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Difficulties in Making Smart Cities in India

India India is the tenth, greatest economy on earth, despite the fact that we are on the second position when talked about the in the overall populace. For the soundest monetary developemnt, India actually should focussed more on the consistently developing areas like Telecommunictions, Infrastructure, Factories, Hospital Tourisms, IT, (Foreign Direct Investment R and D under PPP model, Foreign teamed up Higher Education frameworks, Service Industries, e - Governance in a superior way. In addendum to all these, working of 100 New Smart Cities in India could be boosting of significantly more monetary development comparable to different countries across globe like China, Abu Dhabi, South Korea, Singapore, Malta and Russia.[1]

Along with the demographic patterns the cultural and monetary characteristics of the metropolitan population additionally help to fathom the thought of Indian urban areas. Wealth contrasts, for instance, are monstrous. A minor extent of India's city populace is enormously rich and shows high spending levels. At the other limit are an incredible number of oppressed people who battle every day to get by. Roads of coordinated business are lacking and accordingly many occupation wannabes investigate job open doors in the casual area where specialist's privileges and wellbeing are significant concerns.

In addition, the metropolitan culture is addressed by a fascinating blend of strict and rank gatherings that seek after an assortment of social and social practices, just as merriments. Strict functions along waterway courses going through urban areas and on open streets are a typical sight.[2]

From various perspectives, the conditions witnessed in Indian urban areas may seem to be like those in numerous parts of the world. The worry, be that as it may, is concerning the techniques continued in dealing with the urban dynamics. While the legislatures of some non-industrial nations like Chile, Mexico, Colombia, Argentina, Brazil and China to give some examples, have reacted professionally and capably to the difficulties presented by urbanization, India battles to address the issue.

Despite the fact that there are many real explanations behind the challenges experienced in Indian urban areas, one could likewise say that by and large the issue lies in the distinction between how it should have been helped the urban society and what is being finished by the stakeholders in administration.

A continuation of this example of development and administration is very likely in light of the fact that the force and responsibility with which the matter should be managed is essentially inadequate. For example, sufficient efforts and interventions are not being made to improve the situation in rural areas and in small and medium towns.[3]

Many are in a condition of absolute neglect, as clear from the appallingly poor living and livelihood conditions of their inhabitants. One ramifications of this carelessness is migration of countless individuals to prosperous urban areas, which offer some sort of reprieve. [4] Yet, assuming urbanization is to profit the country and the general public, the marvel must be overseen accurately. The current example in India is that city densities are expanding continuously and the undeniable result of an administration deficiency is decay in the urban quality of life.[5]

The present paper describes the concept of smart cities that is developed by the government, it is also have a general comment upon the issue with urbanization in India which is acting as a blockade in the Smart Cities Mission. The concluding part of the paper is about the suggestions on improvement of the current scenario.

Research Methodology
Statement of Problem:

With more than half of the world's humanity now living in urban areas, it is evident that the path to sustainable development must pass through cities. Hence with the recent announcement of 100 new smart cities, Government of India has strategically responded to both the international and the domestic audience. The present article addresses the Government of India's policy or the Guidelines, problems and issues that will act as a blockade in the ambitious plans of the Modi government.

Objectives:
  1. To study the concept of smart cities
  2. To study the key areas for the development of smart cities.
  3. To explore the challenges faced during the development of smart cities.
  4. To critically analyse the various problems with urbanization in India through live examples.
Hypothesis:
The plan set by the government is too ambitious to be successful, the current state of infrastructure as well as the mind-set of the people involved in these activities, the targets set by the government cannot be fulfilled.

Research Questions:
  1. What are the major problems and issues with urbanisation in India?
  2. What are the strong and weak points about the smart cities mission in India?
  3. Is it feasible to have smart cities in a poor nation like India?
Methodology:
The work basically fulfils doctrinal research criteria as the possibility to have an empirical study over the topic is very feeble. But the approach is analytical in nature. The area of work is studied in depth Books, articles, journals, news blogs, case studies and other such primary data's and internet sites have been searched and will be searched at large to find out the relevant data's.

Review of Literature:
Here are some literature reviews that will illustrate that what is the approach in this research and what are the materials which have been searched for carrying on this project work.
  • Urban Ecology:
    Patterns, Processes, and Applications Paperback -17 November 2011 by Jari Niemelä (Editor), Jürgen H. Breuste (Editor)
    The book is divided into five sections with the first describing the physical urban environment. Subsequent sections examine ecological patterns and processes within the urban setting, followed by the integration of ecology with social issues.
     
  • Policing Delhi:
    Urbanization, Crime and Law Enforcement Hardcover - 26 September 2011 by Om Prakash Mishra (Author)
    Focusing on the challenges posed by over-urbanization and the changes in policing to counter them, the book draws out valuable lessons applicable in various degrees in other Indian cities.

Problems with Urbanization in India
A visit to any Indian city reveals the overall situation. The whole metropolitan scene looks rather like a spontaneous spread with developed private and business structures mushrooming randomly. Support and maintenance of public spots is for the most part deficient. [6] A nearer evaluation shows noticeable imbalances in physical development and in the degree of fundamental framework and administrations inside and between urban areas.

While the rich live in planned and all around overhauled gated societies, families having a place with the low pay bunch live in casual settlements and ghettos with inadequate or no access to urban services. Mobility is seriously weakened because of lacking public offices, and abnormalities in traffic management the board regularly bring about street mishaps. At the point when it downpours, water logging occurs at numerous spots, which further limits mobility.[7]

As urbanization has united individuals from diverse social, social, financial and religious and spiritual foundations, the issue of crimes, viciousness and wrongdoing is rising. Attack on women has arisen as a significant issue. [8] In this regard, information delivered by the National Crime Records Bureau show Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Delhi and Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh) as the main three Indian urban areas, which are generally hazardous for women.

Another issue is the continuous events of violence between different religions. Ahmedabad (Gujarat) is a striking model where violence and fights between the Hindus and Muslims has ejected on various events. Such occurrences have established a climate of dread among the majority, and prompted social polarization. Consequently, Indian urban communities don't address instances of arranged, fair, protected and reasonable turn of events. [9]

This present status of undertakings can be ascribed to the way that numerous pieces of the metropolitan setting remain totally ungoverned and unregulated, and consequently an enormous number of residents/casual area laborers/business foundations use public spaces and drive their vehicles in a complicated way. It is pertinent to gain a deeper and wider understanding of the difficulties that beset India's urban sectors.[10]

Unceremonious Development In Semi-Urban Areas
One of the evil impacts of urbanization is uncontrolled populace and actual development in peri-metropolitan zones. Those people who are unable to live in prime areas of a city due to the affordability factor find peri-urban areas as ideal places to reside and operate from. Haphazard growth occurs because peri-urban areas are weakly governed. Two factors are responsible for this problem. First, there is lack of clarity among the government agencies on the physical boundaries of the peri-urban areas.[11]

Neglect in monitoring physical development in such areas over a period of time allows migrant settlers to carry out contiguous physical changes. In this process, the new constructions many-a-times extend into the adjoining rural area. Due to this reason, neither the urban nor the rural agencies come forward to take ownership of peri-urban areas, and their administration gets neglected. Secondly, the jurisdiction issue also stops and prevents the municipalities from making proper land legislations and rules.[12]

The burden made by urbanization seriously affects the peri-metropolitan regions, which experience the ill effects of a large group of social, monetary, development and climate issues. For instance, there is a sharp expansion in populace densities and in the quantity of unapproved private, business and industries.

Actual changes are completed unlawfully with no reference to nearby improvement plans, advancement controls and building bye-laws, while necessary approvals from concerned development agencies are usually not sought.[13]

Besides, agrarian land is aimlessly changed over to metropolitan use, bringing about decreased food grain and vegetable creation. This has influenced the stockpile of food to a few urban communities, which are exclusively subject to rural food-producing hinterland.[14] At a couple of spots, the issue has been defeated somewhat with the formation of public food showcases and better circulation organizations.

For instance, under a famous business drive (to be specific Safal), new leafy foods are obtained, handled and promoted in Delhi and the connecting area, just as in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Gujarat. [15] In any case, by and large, such land use changes contrarily sway the job of the cultivating local area and the needy individuals who rely upon these terrains for dairy cattle grazing and assortment of fuel wood. Changes are additionally seen in livelihood patterns from prevalently farming occupations to exchange and trade, and administration arranged occupations. [16] People who can't adapt to the change endure. Taking into account the baseless practices continued in land obtaining and the wide scope of exercises. .[17]

Community exclusion
The Indian government has an unmistakable enactment and strategy for ensuring the rights and government assistance of helpless communities living in urban communities. For this reason, a wide scope of favorable to pro-poor plans have been executed occasionally. Experimental investigations, notwithstanding, uncover that the advantages of different improvement plans are somewhat arriving at the proposed recipients. [18]

This is noted in the city of Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh), which is the parliamentary electorate of the current Prime Minister, Narendra Modi. Around here, the predicament of handloom weavers is miserable. Their silk weaving movement and pay are unfavorably influenced by various issues, including development of force (electric) looms, misuse by middlemen men, rising costs of PC produced configuration cards utilized by them to print innovative plans on the silk texture, [19] just as helpless working conditions inside their homes. In the assessment of handloom laborers, adequate measures are not being taken by the concerned government offices to address their interests.

The quickly changing and rich city of Pune (Maharashtra) presents an instance of food uncertainty. This is the impression among theslums occupants who face troubles in benefiting food grains and lamp oil from reasonable value shops according to their qualifications. "Such issues happen not in view of food deficiencies in the city yet because of misappropriation of food grains, which are exclusively implied for public dissemination). [20] Another space of avoidance is lodging.

This is noted around in Ahemadaad(Gujarat), where helpless networks have been moved to the city outskirts since land was required for a waterway front improvement project. As for one instance of migration, appropriate lodging and fundamental offices of disinfection, .[21] just as transport, wellbeing and streetlamps have not been given nor any work openings made because of which the moved families are confronting extraordinary difficulty.[22]

Expansion of slums
In India, as in many agricultural nations, urbanization has prompted the arrangement of slum dwellers . These are regions where the least fortunate of the poor live. "Their homes are worn out, fundamental urban conveniences are normally not accessible, and the ecological conditions in the space are ill suited for human residence. slum dwellers have come up on account of relocation and the regional authorities' failure to make a reasonable lodging stock for the helpless transient populace. Because of carelessness in observing empty terrains, helpless travelers fabricate transitory constructions for living." Even when lawful arrangements are presented for saving houses for the poor in the lodging stock made by the private developers, these are not clung to. [23]

Grown-ups and youngsters who live in slum dwellers are occupied with an variety of exercises. Many work as workers in the construction business. "Others run other errands which are not adequately given by the public authority in all pieces of the city, yet are truly necessary by the city inhabitants living in arranged and approved regions.

Instances of administrations offered are offer of blossoms and earthen pots, products of the soil, clothing and pressing, conveyance of papers, offer of prepared food close to office and business territories. A few group additionally fill in as workers, grounds-keepers, safety officers, cycle carts and wheel barrow administrators." Thus, from numerous points of view,slums tenants are assuming a significant part in building and running urban communities As referenced over, their complaints are complex. [24]

"As far as numbers, around 5% of India's total population and 17 percent of its all-out metropolitan populaces lives in slum dwellings. Somewhere in the range of 2001 and 2011, the slum populace of India swell by 25%.[25] A stressing pattern is the development of slum dwellers in some Northern and Northeastern States, which recently didn't report their reality."

Five urban communities:
In particular Vijayawada and Greater Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), Greater Mumbai (Maharashtra), and Meerut (Uttar Pradesh) [26]- have recorded more than 40% slum families. Concerning the situation with conveniences accessible to theslums occupants, the all-India information show that many slums families don't have drinking water source (43%) and latrines (34%) inside their premises. [27]

Accelerating water catastrophe [28]
Human Human settlements require an adequate and fair stock of water. However, the truth in most Indian urban communities is that this objective is a long way from accomplished. In residential colonies, for instance, piped metropolitan water is gotten for around 2 hours each toward the beginning of the day and evening, and the water supply and pressing factor have gone down essentially throughout the long term.

The nature of water is another issue. Taking into account the momentum circumstance, inhabitants make their own courses of action for acquiring, putting away and treating water. They install powerful electric engines to powerfully pull water straightforwardly from the pipeline during supply hours, introduce underground/overhead water stockpiling tanks, and purchase water filtration frameworks to secure their wellbeing.

These actions directly affect their incomes, as seen from the expanding private (singular) expenses of deficiently offered public types of assistance and foundation. When we talk about slums, they present a differentiating image of significant water insufficiencies. Formal frameworks (piped supply) have commonly not been set up and subsequently illicit ground water extraction is uncontrolled. These practices have prompted declining ground water levels. .[29]

A general evaluation of the city water [30]situations uncovers the accompanying significant inadequacies: [31]
  1. Demand and supply huge gap
  2. Poor activity and upkeep of water supply frameworks, as well as water losses caused by leakages in transmission and distribution lines,
  3. Excessive use/wastage by consumers bringing about part from non-practical and faulty meters,
  4. Contamination of surface water bodies and ground water, and important intra-metropolitan aberrations.

Other than access, water represents another danger. Some Indian urban areas - specifically Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Mumbai (Maharashtra), Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) - have encountered enormous flooding because of either heavy downpour or potentially helpless administration of waterway dam water.

The circumstance deteriorates because of insufficient seepage and waste administration frameworks and unlawful development of constructed structures that forestall the common progression of water. [32] Absence of readiness in managing water related catastrophes makes misfortune life, job and property, with low-pay networks being the most exceedingly terrible influenced. [33]

Mishandling of solid waste [34]
Urban areas produce huge amounts of solid waste and hence instruments have been made for its assortment and removal. The sanitary condition of Indian urban communities is, notwithstanding, inadmissible, as waste is frequently unloaded by the generators at improper places like side of the road, empty grounds, open depletes and surface water bodies.

The situation is better at places where door-to-door collection services are available. Yet, administration giving organizations now and then submit anomalies in taking care of waste. Adequate provisions are not made segregate waste at source and subsequently the amounts produced are tremendous. Such practices additionally preclude the chance of reusing, as a wide range of waste gets stirred up.

There are delays in the expulsion of waste from intermediate collection points, and at the last removal destinations, adequate room for putting away waste isn't accessible. [35] The stores of waste lying at removal locales is additionally a danger to human wellbeing in light of the fact that during the blustery season, water breaks up harmful material materials and sullies surface and ground water. As the limit of unloading locales in certain urban areas (like Delhi and Ahmedabad) is depleted, there are cases of waste being unloaded by regional authorities on empty grounds in peri-metropolitan regions lying outside city limits. [36]

The Smart Cities Mission
Whenever there is a change in government, fresh ideas are put forward to build an identity and generate interest among the citizens. Drawing upon the lessons learned from the developed world, the current national leadership under Prime Minister Narendra Modi introduced the idea of 'making 100 smart cities' to the people of the country when they were elected to power in May 2014.[37]

Relevance and soundness of the Mission
Indian metro areas and towns are in desperate need of better planning and organization, and new thoughts are critically required. Past endeavors in such manner have met with little accomplishment because of various reasons. Also, numerous plans have stayed distinctly on paper. Consequently, the Smart Cities Mission might be viewed as a chance given to State and local governments to plan and take forward brilliant thoughts by beating the obstructions present previously.

The strong points of the Mission
The smart cities proposal skimmed by the Urban Development Ministry is sound from multiple points of view: [38
  • At least one city from each Indian State and UT has been chosen under the Mission, and an evenhanded and straightforward interaction has been continued in the determination of urban areas.
  • Apart from some pointers by the Union Ministry on the basic features that smart cities should have (such as mixed land use, housing for all, pedestrian areas, open spaces, transport options, citizen-friendly and cost effective governance, creating city identity), it has been left to the State/UT/local agencies and the citizens to evolve their own understanding about how they want their cities to function smartly.[39]
  • Consulting firms, foreign governments, bilateral and multilateral institutions, and domestic organisations having experience in smart city development can be involved by the States/UTs in the preparation of smart city plans.
  • While one portion of the city maybe improved (i.e., area-based development), there is also scope for applying smart solutions to existing city-wide infrastructure.
  • A special purpose vehicle (SPV) will be constituted in each city for implementing smart projects under the Mission, as against the traditional parastatal/municipality-led model of urban development.[40]
  • The national government will offer one-half of the financial support (US$ 7.5 billion) to State/UT/local governments for meeting the project cost.
  • The Mission will converge with other urban development schemes of the Modi government, such as the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), Clean India Mission, Housing for All, National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Plan, Digital India, Skill Development, Financial Inclusion.

Some areas of concerns
It is, however, doubtful whether the Mission will achieve its goal of making smart cities. Some areas of concern may be described here.[41]
  • Instead of the entire city, one part will be selected for carrying out the improvement work. Accordingly, during the five-year duration of the Mission, only one part of the city will undergo a transformation, whereas during the same time period, the remaining parts of the city will be developed and governed in the usual manner, which is currently marked by numerous inefficiencies. This approach could thus widen development inequalities further.
     
  • Improvement of one part of the city will have to be done wisely. For example, in an effort to provide 24 X 7 drinking water supply or electricity, the services of other parts of the city should not be affected. Currently, there is evidence that due to a continuous requirement of such services by the commercial establishments (such as Malls), government departments often resort to the practice of load shedding. This disturbs the supply in many residential areas.
     
  • Poor and vulnerable groups may be found living within the specific areas selected from the city for the purpose of transformation. For example, the area under the jurisdiction of the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) has been selected in the city of Delhi. Census data for 2011 show the existence of 4,412 slum households in this area. About 20,000 people, or 8 per cent of the total population of NDMC, live in slums.

    However, the smart city plan of NDMC does not provide sufficient information on how the living and livelihood condition of slum dwellers, beggars, and poor people with disabilities would be improved. Another aspect that has been neglected pertains to the regulation of informal sector workers who are currently found selling goods on roadsides and pavements that are meant for walking.[42]
     
  • The rapid informal growth in peri-urban areas is a negative consequence of urbanization. As described in an earlier section of the paper, peri-urban areas suffer from numerous social, economic, development and environment problems. While these problems should have been dealt with, the Mission only provides for greenfield (new) development on vacant land around cities in order to cater to the requirements of the expanding urban population. With passing time, conditions in peri-urban areas will further deteriorate, making it increasingly difficult to address this issue.[43]
     
  • Traditional development and governance mechanisms (i.e., parastatal agencies and municipalities) have been bypassed, and the entire work of urban transformation under the Mission will be handled by the proposed city-level special purpose vehicle (SPV). Though the SPV will be represented by State and non-State actors, it will have to demonstrate improved levels of efficiency in raising project funds, and in project implementation and rules' enforcement.

    These matters have seriously hindered the progress of urban development in the past. Furthermore, efforts to strengthen the functioning of traditional institutions must continue, because on the one hand, the SPVs will be dependent on these for meeting their resource needs, and on the other, parts of the city not covered under the Mission will need to be efficiently looked after by traditional institutions.

Suggestions and Solutions
  1. E-governance & Citizen Services
    1. Establish Public information /grievance redressal cell
    2. Develop Electronic Service delivery system
    3. Ensure Citizen Engagement in city governance
    4. Citizen - City's eyes & ears
    5. Video crime monitoring.
       
  2. Waste Management [44]
    1. Waste to energy & fuel generation,
    2. Waste to compost development,
    3. Waste water treatment, preventive, Maintenance
    4. Waste Recycling & Reduction of C & D
       
  3. Water Management
    1. Smart meter & management
    2. Leakage identification
    3. Water quality monitoring
    4. Preventive management
     
  4. Energy Management
    1. Smart meter & management
    2. Renewable source of energy
    3. Energy efficient & green building
       
  5. Urban Mobility [45]
    1. Smart Parking,
    2. Intelligent traffic management,
    3. Integrated multi modal transport system.

     
  6. Others[46]
    1. Telemedicine & tele -education
    2. Incubation / trade facilitation centre
    3. Skill development centers.
Conclusion
The The current leaders of India has launched the Smart Cities Mission in June 2015 fully intent on giving a superior personal satisfaction to the residents in 100 existing urban areas covering all States and Union Territories in the country. A five-year timetable has been saved for finishing the advancement projects proposed for every city. During the previous one year, preliminary work has been done at the public, state and neighbourhood level to take the Mission plan forward.

According to the current status of the Mission, a few urban communities have arranged their smart city plans and established Special Purpose Vehicles for executing the undertakings. The Union Urban Ministry is asking governments at the State/UT/neighborhood level to make supportive of dynamic strides in assembling coordinating with measure of assets, just as in getting ready and executing the ventures on schedule, so the fruition cutoff times are met. The ADB and World Bank have likewise consented to broaden an advance for the execution of bankable activities.[47]

For the achievement of the Mission, this investigation records down the accompanying recommendations: [48]
  • Government offices and occupants in India should react in a legitimate and mindful way if the vision is to be accomplished
  • Centre, State and nearby administration should cooperate to discover approaches to manage the convoluted world of politics that right now hampers urban development incredibly.
  • Opportunities ought to be made for a continuous exchange of ideas and experiences, and the information consequently produced ought to be used in refining the smart city system.
  • Smart city plans ought to likewise contain proposals on overseeing ignored issues, like public wellbeing and security; living and business of poor and weak people, and transients; joblessness; water, waste and disinfection insufficiencies; gridlock and vehicular discharges; natural corruption; infringements and unapproved developments; indiscriminate development in peri-metropolitan regions; helpless administration of strict and social merriments at public spots. [49]
  •  Manpower, monetary and traditional urban local institutions neighborhood foundations ought to be reinforced by getting sorted out valuable preparing programs, and the higher levels of the public authority should offer the fundamental help to guarantee that the exercises picked up during preparing are effectively executed.
  • Civic offices ought to be enough engaged for project execution and authorization of laws. State and nearby governments ought to be helped with expanding their duty and non-charge incomes for everyday city the executives, just as for meeting the expenses engaged with carrying out new advancement projects. Proficiently oversaw administrations (both on the web and disconnected) ought to be made accessible to residents for announcing protests, for example, water logging, broken street, power disappointment, and so on, and such issues ought to be settled in a period bound way by the concerned offices.[50]
  • Committed non-state entertainers, like NGOs and the private area, working for the government assistance of the city and its occupants, ought to be occupied with the metropolitan change measure. Adequate mindfulness ought to be produced among the jobless people about different profession alternatives, and they ought to be helped with beginning different sorts of pay creating exercises.
  • Greater assets ought to be distributed for improving the limit of existing metropolitan arranging schooling establishments, and new foundations ought to be worked for expanding the quantity of metropolitan organizers and administrators in Indian cities.

Bibliography and References:
Books
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Articles, blogs and news reports
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  • Cohen, boyed (2014). the top 10 smart cities On the Planet
  • The Financial express (2014). Growing cities, the Financial Express, New Delhi
  • Rediff.com. Polarisation shows Gujarat has had a terrible experience
  • The Wire. 'Ahmedabad is no city for the poor, says study', 12 June 2015.

Others
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  • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Status Report on Municipal Solid Waste Management. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, 2012.
  • NCRB Report: These 6 Indian cities have the highest rate of crimes against women', by Vishnu Varma, 1 September 2016b
Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD). E-Book. Available from:
End-Notes:
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    (PDF) Smart Cities in India: Challenges and Possibilities to attain Sustainable Urbanisation #. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314238432_Smart_Cities_in_India_Challenges_and_Possibilities_to_atta n_Sustainable_Urbanisation [accessed Mar 27 2021].
  4. Aijaz, Rumi. India's Urbanisation Experiences. E-Book. Global Policy and ORF, 2015a.
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  6. Hans Schaffers, Nicos Komninos, et.al (2011) Smart Cities and the Future Internet: Towards Cooperation Frameworks for Open Innovation
  7. Cohen, boyed (2014). the top 10 smart cities On the Planet (http://www. fastcoexist.com/1679127/the-top-10-smart-cities-on-the-planet) accessed on 22-08-2014.
    (PDF) Smart Cities in India: Challenges and Possibilities to attain Sustainable Urbanisation #. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314238432_Smart_Cities_in_India_Challenges_and_Possibilities_to_attain_Sustainable_Urbanisation [accessed Mar 27 2021].
  8. The Financial express (2014). Growing cities, the Financial Express, New Delhi, 20-08-2014.
  9. Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) and Observer Research Foundation (ORF). Emerging Challenges in an Urbanising India. Project Report, 2016.
  10. Rediff.com. Polarisation shows Gujarat has had a terrible experience, 23 April 2014.
  11. Kundu, A. and Basu, S. "Informal Manufacturing Sector in Urban Areas An Analysis of Recent Trends", Manpower Journal, 34(1), April - June 1998.
  12. Koenigsberger, O. "New towns in India" Town Planning Review 23 (2), 95-131, 1952. J. Domingue et al. (Eds.): Future Internet Assembly, LNCS 6656, pp. 431-446, 2011
  13. Narain, V., P. Anand and P. Banerjee. 'Periurbanization in India: A Review of the Literature and Evidence', Report for the Project - Rural to Urban Transitions and the Peri-urban Interface. SaciWATERs. India, 2013
  14. Volker Buscher, Michelle Tabet. Gareth Ashley, Léan Doody, Jason McDermott, Michael Tomordy, Smart Cities Transforming the 21st century city via the creative use of technology, Arup's IT & Communications Systems team, 2010
  15. Lintelo, D., Fiona Marshall and D.S. Bhupal. 'Peri-urban Agriculture in Delhi, India', Food, Nutrition and Agriculture, Journal of the FAO Food and Nutrition Division, No. 29, 2001.
  16. Karmakar, Joy. 'Emergence of Census Towns and its Socio-Economic Condition: Case of West Bengal', Pratidhwani the Eco. 3 (4): 22-34, Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Published by Department of Bengali, Karimganj College, Assam, 2015.
  17. Isher Judge Ahluwalia. Transforming Our Cities, Harper Collins, 2014. [8] Washburn, D., Sindhu, U., Balaouras, S., Dines, R. A., Hayes, N. M.,and Nelson, L. E, Helping CIOs Understand "Smart City" Initiatives:Defining the Smart City, It s Drivers, and the Role of the CIO. Cambridge, MA: Forrester Research, Inc., Vartanian, T. P., Secondary data analysis. New York, NY: Oxford, 2010.
  18. Aijaz, Rumi. 'Social Marginalisation in Urban India and the Role of the State'. ORF Issue Brief. No. 118, December 2015b
  19. NDTV. 'Silk Weavers in Varanasi Hang on by Thread, Plead for Rescue', 4 May 2014.
  20. Infochange Agenda. 'Multidimensional Poverty in Pune', Excerpts from the CCDS Study, October 2014.
  21. Mathur, Navdeep. 'On the Sabarmati Riverfront - Urban Planning as Totalitarian Governance in Ahmedabad', Economic and Political Weekly. XLVII (47 & 48), 1 December 2012.
  22. The Wire. 'Ahmedabad is no city for the poor, says study', 12 June 2015.
  23. Komninos, N., Intelligent cities: innovation, knowledge systems, and digital spaces, 2002
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  48. Supra note 23 at 15.
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  51. Rios P (2008) Creatingthe smart city. Available viahttp://dspace.udmercy.edu:8080/dspace/bitstream/10429/20/1/2008_rios_smart.pdf.

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