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Women And Law

This article talks about Women and the laws related to Women. Women hold a well built place in society. Whether we talk about Sports or education, women have crossed every hurdle to reach their aims. But there are some challenges, they face commonly. These should be curtailed so as to not stop the succeeding qualities among women. This article deals with those hurdles and how these problems can be solved. There are some examples of women who have never found trp's but still have always been role models of many.

Abstract
These Chapters included revolve around the status of women in society whether its social, political. The discussion is mainly on the role of a woman in the society of stereotypes. This will take us to a journey how women were treated in ancient times and how the time has changed when a woman is the leader of the nation. The discussions includes certain laws and schemes made by government to empower women.

Now a days when a woman is allowed to work but still faces challenges at workplaces is also included in this chapters. The main idea to writes these chapters is to have a clear crystal image of woman in society. A statiscal view of the things makes the way clear to understand. Many prominent ladies have showed their contribution to the society and that is also included. At last but not the least a way forward on seeing the whole discussion to tackle various problems of women in modern times is also given.

Women

Rightly did Swami Vivekanand say, 'Just as a bird can not fly with one wing only, a Nation can not march forward if the women are left behind'.

India is known for its Culture, Sacraments, Secularism and uncountable qualities. And taking all these features forward a woman not only serves her family but the whole country. This is not the time when a girl gets married at the age of 14 or is ordered to work at home only but we belong to the era of Women like Kalpana Chawla, Kiran Bedi, Bachendri Pal who made histories.

Woman is considered as 'Shakti' - The Primordial Cosmic energy, The Mother of Universe. She is even celebrated the most powerful and empowering force is Hindu scriptures . A man builds a house but a woman makes it a home. Playing different roles in a single face she serves not only her family but the Whole Universe.

According to the Hindu culture a woman is the other half of a man. Not only in terms of body but soul, heart, mind also. Each has what the other does not have. Just as the sea is nothing without water a society is nothing without a woman. If a man gets educated he runs his family but if a woman educates she runs a generation. Thus the women ought to be respected.

Every creature in this universe is Rightfully Permitted to survive according to his deeds and so the women are. Right from the ancient times, a woman is respected as a Goddess but on the other side of the coin she is treated as a prisoner. Taking the journey to The Holy Ramayan We see Mata Sita the only wife of Shree Ram, Choosing the hardships of Forest on the foortprints of her husband rather than leave her husband, is worshipped as The Goodess Laxmi.

But Ravan imprisoned her. Out of infatuation for her, the tyrant Ravana met his ignoble end. Out of many stories like The humiliation of Draupadi, Kindnapping of Sita we see direspecting a woman results to one's total annihilation.

Harassing woman is commom thing we hear almost everyday. Stepping out of the home lets her feel insecure be it is a park, a lonely road, or her workplace.

Sexual Harassment of Women at workplace

Harassment anywhere is a threat to morality everywhere. All are equal before the eyes of law Article 14 of Indian Constitution provides us with this Provision. And these ALL have the right to stand on their own feet. These all include women also. So even the The Knowledge Palace of India (The Indian Constitution) Gives Women the rights equal to Men, so women can't be kept back in any field. But this throbbing act Sexual Harassment deprives them from enjoying such right. Sexual Harassment to women fill them with the feeling of Insecurity, demorality, Loss of confidence, everywhere either they are at home or workplace. Number of cases for Sexual Harassment can be seen at their Workplaces which discourages women's participation in work.

Women are not allowed to Work and some girls are even dropped out of the school in fear of sexual harassment. The average dropout rate of girls was 17.3% at the secondary education level and 4.74% at the elementary level in 2018-19. As Sexual Harassment is a matter of Concern for every Father.

Throwing light on Vishakha and others v State of Rajasthan we find the victory of thousands women who are working. The court in this case decided that the consideration of "International Conventions and norms are significant for the purpose of interpretation of the guarantee of gender equality, right to work with human dignity in Articles 14, 15, 19(1)(g) and 21 of the Constitution and the safeguards against sexual harassment implicit therein."

This was only to solve the problem of Sexual harassment in 1997 , India finally passed its law on prevention of sexual harassment against female employees at workplace. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 ("Sexual Harassment Act") which came into force on 3 September 2013.

According to the Press Information Bureau of the Government of India:
The Act will ensure that women are protected against sexual harassment at all the work places, be it in public or private. This will contribute to realisation of their right to gender equality, life and liberty and equality in working conditions everywhere. The sense of security at the workplace will improve women's participation in work, resulting in their economic empowerment and inclusive growth.[10]

Many schemes for Women are launched by Government:
  • Beti Bchao Beti padhao
  • Kanya Kosh
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandhana Yojna
  • Scheme for Relief and Rehabilitation of Women Acid Victims, and many more.

With the growing contribution of Women towards nation and various opportunities provided by government to women we see the nation is towards progress and one day a woman will freely leave for work from home.

Women and Environment

The world's women are the key to sustainable development, peace and security," U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon told participants at the Earth Institute's State of the Planet meeting at Columbia University, in New York City, in March 2010.

We are the citizens of that nation where a woman serves not only home and nation as well, Women like Gunjan Saxena (Served the country during Kargil War), Neerja Bhanot (Sacrificed her life to save many passengers during a plane jijack ) have proved this. This is the era of women who made histories.

Whether it is Civil disobedience or Salt March, Home or Battlefield, Women like Sarojini Naidu and Rani Lakshmi Bai have always been the backbone. When it comes to the environment, a woman contributes a lot to the conservation of environment. If she can cook vegetables then growing vegetables is not rocket science for her. She spends most of her time Securing natural sources like collecting and storing water, Securing sourcez of fuel, Food and manages land be it forests or crop fields.

In many villages we see rearing of animals is often done by females. Owning kids with her a woman works as a labourer as well. Besides her sacrifices she works, A woman is not paid for her work. Working all day whether it is home or farm she is not paid wages. Let u draw our attention towards those women who contributed towards environment

Gauri Devi:

Who is not aware of the Chipko ( means to hug ) Movement started in 1974, but all of us remember Sunderlal Bhaguna, its leader. There was a woman too behind this successful movement named Gauri Devi, who was the head of Mahila Mangal Dal, organized the women to hug the trees and prevent their cutting.

Medha Patkar:

A popular Environmentalist, who is known for her contribution in Narmada Bachao Andholan (NBA)- a powerful mass movement against the construction of a large dam on the Narmada River.

Sunita Narain:

Thr Director General of Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), and publisher of Down to Earth, holding membership in Prime Minister's council for Climate Change and National Ganga River Basin Authority. She has chaired the Tiger Task Force for coservation in 2005. and, any more women contributing their selfless efforts towards Environment.

Marginalisation and women

Marginalization:- Treatment of a person, group, or concept as insignificant or peripheral.

The definition of marginalisation in itself shows how discriminating this word is. And when attached to a specific gender a war including emotions, dreams, sacrifices arises. As studied in the earlier chapter Women work in fields and are not paid wages. But a man working in the field is paid according to his work. Discrimination comes in many forms, it might be in terms of job opportunities, dress codes, or education. Putting light on the recent situaton in Afghanistan where women are marginalised, either its the matter of her dress, education, or job. She is restricted to come out of the home even though.

This is a report on the platform THE WEEK:
While under the Taliban regime, women were threatened with dismemberment for wearing nail polish or lipstick; they were publicly flogged for breaking the dres code and were not allowed to leave their homes without a male companion. There is fear that these regressive norms could return if the Taliban takes a seat of power. What do women make of the peace talks? What is to be the expected outcome and how will if affect women?

A women was even shot to dead for not wearing Hijab properly. Some important examples of women marginalisation:
  • Female Foeticide and infanticide
  • The Gender Gap
  • Being Forbidden to Drive
  • Restrictions on clothing
  • Not being allowed to travel
  • Honor killing
  • Female Infanticide

Lack of Legal Rights

In Ancient times killing of a newly born girl (Infanticide) was a common thing. Lack of technology did lead the baby take birth, if he was a boy a grand then people welcomed him with great honour, but if she was a girl, People took her rught to live. But now we can see with the advent of technology, we can find out whether the baby is a girl or a boy. If there is girl she is aborted (female foeticide).

Facts on female Infanticide
  1. According to a recent report by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) up to 50 million girls and women are missing from India' s population as a result of systematic gender discrimination in India.
  2. In most countries in the world, there are approximately 105 female births for every 100 males.
  3. In India, there are less than 93 women for every 100 men in the population.
  4. The United Nations says an estimated 2,000 unborn girls are illegally aborted every day in India.

Government on seeing such situations has formulated many laws and schemes. These can be listed as:
  1. The Laws favouring Girl Education
  2. The Laws favouring Women's right
  3. The Laws favouring Equal Property Share for a daughter
  4. Other schemes for girl child

Source: Portal Content Team

Laws passed in India to alleviate female foeticide

Other Legislation Year Passed Goals

Dowry Prohibition Act 1961 Prohibits families from taking a dowry, punishable with imprisonment

Hindu Marriage Act 1955 Rules around marriage and divorce for Hindus

Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956 Deals with the legal process of adopting children and the legal obligation to provide "maintenance" for other family members

Immoral Traffic Prevention Act 1986 Stops sex trafficking and exploitation

Equal Remuneration Act 1976 Prevents monetary discrimination between men and women in the workforce

Female Infanticide Act 1870 Prevents female infanticide (Act passed in British India)

Ban on ultrasound testing 1996 Bans prenatal sex determination

Source:[49]

Many laws have been implemented to curb female foeticide:

  • The Constitution of India, 1950
  • Section 312 of the Indian Penal Code 1860 read with the Medical termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971
  • The Indian Penal Code, 1860
    Sections 312-316 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) deal with miscarriage and death of an unborn child and depending on the severity and intention with which the crime is committed, the penalties range from seven years of imprisonment and fine to life imprisonment.
  • The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971
  • The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 was conceived as a tool to let the pregnant women decide on the number and frequency of children
  • The Pre-Conception And Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation And Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994
  • To combat the practice of female foeticide in the country through misuse of technology.
  • We come to conclude that strict laws have been made to tackle the problems of female foeticeide but all we need is educate ourselves that women in no matter less than men.

Covid-19 pendamic and its impact on women

Coronavirus disease is an infectious disease caused by thr SARS-CoV-2 virus. Covid-19 has deadly impacts on everyone. Some sufferedphysically and some emotionally. It proved to be breathe taking for many of the people living worldwide. A disease that was unbelievable to cause worldwide sadness.

Government of India imposed a nationwide lockdown as a precautionary measure. But still it took away many lives. and is still holding us tightly. Amid this pendamic when whole nation was staying home and got off from work, the only person from every family for whom there was no lockdown at all or we can say who was not off from work, was a woman. She was still working at home and could not feel like lockdown anywhere. Her works was triple folded.

She had to do household works, if working then her office works, look after her family, and give special to attention to her kids as the classes ran online. We got to see an all round person within her. Caring for whole family missed her own care. And so woman were badly affected by corona virus. Although covid-19 had its variou impacts like it lead economic crisis, health issues, unpaid care work, gender based violence. Although we got to hear number of cases regarding woman security if detected positive and brought to covd care centre.

This is a report On 5 April, the Secretary-General called for a global ceasefire and an end to all violence everywhere so that we can focus our attention and resources on stopping this pandemic.

But violence is not just on the battlefield. It is also in homes. Violence against women and girls is increasing globally as the COVID-19 pandemic combines with economic and social stresses and measures to restrict contact and movement. Crowded homes, substance abuse, limited access to services and reduced peer support are exacerbating these conditions. While it is too early for comprehensive data, there are already many deeply concerning reports of increased violence against women around the world, with surges being reported in many cases of upwards of 25% in countries with reporting systems in place.

In some countries reported cases have doubled. Alongside the increase in numbers, violence against women is taking on new complexity: exposure to COVID-19 is being used as a threat; abusers are exploiting the inability of women to call for help or escape; women risk being thrown out on the street with nowhere to go.

At the same time, support services are struggling. Judicial, police and health services that are the first responders for women are overwhelmed, have shifted priorities, or are otherwise unable to help. Civil society groups are affected by lockdown or reallocation of resources. Some domestic violence shelters are full; others have had to close or have been repurposed as health centres.

It is important for national response plans to prioritize support for women by implementing measures that have proven to be effective.


Women Rights and Cyber bullying

A right is essentially an entitlement or a justified claim. It debotes what we are entitled to as citizens, as individuals and as human beings. Right help us to live a happy life with dignity. Indian Constitution provide everyone citizen equal rights. These rights are termed as Fundamental Rights. Fundamental Rights give birth to equality.

But these equalities are broken by humans since ancient times. Inequalities come in different form e:g in terms of colour, caste, creed and gender. Among these the most hilarious one is Gender inequality which started from the colonial rule and never ended. We talk about mankind but what about women? Gender inequality resulted in many protests, htredness. A sense of Faminism developed among people. In ancient times a girl was not allowed to get education, inspite worked at home.

We could see Sati Pratha, there was no involvement of women in formation of Government, no Woman was allowed to go out and work. But now in modern times we see women leading every field. Women have their contributions in nation building, defence forces, politics etc. There is a tribal community known as Koya found in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Odhisa. They prefer females over males and even they have a culture during marriages that a bride will come empty hands to the house of her in laws and the groom has to greet her with gifts and money. Although such practices are against equality but this is done just to ensure women are no less than men.

On the grounds of gender equality, here are some rights an Indian woman holds in India:

  1. Women have the right to equal pay
  2. Women have the right to dignity and decency
  3. Women have the right against workplace harassment
  4. Women have a right against domestic violence
  5. Female sexual assault victims have the right to keep their identity anonymous
  6. Women have the right to get free legal aid
  7. Women have right not to be arrested at night
  8. Women have the right to register virtual complaints
  9. Women have the right against indecent representation
  10. Women have the right against being stalked
  11. Women have a right to Zero FIR


Cyber Bullying

cyberbullying is "an aggressive, intentional act or behavior that is carried out by a group or an individual, using electronic forms of contact, repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself

Forms of Cyberbullying

  • Cyberstalking
  • Trolling
  • Hate Raids
  • Cyberbullying can be said as an abuse of electronic communications.
  • Cyber bullying involves a behaviour which is likely to cause to harm.
  • Cyberbullying involves hatred speeches, rumours, misrepresentation, which create mess in the society.

With the growth of technology we see a number of crimes increasing day by day. These crimes often take place against women. Various platforms let cyberbullying take place like, social media, through gaming. Nature always serves to us its best but this just is how a man's creation no matter how elegant sometimes proves to be so threatening. According to a report by United Nations about 60% of the women in the world become the victims of of cyber violence.

Legislations regarding Cyberbullying in India

There is no special legislation that provides provisions for cybeybullying,

However section 67 of IT act deal with cyberbullying somewhat. Section 67 provides punishment for publishing Obscene material in electronic form which involves imprisonment for a term which may extend to 5 years and fine which may extend upto 5 lakh rupees.

66E of IT Act provide punishment for violation of privacy

We have Section 507 IPC which gives punishment on rdceiving criminal intimidation by electronic communication. A person doing to this can be imprisoned for upto 2 years.

Laws for empowerment of women

Women Empowerment
In the world where a woman is not even entitled to her basic rights, like education, health, job etc. There empowering her to take decisions, to make choices for herself and society, promoting women's self worth is considred as Women Empowerment. Woman empowerment is necessary to ensure women's contribution in every field from law obeying to law making. Women must be encourafed to come and seek education, job opportunities. She must be aware of the position she holds in society. Recently in an event organised by Women Advocates of the Supreme Court CJI of India CV Ramana said.

"Enough of suppression of thousands of years. It is high time we have 50% representation of women in judiciary. It is your right. It is not a matter of charity,"

(Higher judiciary in India, which includes the Supreme Court and the high courts, currently has no policy of reservations for women.)

The Supreme Court currently has four women judges — justices Indira Banerjee, Hima Kohli, BV Nagarathna and Bela M Trivedi — which is the highest ever in the top court's history. This shows empowering woman results into wonders.

There was a time when a woman had no role to play in Law making or politics, but now this is the time becuase of continuous efforts and courage Woman now is not only contributing but seeing herself as a Judge in the highest Court of appeal.

Topics like Women Empowerment have gained a part of Global Movement. Days like International Women's day are also gaining Momentum.

National Policy For The Empowerment Of Women (2001)

Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women.

Goal and Objectives
  • The goal of this Policy is to bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of women.
  • To make woman realise her self worth, her potential.
  • A Woman must enjoy all the rights given under Constitution.
  • Strengthening Legal System

Specific Laws For Women Empowerment In India

  1. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.
  2. The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.
  3. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956.
  4. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.
  5. The Medical termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971.
  6. The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987.
  7. The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006.
  8. The Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994.
  9. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place (Prevention, Protection and) Act, 2013.

Offences against women

Anything that causes harm to other person euther physically or emotionally is am Offence. Although a woman faces same offences as being faced by the other members of a society like Murder, Cheating, Etc. But the crimes that are directed specifically against women only are Considered as Crimes or Offences against women. These crimes are broadly divided under two categories.
  1. The Crimes under the Indian Penal Code (IPC)
    1. Rape (Sec. 376 IPC)
    2. Kidnapping & Abduction for specified purposes (Sec. 363 - 373 IPC)
    3. Homicide for Dowry, Dowry Deaths or their attempts (Sec.302/304-B IPC)
    4. Torture - both mental and physical (Sec. 498-A IPC)
    5. Molestation (Sec. 354 IPC)
    6. Sexual Harassment (Sec. 509 IPC)
    7. Importation of girls (upto 21 years of age) (Sec. 366-B IPC)
       
  2. The Crimes under the Special & Local Laws (SLL)
    1. Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
    2. Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
    3. Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
    4. Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987.
       
Offences against women increase day by day. Many cases that can't even be mentioned have taken place. These offences create a sense of insecurity among people. Female can't go out alone at night because of security issues. Not only crimes are a problem but justice holds another problem holding equal importance. First of all the Goernment needs to make certain strict laws that a person while even thinking of a crime shivers.

But still unfortuantely if a crime is done then the government needs to punish the cuprits within mean time not after years and sometimes after the death of victime as the same happenend in the case of Damini (Delhi Rape case 2012) whose culprits were punished after 8 years of her death. Tough laws should be made so that every girl feels like flying like a bird in sky not a caged one.

Women, Health and Human Rights

Health is a general issue either we talk about men or women. Health makes a person capable to work. One must be healthy to have his outcomes healthy. But talking about woman, who sacrifices here basic needs just to fulfill her family's needs, open the way of diseases directly to her. Since ancient times issues regarding health have touched the skies. Child marriage was a major issue among women for having health issues.

Not achieving the stage of maturity and getting married lead to disastrous result as being a baby won't let a woman deluver a baby. Nowadays this problem has been tackled but numerous health issues have been developed. Woman has to work at home and fields as well. Fortuanately if she is working then the work is burdened as she looks after her family and work, resulting in lack time for self care.

A woman after 40 needs special care for becuase most of the times this is seen many women suffer from muscular pains, health issues regarding heart and list goes on. This happens because she creates her image as being 24×7 worker. Working alone may be tough sometimes.

According to WHO, some of the sociocultural factors that prevent women and girls to benefit from quality health services and attaining the best possible level of health include:
  1. unequal power relationships between men and women;
  2. social norms that decrease education and paid employment opportunities;
  3. an exclusive focus on women's reproductive roles; and
  4. potential or actual experience of physical, sexual and emotional violence.

Indian women have high mortality rates especially during their childhood and their reproductive years.

Lack of awareness causes serious health issues like:

Over 100,000 IndianWomen Die Each Year From Pregnancy-Related Causes. India has a high maternal mortality ratio—approximately 453 deaths per 100,000 births in 1993.3 This ratio is 57 times the ratio in the United States. The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimate that India's maternal mortality ratio is lower than ratios for Bangladesh and Nepal but higher than those for Pakistan and Sri Lanka (WHO, 1996). The level of maternal mortality varies greatly by state, with Kerala having the lowest ratio (87) and two states (Madhya Pradesh and Orissa) having ratios over 700

(UNICEF, 1995).
Few Pregnant Women Receive Prenatal Care. This is bacause many of them women feel it unnecessary.

One in Five Maternal Deaths Related to Easily Treated Problem. Anemia which is simply and inexpensively treated is detected among mostly women. Studies have found that between 50 and 90 percent of all pregnant women in India suffer from anemia. Severe anemia accounts for 20 percent of all maternal deaths in India (The World Bank, 1996).

Every 5 Minutes, a Violent Crime Against a Woman Is Reported. Dowry deaths are increasing. More than half of Indian children are malnourished.

These was a discussion about women and health.

Women and Human Rights

Human rights are moral principles or norms[1] for certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected in municipal and international law. Human Rights give basic abilities to a person working accordingly the rights given by law. Human Rights are inherent to everyone regardless of their gender, caste, religion etc.

Basic Human Rights are:
  • The right to life and liberty
  • Freedom from slavery and torture
  • Freedom of opinion and expression
  • The right to work and education, and many more.

Human Rights are made to ignore discrimination. Thus Women's Rights are Human Rights. Human Rights give women the freedom to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health; to be educated; to own property; to vote; and to earn an equal wage. Women had suffered a lot of discrimination since ages. Sometimes physically and sometimes mentally. Many women face viloence against them. These Human Rights work as a weapon against such Violence.

Access to Basic Human Rights For Women

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (1979) is a key international treaty addressing gender-based discrimination and providing specific protections for women's rights. To access basic Human Rights is the need of society. Human Rights for women open various doors to them like education, job, political participation and so many. The Charter of the United Nations guarantees the equal rights of women and men. To access Human Rights we must be aware of them.

Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein: Stand in solidarity with courageous women's human rights defenders

Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein is the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and has extensive experience in international diplomacy and the protection of human rights. He was the first President of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and the former President of the UN Security Council. In this op-ed , he discusses achievements and gaps in guaranteeing equal rights for all and stresses the importance and courage of women human rights defenders, and the challenges they face. OHCHR will begin a new campaign on Human Rights Day, 10 December, to galvanize recognition for human rights advocates.

Political participation of women

Political participation involves not only Right to Vote but the Right to be a part of the vote. As we talked earlier women have marked histories in India. Women like Rani Lakshmi Bai, Razia Sultan who have been the Rani Rulers. And now not only 1,2 but we have a strong ratio of women participating in Politics.

In June 2009, the INC nominated a woman to become first speaker of Lok Sabha, and also supported the election of Pratibha Singh Patil, India's first woman President. Indian ruling Party BJP encourages women participation in India. Women have their own wings included in the largest paries like, BJP's wing is BJP Mahila Morcha, INC's wing is All India Mahila Congress.

India ranks 20th from the bottom in terms of representation of women in Parliament. The Constitution of India gives the right to Women to particiapte in Indian Politics. Historically we see less contribution of women in Politics but as the time grew and awareness created among Women they started participating. The first assembly after independence saw the presence of very few women (about 2%).

Women members included Masuma Begum, who later on became the Minister of Social Welfare, Renuka Ray, veteran social worker; Durgabai, a veteran Gandhian, Radhabai Subbarayan, who was appointed as a delegate to the first Round Table Conference. As per various accounts, men in the assembly listened carefully to the speeches made by women. Rajkumari Amrit Kaur became Union Health Minister in 1947.

Sucheta Kriplani became the general secretary of Congress in 1959, labour minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1962 and subsequently Chief Minister of United Province in from 1963 to 1967. Vijayalakshmi Pandit was selected as a delegate to the UN and was appointed as ambassador to the erstwhile USSR in 1947 and later as ambassador to the US. She was also elected as president of the United Nations General Assembly in 1953.

And recently Sushma Swaraj, Samriti Irani, Priyanka Gandhi, Sonia Gandhi etc contributing in Politics.

As negativity is the fellow passenger of positivity, women still faces issues in Political Participation like:
  • Sexual Violence
  • Discrimination
  • Illiteracy
Need for political participation of women

UNICEF cites the following reasons for the political participation of women:
  1. Political participation of women has the potential to change societies.
  2. It can have impact on outcomes for women and children especially in the distribution of community resources.
  3. Their participation in peace negotiations and post-conflict reconstruction is important to ensure the safety and protection of children and vulnerable sections of population

Way Ahead
The recent discussion shows that the problem of gender discrimination is still prevailing in the world. Its no about one or two countries but of the whole world. In country like India where woman is worshipped like Goddess Lakshmi, this does not suit that at the same time she is treated like an animal. It is essential that such double standards of the society must come to an end. Government through various schemes empowered women. It is our duty to make a woman feel like home everywhere.

Political Parties should come forward to increase women's participation. Gender stereotypes which perceive women weak representatives should be changed through education and awareness. Strict laws should be made on offences against Women. Women's reservation Bill which reserves 33% of seats for Indian Women at legislatures has to be passed soon in

Parliament. Women's leadership and communication skills need to be enhances. A women should not be kept at home for household services but must be kept free to live under an opened sky freely nd attain all the heights which all other members of the society receive.

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