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Sudan Humanitarian Crisis (Darfur Genocide)

What are human rights

First and foremost things to understand the meaning of human rights that what are human rights. Human rights are the basic rights needed by an individual for his survival. They are not provided by any entity organization or state. They are inherited by every individual on his birth irrespective of his class, caste sex, religion,color etc.

Origin of human rights cannot be traced or no one can actually tell that from where it has evolved The terms human rights is broad term which extends from the most fundamental right to life to basic rights of an individual to live with dignity and have a meaningful life such as right to food and shelter, right to education etc.

The foundation stone of all international rights laws is Universal Declaration Of Human Rights Which Was Adopted By UN general assembly in 1948, first legal document to provide face and recognition to human rights at international platform. UDHR contains 30 articles these are to be the bedrock for protection of the human rights and the principles laid down under this act just to gave recognition and protection of human rights. UDHR along with two more treaties form the International bills of rights these two treaties are:
  1. International covenant for civil and political rights
  2. International covenant for social economic and cultural rights

These rights are inherited and enjoyed by every individual. These are the rights which cannot be alienated or nor could be transfer to some other. As we know term human rights is a broad term which consist of many rights these all rights are interdependent on each other. One cannot be enjoyed in absence of other.

One cannot be deprived of his human rights in any situation conditioned to some reasonable restriction which are imposed according to the due process of law. For example: a person convicted under charge of murder then he would be confine d to the jail as this is the due process of the law.

Origin
It's not easy to trace back the history of human rights or to depict that from where it was evolved. There were some events recorded in the past which accounts for existence of human rights. In 539 BC Cyrus attacked the Babylon, he conquered Babylon and ordered that all slaves would set free as every person has right to choose their religion and freely profess it. He also came out with a view of establishment of racial equality. Principles which were propounded by the Cyprus were embedded on a clay cylinder, which is known as Cyrus Cylinder.

Later on these principles exemplify as an revelation to the first four articles of Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (UDHR).
Another bedrock which accounts for the existence of human rights in the history is Magna Carta in 1215. When there were traces of the concept of rule of law and other basic rights of the person and liberties provided to them.

History of Sudan
Individuals in Sudan had faced immense human rights violation in the past 80s.in 1n1899 British captured Sudan. North Sudan was ruled by Britishers and the Egypt. North Sudan comprise of the Arab Muslims whereas south Sudan as comprised of Christian and tribal . they were in conflict with each other because of the cultural differences.

In 1956 British government unite the north Sudan and the south Sudan due to which the conflict started to be escalate between the north and the south region.

Simultaneously south Sudan was full of natural resources such as petroleum natural gas etc. but did not have access to any of the port to supply the resources to the other countries. Port was available to the north Sudan ,so the pipeline were established from the south region to the port through the north.

All resources were got extracted from the south brought to the north and then transported to other countries as north Sudan had access to the port. So, profit was fully controlled by the north Sudan ultimately north region became more dominating than the south.

Britishers knew the fact that one day North Sudan will become more powerful, superior and will capture south Sudan. same happened as the money was controlled the north Sudan which rsulted in a war between south and north Sudan.

In 1956 first civil war was started between north and south Sudan which ended in 1972. Now here exploitation of human rights of an individual came in to picture that during the 18 years of war, how individual of both the countries survive ? during the 18 years of civil war most affected thing was human rights of inidividaul or in other words human rights of individual were exploited uttermost.

Imagine the survival of child who was born with in the time spam of this 18 years of civil war. Education of the children were mosted affected. As most of the school were not functioning due to the ongoing civil war.

Causalities were about more than half a million people during the war of 17 years. First civil war between north Sudan and the siouth Sudan was divided into four stages.

These are as follows:
  1. Initial guerrilla warfare
  2. The creation of ananyan insurgency
  3. Political strife within the government
  4. Establishment of south Sudan liberation movement

Till 1956 both the Britishers and the eyptians government together governed the administration sothern and the northern region separately. In 1956 bothe the northern and southern region were unite together or merged with each other as British and the eyptian government was under the influence of the establishment of northern region.

Elites of north region were more powerful and influential than the minority groups of the southern region. Decision of merging both region was solely taken under the pressure the elites of northern region and minorities was not taken under confidence regarding this merger.

The had fear that the elites were oppress their rights and liberties as they were minorities and not treated equally by the elites of northern.

Northern elites had great domination on the political structure of Sudan when the country was colony of Britishers. They were favored by the British government at the time of merger of both northern and southern region and were granted more political power when Sudan got independence from British government.

Decisions taken by British government by favoring elites in political structure have adverse repercussions on the well being of the country which could be seen post colonial time. As there many concerns which affected the state solidarity such as political inequalities southerns had not equal at the footing of political power when compared to northern that why subject matters which were concerned to their right got jeopardized by the northern.

Many national issue were ignored such as the issue of economic development and development of the sufficient institution for the people. northern government suppressed the rights of the minorities by discriminating and committing violence towards minorities.

After Sudan got independence from colonial rule the tension between the northern and the southern region escalated as their demands were answered because the southern elites had less influence in the political structure of the country and their region is discriminated on many other grounds they lack in industrialization and were not allowed to practice their religion as most of them were influenced by the Christianity and opted for the western ideals by integrating them into their own customs.

Perspectives
Northern
Before breakout of the civil war, northern elites didn't get the main reason which resulted in the outbreak of this war. Many them blamed the British government who didn't look after the needs of the southern elites and minorities which had post colonial repercussions. simultaneously some them had a ideology that the southern just rebelled against their government as did not want to be governed by them. Some blamed the Christianity and the western culture or ideology opted by southern merging in their own culture.

Southern
According to the southern the civil war was to be unavoidable as after the independence the British government favored northern in political structure of the country and the southern were left with the nominal power. They feel powerless and was unable to address the subject matters and issue regard the well being of minorities. Southern region lacks in industrialization and did n't have sufficient institution for education and health services. Their rights and liberty was oppressed and supposed to face violent incidents.

Course Of War
Uprising

On 18 August 1955, rebels mutinied or murdered the members of the Sudan Defense force in Torit after that in Juba, Yei and Maridi which was controlled by the British government. Mutiny of members of the Sudan Defense Force was in result of the trial faced by the southern members of the national assembly and the oppression of the rights and liberties of the southern and the discriminated behavior towards them by the northern elites. Sudan government started oppressing the the rebellion and the mutinies. Survivals got dispersed in different rural areas and towns and started to organize an uncoordinated rebellion against the Sudanese government. Sudanese government was under threat by the act of these armed rebels.

Escalation Of Military Intervention

Slowly the rebellion took the face of movement which involved the rebels of 1955 mutiny and the southern students. They formed a group known as Anyanya Guerilla Army. Between 1963 to 1969 Anyanya Guerilla Army highly influenced the two southern provinces these were:
  1. Bahr al Ghazal
  2. Upper Nile

Which led to huge pressure o9n the northern army to suppress the movement. later on the movement was affected as the it got some internal issue due to which divided into two groups: Nilotic and Equatorian. Whereas the Sudanse government left the chance to be in the dominant position as the movement got disturbed by the internal issue because the government was itself going through the instable phase and rationality. First Prime Minister Ismail Al Azhari who led the first independent government who swiftly removed by the other conservative forces in coalition with each other.

October 1964 Protest

On 20 October 1964, the Sudanese Government raided the University of Khartoum as there was a seminar going related to Problems Of The Southern Sudan. This outbreak in a massive protest which led to nationwide protest and the strike. An interim government was formed as sign of massive civil disobedience to Sudanese government.

The series of these events marked as October Revolution Or October 1964 Revolution.
First appearance of Hassan al Turabi, a student leader was noticed during these protest. Between 1966 to 1969 it became very difficult for the government to deal with economic and variety of ethinic conflict within the country. In 1969 Colonel Gafar Nimrey took command of the country as Prime Minister. Taking advantage of the instability in the country Anyanya group send their leader out of country and support their movement from aboard.

Political Disturbance
In doing combating among non-Marxist and Marxist gatherings in the choice military class provoked another defeat in July 1971 and a concise association by the Sudanese Communist Party before threatening to Communist gatherings put Nimeiry in a difficult spot responsible for the country. That very year, German public Rolf Steiner, who had been stealthily inciting the extremists, was trapped in Kampala, Uganda and removed to Khartoum, where he was put being explored for his foe of government works out.

At first sentenced to death, he would serve three years in prison before being set after pressure liberated from the West German Government. The Southern officials, of course, tried to gain political control and momentarily settled diverse transitory legislatures in the South.

They needed to use placating means to achieve freedom and separation anyway as a result of their political factionalism, were lacking conversely, with the Anyanya Insurgency

Amalgamation Of South

The South was first driven by the late pioneer Aggrey Jaden; he passed on the development in 1969 because of inside political debates. Around the same time Gordon Muortat Mayen was chosen collectively as the new head of the South. Southern Sudan in this time changed their name to the Nile Republic and continued fighting against Khartoum, but a portion of the previous pioneer Jaden's soldiers would not acknowledge a Dinka chief and battled against the Anyanya.

In 1971, previous armed force lieutenant Joseph Lagu shaped an effective overthrow against Gordon Muortat with assistance from Israel, which vowed him their help. In doing as such, the deserted Equatorian administrator had the option to bind together these soldiers of guerrilla warriors under his Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM).

This was the initial time throughout the entire existence of the fighting that a dissenter development had a brought together order structure with the shared target to withdraw and construct an autonomous state. It was likewise the principal association that could profess to represent, and haggle in the interest of, the whole south when the conflict finished. Intercession between the World Council of Churches (WCC) and the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC), the two of which went through years developing trust with the two warriors, in the end prompted the Addis Ababa Agreement of March 1972 which denoted the finish of the contention.

Consequences
Since the start of their freedom to the Addis Ababa Agreement, 500,000 individuals, of whom just one out of five was viewed as an outfitted warrior, were killed while many thousands more had to leave their homes. The Addis Ababa Agreement was seen by Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia and prompted the foundation of a provincial independence for South Sudan. It would be known as the Southern Regional Government and would have foundations, for example, a Regional Assembly and Executive Counsel filling in as their administrative and leader branches.

The short interval of harmony become a general quiet and flourishing period for Sudan. The understanding had the option to address a portion of the basic complaints held by Southern Sudan to that of the Khartoum government. The prompt acknowledgment of the district as sovereign and foundation of key political establishments were a couple of instances of the major developments. Additionally, another constitution was established and Southern Sudan were driven by confined law requirement organizations than that from the Northern government. Notwithstanding these upgrades, there was the anticipation of the South's capacity to have their own military and just stay independent under the Northern Sudanese regime.

In this manner, the understanding demonstrated uniquely to be an impermanent reprieve with no authoritative method for harmony saving for the Southern Sudan. With the encroachments by the north expanding social turmoil in the south during the 1970s, this prompted the 1983 armed force uprising that started the Second Sudanese Civil War. A contention that went on for very nearly 22 years and added to the authority freedom of Sudan.

Second Civil War

The Second Sudanese Common Conflict was an extraordinary 22-year struggle between the focal government in Khartoum and the Sudan Individuals' Freedom Armed force (SPLA). The conflict began in southern Sudan yet spread to different spots including the Nuba mountains and the Blue Nile locale. 2,000,000 individuals passed on in this contention however the conflict additionally prompted the production of South Sudan as an autonomous country in 2011.

The terms of the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972, which ended the first Sudan Civil War, were violated several times. In 1978, president Gaafar Nimeiry wanted to take control of the newly-discovered oil fields located on the border region between north and south Sudan. In 1983, President Nimeiry violated the agreement by imposing Sharia Law across the nation and abolishing the mostly Christian Southern Sudan Autonomous Region. Most South Sudanese people and other people who were non-Muslim living in the north were now punished by Sharia Law.

Accordingly, rebels from South Sudan framed the Southern People groups Freedom Armed force (SPLA), drove by John Garang, to battle the focal government in Khartoum. As in the primary conflict, youngster warriors were selected by the two sides however were all the more much of the time utilized by the SPLA. In April 1985, an upset happened. Nimeri was removed and the new government cancelled his 1983 declaration and made different suggestions intended to accommodate the north and south.

In May 1986, the new Khartoum government drove by Leader Sadiq al-Mahdi and the SPLA drove by Col. John Garang met in arrangements interestingly. Simultaneously the SPLA and other Sudanese ideological groups met in Ethiopia where they molded the Koka Dam statement which called for annulling Islamic law and gathering a protected meeting for the whole country.

In 1988, the SPLA and the Majority rule Unionist Party (DUP), an ideological group in Sudan, conceded to a harmony plan which required a truce and the abrogation of military agreements with Egypt and Libya which had provided the Khartoum government with weapons. In February 1989, the Sadiq al-Mahdi government supported the harmony plan yet battling proceeded into the 1990s with abominations and denials of basic freedoms happening on the two sides.

In July 2002, the Public authority of Sudan and the SPLM arrived at an arrangement known as the Machakos Convention, named after the town in Kenya where harmony talks were held. The discussions proceeded into the next year lastly on January 9, 2005, the Public authority of Sudan and the SPLA consented to the Extensive Harmony Arrangement which finished the common conflict. The arrangement likewise required the production of South Sudan in 2011, six years after the conflict finished.

In February 1989, the military gave Sadiq a final proposal: he could advance toward harmony or be tossed out. He shaped another administration with the DUP and supported the SPLA/DUP arrangement. An established gathering was probably made arrangements for September 1989. On June 30, 1989, nonetheless, military officials under then-Colonel Omar Hassan al-Bashir, with NIF induction and backing, supplanted the public authority with the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC), a junta contained 15 military officials (diminished to 12 of every 1991) helped by a regular citizen bureau. General al-Bashir became president and head of state, leader and head of the military.

The new military government prohibited worker's organizations, ideological groups, and other "non-strict" foundations. 78 thousand individuals from the military, police, and common organization were cleansed to reshape the public authority. In March 1991, another correctional code, the Criminal Act of 1991, founded brutal disciplines cross country, including removals and stoning.

Albeit the southern states are authoritatively excluded from these Islamic preclusions and punishments, the 1991 demonstration accommodates a potential future use of Islamic Law in the south. In 1993, the public authority moved all non-Muslim adjudicators from the south toward the north, supplanting them with Muslim adjudicators.

The acquaintance of Public Order Police with implement Shari'a law brought about the capture and treatment under Shari'a law of southerners and other non-Muslims living in the north.

Management of the war
It is assessed that upwards of 200,000 Southern Sudanese and Nuba youngsters and ladies have been taken into bondage—principally to North Sudan—during strikes executed in Southern Sudanese towns and towns. On the appearance of battling Southern Sudanese renegades, the National Islamic legislature of the Sudan (GOS) has conveyed its standard military and state army famously known as the People's Defense Forces (PDF) to assault and strike towns in the South and the Nuba Mountains for slaves and cattle.

The SPLA was in charge of huge spaces of Equatoria, Bahr al Ghazal, and Upper Nile regions and furthermore works in the southern parts of Darfur, Kordofan, and Blue Nile regions. The public authority controlled some of the major southern towns and urban communities, including Juba, Wau, and Malakal. A casual truce in May separated in October 1989.
In August 1991, inner dispute among the revolutionaries drove rivals of Colonel Garang's authority of the SPLA to frame the supposed Nasir group of the dissident armed force. The endeavor to oust Garang was driven by Riek Machar and Lam Akol.

Osama canister Laden and his Al Qaeda association moved to Sudan in 1991. Osama carried some abundance to Sudan while he guided a portion of his first fear monger assaults out of Sudan.

In September 1992, William Nyuon Bany framed a second revolutionary group, and in February 1993, Kerubino Kwanyin Bol shaped a third dissident group. On April 5, 1993, the three protester rebel groups declared an alliance of their gatherings called SPLA United at a question and answer session in Nairobi, Kenya. After 1991, the groups conflicted every so often and accordingly, the dissidents lost a lot of their believability with the West.

In 1990-91 the Sudanese government upheld Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War. This changed American perspectives toward the country. Bill Clinton's organization precluded American interest in the nation and provided cash to adjoining nations to repulse Sudanese invasions. The US additionally started endeavors to "detach" Sudan and started alluding to it as a maverick state.

Starting around 1993, the heads of Eritrea, Ethiopia, Uganda, and Kenya experience sought after a harmony drive for the Sudan under the sponsorship of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), yet results have been blended. In spite of that record, the IGAD drive proclaimed the 1994 Declaration of Principles (DOP) that intended to recognize the fundamental components important to an equitable and exhaustive harmony settlement; i.e., the connection among religion and the state, influence sharing, abundance sharing, and the right of self-assurance for the south. The Sudanese Government didn't sign the DOP until 1997 after significant front line misfortunes to the SPLA.

In 1995, an alliance of inside and ousted resistance groups in the north and the south made the National Democratic Alliance as an enemy of government umbrella gathering. This improvement opened a northeastern front to the common conflict, making it more than before a middle fringe as opposed to just a north-south clash. The SPLA, DUP, and Umma Parties were the key gatherings shaping the NDA, alongside a few more modest gatherings and northern ethnic gatherings.

In 1996, Osama container Laden was removed from Sudan, and he moved his association to Afghanistan.

Additionally in 1997, the public authority consented to a progression of arrangements with rebel groups, driven by previous Garang Lieutenant Riek Machar, under the pennant of Harmony from Within. These incorporated the Khartoum, Nuba Mountains, and Fashoda arrangements that finished military clash between the public authority and huge agitator groups. A considerable lot of those pioneers then, at that point, moved to Khartoum where they expected minimal jobs in the focal government, or worked together with the public authority in military commitment against the SPLA. These three arrangements resembled the agreements of the IGAD understanding, requiring a level of independence for the south and the right of self-assurance.

In July 2000, the Libyan/Egyptian Joint Initiative on the Sudan was mooted, requiring the foundation of a between time government, power sharing, established change, and new races. Southern pundits had a problem with the joint drive since it fail to resolve issues of the connection among religion and the state and neglected to specify the right of self-assurance. It is hazy how much this drive will altogether affect the quest for harmony, as certain pundits see it as more focused on a goal among northern ideological groups and ensuring the apparent security interests of Egypt for the solidarity of the Sudan.

Foreign Intervention

In September 2001, previous U.S. Congressperson John Danforth was assigned Presidential Envoy for Peace in the Sudan. His job is to investigate the possibilities that the United States could assume a valuable reactant part in the quest for a simply end to the common conflict, and improve philanthropic administrations conveyance that can assist with diminishing the enduring of the Sudanese public originating from war related impacts.

Following an inside objection, the Sadiq al-Mahdi government in March 1989 concurred with the United Nations and contributor countries (counting the United States) on an arrangement called Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), under which exactly 100,000 tons of food was moved into both government and SPLA-held spaces of the Sudan, and far and wide starvation was deflected.

Stage II of OLS to cover 1990 was supported by both the public authority and the SPLA in March 1990. In 1991, Sudan confronted a 2-year dry spell and food deficiency across the whole country.

The United Nations, United States, and different givers endeavored to mount an organized global aid project in both south and north Sudan to forestall a disaster. In any case, because of Sudan's denials of basic freedoms and its favorable to Iraqi position during the Gulf War, numerous contributors slice a lot of their guide to the Sudan. In a comparative dry spell in 2000-2001, the worldwide local area again reacted to turn away mass malnourishment in the Sudan. Global givers keep on giving a lot of helpful guide to all pieces of the Sudan.

The United States government's Sudan Peace Act of October 21, 2002 blamed Sudan for decimation for killing multiple million regular people in the south during the common conflict starting around 1983.

Harmony talks between the southern radicals and the public authority gained considerable headway in 2003 and mid 2004, despite the fact that engagements in pieces of the south have apparently proceeded. The different sides have concurred that, following a last ceasefire, southern Sudan will appreciate independence for quite some time, and after the lapse of that period, individuals of southern Sudan will actually want to cast a ballot in a mandate on autonomy.

Besides, oil incomes will be separated similarly between the public authority and renegades during the break period of six-years. The capacity or readiness of the public authority to satisfy these guarantees has been addressed by certain onlookers, be that as it may, and the situation with three focal and eastern territories was a disputed matter in the exchanges. A few onlookers contemplated whether firm stance components in the north would permit the settlement to continue.

A last ceasefire was endorsed on January 9, 2005 in Nairobi.

The details of the ceasefire are as per the following:
  • The south will have independence for quite a long time, trailed by a mandate on severance
  • The two sides of the contention will combine their military into a 39,000-in number power following six years, if the withdrawal mandate should turn out negative.
  • Pay from oilfields is to be shared 50 to 50.
  • Occupations are to be parted by differing proportions (focal organization: 70 to 30, Abyei/Nuba mountains/Blue Nile State: 55 to 45, the two for the public authority).
  • Islamic law is to stay in the north, while proceeded with utilization of the sharia in the south is to be chosen by the chosen gathering.

Background Of Darfur Conflict

Darfur is the region situated in the eastern part of the North Sudan.North east region of the Sudan mainly inhabited by Arab Muslims who were nomadic herds whereas the west which was mainly inhabited by the Black Africans who were agriculturist. There were cultural differences between the Arab Muslims and Black Africans which was also a main cause of conflict.

Darfuris people were looted and killed by the Arab militants group supported by the Sudanese government named as Janjaweed and rapid support force. Government made sure that the people in villages of Darfur would deprive of their basic rights such which includes right to education, right to food and shelter.

Darfur region is mainly represented by two groups : Justice Equality Movement and Sudan Liberation Movement. On the other hand Janjaweed is the rebel forces which was backed up by the Sudanese government against the Darfuris. Sudan's President Omar Al Bashir highly contributed in these barbaric acts committed against the civilians of Darfur region.

Darfur Genocide

Darfur conflict emerged in 2003.Region is situated in west of Sudan. Since its beginning conflict has resulted in many atrocities and violence faced by the indiviuduals. Many people has been displaced from the sensitive region so that the conflict could have less impact on the masses.

The struggle between the government and rebels have so dreadful repercussion such as violence against civilians killings, gender based violence ,looting of civilians and many other horrifying incidents which are evident of the hell they are living in. emergence of the war of Darfur when the Sudan liberation movement and justice equality movement were fighting with the Sudanese government they accused government for suppressing the rights of the non arab population.

Main reason for the conflict that the Sudanesse government was accused of the racism or act in a manner to oppress the rights of the non arab population. Some of the rebelious incidents took place in 2002 between rebels and the government but key incident was when the Golo, headquarters of the Jebbel Marra district was attacked by the rebels groups and the credit was taken up by the group known as Darfur liberation front (DLF).

Genocide is term which can be defined as when there is intentional atrocities against a particular religious, caste or other group these atrocities could be in the form of mass killings, rapes of women and brutally murder of children known as Genocide. The same happened is the Darfur region of the North Sudan. But US condemmed these mass killing and violent act towards the particular community in the Darfur region. BBC wrote about these mass kilings and circulated the photos of the violence against the individuals.

Later on in 2007 in order to maintain peace and for protection of the human rights of individual in Darfur region US deployed 26000 troops and were ordered to use force for protecting the civilians against mass atrocities under the program United Nations African Union Mission (UNAMID).

Moreover government left no stone unturned to hinder the program UNAMID which aims to protect the human rights of civilians and provide them necessary aid. In 2009 ICC ( International Criminal Court) issued arrest warrant against the President Omar Al Bashir for crime against humanity as mass killings, looting, and women were raped by the Arab militants and the Sudanese Army. Government further compelled the agencies to leave Sudan who provide aid to the displaced and needed civilians without giving a thought about the individual who needed the help of these type of agencies.

In February 2010, Sudanese Government and JEM mutually agreed and signed a ceasefire agreement in order to maintain peace in the region but could not be followed later as Sudanese government accused of killings and looting of civilians in Darfur region.

In 2011, South Sudan got independence from Sudan and got established as a separate country. During that time only Peace agreement got signed between the rebels of liberation movement and Sudanese government in order to establish peace in Darfur region. After that peace agreement got signed between the rebel of liberation movement and Sudanese Government improvement wwere noticed in the region in maintaining peace in Darfur region from both side but it could not implemented properly due lack of enforcement and implementation.

Failure of the Peace agreement again lead to atrocities against the individual. In 2014 and 2015 Janjaweed ( Arab muslim rebels ) force backed up by the Sudanese government started counter rebellion against the Non Arab Rebels and civilians and commited acts of killings, looting and women were raped , children got slaughtered by them in the Darfur region.

Violence got continued against the civilians in 2016 also various barbaric events witness the ruthlessness of the Arab rebel force in compliance of the Sudanese Government. Due to these atrocities lakhs of people got displace according to one of the reports 160000 people displaced. Some international organizations also accused Sudanese Government that the even used chemical weapons against the civilians.

Even in 2018 these killing and the violent act against the civilians continued by the forces backed up by the government led forces because of which 2 million people got displaced and nearly about 5 million of people got affected in this violence.

After being in power for 30 years President Omar Al Bashir thrown out and soon after his removal from the President an unarmed rebellion started throughout the country with respect to this unarmed protest government counterattack with the armed forces.

Military council took over after the removal of the President Omar Al Bashir and in 2019 got restored by transitional government comprised of military council and the civilian members.

Later on in 2020 Omar Al Bashir was handed over the International Criminal Court by the transitional government of Sudan.

What would be the future in Sudan
After the removal of President Omar Al Bashir in 2019 and succeeding to him establishment of new transitional government. For stability country need a permanent government who can run the affairs of the country in a well planned manner. It was being noticed that in 2020 also when the Sudan was ruled by the transitional government at that also several incidents of killings, looting and where women got raped and children got slaughtered got reported in Darfur region.

Conclusion
The barbaric acts and events which were witnessed by the civilians of Darfur region must be horrible and would not only limited to the people who faced it but have a great impact on mankind. It must be stop so that the future generation should not suffer or witness any of these horrifying happened in past.

International community must raise their voice together to have a full stop on these atrocities which are faced by the people of Darfur. These violent acts or mass killing were not restricted to people of Darfur rather it should be consider as a collective attack on the mankind. All the countries must unite together and fight against the evil who carry out violence against mankind.

References
  • https://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/pages/whatarehumanrights.aspx
  • https://worldwithoutgenocide.org/genocides-and-conflicts/darfur-genocide
  • https://www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/events-global-african-history/first-Sudanese-civil-war-1955-1972/
  • https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/Sudanese-civil-wars

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