organization that deals with the protection of trademarks are the Indian Patent
Office administered by the controller general of Patents, designs and trademark.
There are two types of infringement under the act:
The definition of direct infringement is defined under section 29 of the act.
The few facet has to be met for direct infringement of a trademark.
The usage of trademark by an unauthorized person, when a breach occurs when the
mark is used by a person who is not allowed or who is not authorized by the
holder of the registered trademark.
The act is only extended to trademarks which are registered with the trademark
registry of India, the cases of breach of an unregistered mark, the common law
of passing off is used to settle a particular dispute.
There is no provision which provides the meaning of indirect infringement. The
cases related to indirect infringement is adjudicated in accordance with the
universal law principles.
Particularly in India, the infringement of a trademark irrespective if it direct
or indirect it is constituted as a cognizable offence it clearly attracts
criminal charges along with civil charges.
The remedies awarded by the court are following:
In case of a criminal proceedings, the court may grant following punishment:
- Temporary injunction
- Permanent injunction
- Imprisonment for a period which cannot be less than 6 months and can be extended
till 3 year, upon the discretion of the court.
- A fine of not less than Rs 50,000 that may be extended to Rs 2 lakh
Classification Of Trademark
Trademark is classified into two:
- Classes for goods
- Classes for services
These classifications are popularly known as Nice Classification. There are 45
classes in the nice classification out of which classes from 1 to 34 are
categorized for goods or products and classes from 35 to 45 categorizes
services. As it is important to ascertain the exact nature of goods or services
for which trademark is used and filing application in a wrong class would result
in the trademark owner losing their to enforce their trademark right and it will
be constituted as an infringement.
Trademarks are very important aspects of Intellectual Property so, the
protection of the trademark has become essential in the present day because,
every generator of a good or service will want his mark to be different,
eye-catching and it should be easily distinguishable from others.
Designing a mark like this is difficult and after this when infringing of the
mark takes place it will cause maximum difficulty to the producer. Capital
Protection is very important and there should be a step towards Global
Intellectual Property Order, if there is no IPR protection, it can be explained
that inventive activity will terminate. The reason for Intellectual Property
protection is that it can arouse creativity and discovery and prevent the
exploitation of inventions.