It is organized crime align through national frontier, including groups or
markets of a specific person operating in different countries to plan and
implement illicit business activities. In order to obtain their targets, these
delinquent groups use massive violation and corruption. The idea of
, from a criminological point of view originated
from the mid-1970s although the United Nations used the word for the purpose of
to recognize certain illicit activities which surpass national authorities.
The causes of organized criminality in the area can be classified into
appropriate poverty, corruption, poor management, and also matters of
discrimination and social adaptability. It also includes human trafficking, drug
trafficking, commercial sex, weapons trafficking and smuggling in stolen
Although, organized criminality in its existing formulation appeared in Mumbai
after Independence initiation of prohibition which was reached to underground
trade in illegitimate liquor. The beginnings of this criminality had been spread
in Mumbai city for other people to imitate in various parts of the nation.
Gangland in Mumbai
Mastan Haider Mirza was famously known as Sultan Mirza. He was born in 1926 in
Tamil Nadu. When he was 8 years old, he came to Mumbai with his father in 1934.
10 years later, he started working as a porter at the harbor and started
bootlegging gold bars, watches and transistors. After that he then undertaken
He always retained bond of friendship with the cops and political leaders and
often encouraged peacefulness among rival gangs. He started working with an
illegal trafficking association in Mumbai and through the Gujarat coastline and
afterwards varied within film funding and estate property businesses. He
monitored various locations of the city. Mastan's ruination began with his
detention throughout the crisis in the 1970s. He passed away in 1994.
Abdul Karim Sher Khan was born in a Pashtun family in Afghanistan. He came to
Mumbai in 1930s and has begun by settlement of disputes by arranging a gang of
Pathans. He also ran gambling houses and undertaken into smuggling of silver,
gold and electronic equipment. He also ran extortion. He dealt with drugs. He
had collaborative work with Haji Mastan and Varadarajan Mudaliar, all three
monitored the Mumbai gangland till the 1970s. (timesofindia, 2015)
He was famously known as 'Vardabhai'who initiated as a porter at the Victoria
Terminus railway station but now it is termed as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Terminus. He started stealing money at the Mumbai harbor and later graduated to
black market in the 1960s. He gained great wealth through such criminal
activities and also corrupt law and orders significantly.
In the mid-1980s, he turned so powerful that he used to control conclaves in his
zone commanding to resolve disputes. In following years, he assorted his
unlawful acts into trafficking, car thefts, and contract killings, matka
gambling, ruling the city's clandestine, for over a decennium till 1980s.
Dawood Ibrahim was a son of police constable. He began into gang warfare since
he was living in Dongri area of Mumbai. He has become a tremendous mobster of
transnational crime in the 1970s. He was involved in gold smuggling, drug
trafficking providing transportation into illicit activities. Later he moved to
Mumbai due to distress of law enforcement authorities in India. The main trade
of the gang is racketeering, contract killings, illegal trading of weapons and
gambling. So far cricket betting is part of the leading trade of the Dawood
Arun Gawli Gang
He was born into an impoverished family habituated in Khandwa, Madhya Pradesh,
though in the mid-1950s, they moved to Mumbai. After the death of Ramya Naik,
the mantel of the management of his group dropped on the shoulders of Arun Gawli.
There had been various inter-gang muders against the Dawood gang and they have
also focused mutually in economic and political business.
He was imprisoned in 1990s and although he was released on bail by the
judiciary, he decides to stay in prison specially to avoid the rage of the
Dawood gang. He keeps operating his criminal domain from inside the prison
places by passing information through his visitants. His gang is engaged in
accumulation of extortion money from wealthy businessman and also contract
murders. He has been sentenced for the murder on 31st August 2012.
Amar Naik Gang
This gang was started in the 1980 and they began with the accumulation of
extortion money from different vegetable sellers in Dadar, Mumbai . Although Ram
Bhatt, the head of this gang was punishable with imprisonment in a burglary
case, Amar Naik took over the rules. The principal idea of his illicit
activities was to collect extortion money from hawkers, bootleggers, traffickers
and vegetable sellers. Amar Naik died on August 9, 1996.
Chota Rajan Gang
Chota Rajan started his criminal business with the Dawoon Ibrahim. Addressing
from Mumbai's eastern outskirts of Chembur, he commenced out with extortion.
Consequent to the 1993 serial attack in Mumbai, Dawood's gang was distributed on
common lines and Chota Rajan dropped with Dawood and escaped from India. He
brought a new gangster in 1994-1995. His fields of operation are in the states
of Maharashtra, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh. He is fundamentally a drug dealer and
professional killer. (More, 2020)
Community support various types of organized mobster indirectly. It has been
convincingly claimed that organized crime as a result of a specific structure of
the community. Donald Taft has discussed that:
The motives for organized crime are largely as the same as those valued and so
highly valued in the free enterprise system.
Robert Woetzel has presented the cohabiting of rule and lawlessness in the
The vast majority of people today would like to have their proverbial cake and
eat it too, by theoretically an affirming values in which they hold dear and at
that time reserving for themselves a certain leeway by realizing the wishes
which may not always correspond to those values.
As a result, law and high degree of lawlessness were quit side by side, and
moralists and the gangsters complement with each other. It is this situation as
well as the toleration of illegal services which act as a serious handicap in
the control and prevention of organized crime. The public demands actions as
sporadically as an intermittent, sensational disclosures which reveal corruption
caused by the organized crime.
Without sustained public pressure, law enforcement officers and politicians have
little incentive to address themselves to combating organized crime. So long
political corruption exists in the country (which in India has now assumed
scandalous proportions), a drive against organized crime will have no meaning.
The vicious circle perpetuates itself. Corrupt politicians will not act unless
the public so demands; the public will not insist for action till it gets the
required services provided by-organized crime; and the police will not take
prevention seriously till it gets its due share. (Ahuja, 2000)
It could be stated that permanent resistance is accomplished by criminal
organization gangs in different ways:
The leadership of criminal organization are not generally detained and
prosecuted since they stick around the scenes of procedure.
Individuals diminish in the pecking order, if detained, then possible to be
released by exposure led by the superiors. Individuals like cops, magistrates,
doctors, businessman etc. They are not directly engaged in illegal activities
contribute, for different reasons, to the safety of organized criminality.
Protection is ensured by obtaining political authority through participation to
political associations and political entity, especially for disputing elections,
and 'procurement' the encouragement of members of the conflicting parties.
Several chosen political leaders thus above their election to criminal
A certain quantity of exemption results from public endurance of criminal
organization, because it offers the people with illegal and required services,
as for example alcohol, drug trafficking, call-girls, etc.
Resistance is also offered by the working of regulation itself. In some cases,
there are such shortcomings in the legislation that attorneys manage to rescue
criminals from judicial proceedings. Lack of efficacy regulation and weak
implementation of the law are a consideration of official endurance of criminal
Criminal organization is capable of elude ordinance through infiltration in
legal work. Occasionally organized crime and lawful business perhaps even
cooperatively support each other.
Sometimes, the vicinity of manufacturing industries with the underworld has
resulted to disastrous consequences. The murder of Thaquiuddin Wahid of East
West Airlines in 1996, Sunil Khatau of Khatau Mills in 1994, Om Prakash Kukreja
of Kukreja Builders in 1995, Ramnath Payyade, a prominent hotelier the same
year, are cases at some point.
They were shot to death because of a perceived vicinity to different mafia
group. In recent months, the pressurize of organized criminal gangs have become
so fierce that trading houses had been obliged to migrate themselves and
international investors have had to leave. Such information has come from Bihar,
Mumbai and Gurgaon in the during recent years.
Mafia activity is finding better lives and unexplored territory every day.
We frequently hear of the coal mafia, timber mafia, sandalwood mafia, lottery
mafia, tender mafia etc. But what is most troubling is the invasions criminal
organization has made into the politics of the country. There was one moment
when anyone with a criminal record could not challenge to seek a ticket for
elections from any party. Nowadays, politicians not only recruit anti-social
components to help them in elections but also to kill their opponents. (KUMAR)
Organized crime be followed to endure till legislature perform laws
rendering illicit any of the activities, range of goods and services required by
considerable numbers of the community. Politicians probably consider that lot of
effort spent exposing criminal organization possibly would be ruining to their
prospects for the future.
Written by: Dalima Poojari
- Ahuja, R. (2000). Criminology. Jaipur.
- Kumar, N. (n.d.). Organised crime. Retrieved from https://eprints.soas.ac.uk/17278/1/1999/483/483%20kumar.htm.
- More, H. (2020, March). Organised Crime in India. Retrieved from
- timesofindia. (2015, November). Underworld Dons Of Mumbai. Retrieved
from National Forensic Sciences University,
Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India