Each year, millions of persons are forcibly displaced by development
projects, whether dams, roads, reservoirs, or oil, gas, and mining projects.
While such projects can bring enormous benefits to society, they also impose
costs, which are often borne by its poorest and most marginalized members.
Although displaced people are often defined as those uprooted by conflict, human
rights violations, and natural or human-made disasters, they also include those
displaced by development projects.
This article is an effort to better understand the plight of those displaced for
development and examines the nature and scope of development-induced
Displacement for Development: Indian perspective
The issue of displacement is seen as a necessary evil to construct industries,
infrastructures such as dams, mining, roads, and power projects, which are
intended to serve the "greater good"
. The drive for land acquisition in the name
of modernization and development has been the reason behind the rise in protests
by the farmers and tribal people across the country.
The focus on economic
issues overlooks other no less important issues such as social and cultural,
which may be proved to be crucial in building links and networks in the new
environment. Globalization is seen as another opportunity to dispose and
displace communities, states, and nations are seen as an impediment towards
market integration. The Indian government acquire land from the people and then
hand it over to the corporate sectors and real estate developers.
Displacement is described as the dislocation of people from their native place
and region. It often exacerbates rather than mitigates economic insecurity,
helplessness, and alienation. This could mean loss of economic livelihoods and
communities. In India, people continue to be involuntary dislocated and the goal
of resettlement remains exceedingly difficult to achieve. Moreover, the aims of
sustainable development, where people are better than they were before
resettlement is far from being achieved.
Seeing this issue merely a financial seems to be incorrect. Compensation by
itself cannot fully restore and improve levels of income of those who have been
involuntarily displaced. In India what we witness at present is not capitalists
competing against one another for state government projects, but state
governments competing against one another for attracting investors. There is a
need for a deeper understanding of a real process of primitive accumulation of
capital, which is taking place through encroachments.
It may seem incorrect to many people to treat land merely as productive elements
as a commodity. This approach could overlook its cultural heritage significance.
Such an approach could also neglect its social status, community, and cultural
In the Indian economy, agriculture plays an important role in shaping the
socio-economic and cultural well-being of people. And their involuntary
displacement becomes complex issues among academic debates, and policy
discussions and at times in the form of protesters by affected people. The
investment must take place to reduce hunger, malnutrition in rural India rather
than aggravate them. A coordinated strategy is needed to promote responsible
investment to address these above issues aiming to uplift the living conditions
of the majority of the rural inhabitants.
Globalization in the context of displacement for development
Globalization refers to the process of making different parts of the world come
together to interchange various facets of life and business. Globalization
reduces the free movement of capital, information, and people thus bringing
benefits to the economy and advancement to the society. The world starting with
Silk Road is now having a way of gigantic exchange through Globalization.
It has made it possible to integrate many facets of world trade, commerce,
tourism, textile, and related sectors to gain maximum possible benefits to all
stockholders. However, Globalization has its inherent problems which are equally
qualified for a serious look. Problems such as Employment, Social degeneration,
and difficulty of competition are the culmination of a globalized way of
society. The most important issue of Globalization however is forced migration.
Globalization encourages migration from one country to another, it is
increasingly being realized that the receiving country is often laced with laws
to prevent the flow of labor thus increasing the problems of the laborers their
work in their native country has lost its value due to globalization. The strong
'pull' and 'push' migratory factors with losing the opportunities are a matter
of serious concern. Globalization through promoted free human flow, it is more
often results in the trafficking of human beings and the migrants become the
victim of traffickers and recruitment agencies who lures them for a better
future. This resulted in lifelong suffering and abuse � economically, socially,
Development-induced displacement is a social problem affecting multiple levels
of human organization, from tribal and village communities to well-developed
urban areas. Development is widely viewed as an inevitable step towards
modernization and economic growth in developing countries; however, for those
who are displaced, the result is most often loss of livelihood and
Compensation and rehabilitation policies designed to mitigate the effects of
displacement are often unsuccessful largely due to corruption, underestimation
of the value of resources, failure of proper planning. Many are often
compensated monetarily, without addressing their grievances or political support
to improve their livelihood. Poor and indigenous people are mostly affected by
displacement as they have very few political and monetary resources.
Resettlement policy may be adopted by the state, regional associations, NGOs,
but participation in the planning process is crucial to mitigation negative
Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr.Tushar Chauhan
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