There is no statistical report about the war crime committed in Afghanistan
during 1978-2021. This paper analyses the United States' liability for war
crimes in Afghanistan. This issue has been in public for over 20 years but has
gained relevance in 2021 due to their decision to withdraw troops from the
country. The Article analyses what the ICC deems a war crime per the Rome
It involves a jurisprudential overview from various decisions of ICC to develop
a working understanding of war crimes. Similarly, it inquiries into specific
actions carried out by the United States Government since the war in
Afghanistan. Temporally this analysis is limited to the movement of the US since
2001 and will not account for actions before this date.
This temporal limitation has been imposed owing to the widespread claim that the
United States' formal involvement in the War Against the Terror
began after the attack on 11
September 2001. Henceforth, the critical research question is whether the United
States can be held responsible for carrying out war crimes in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan has fallen into miseries, injustice, innumerable human disasters in
the last four decades, specifically since 1996, civilians were subjected to
atrocities, oppression, extrajudicial killings, arbitrary killing, forced
displacement, refugees, loss of family members, war crimes, destruction of
public property, and devastation environment and closure and setting fire to
schools and universities and impairment of many young males and females. The
people have experienced historical struggles for peace and tried for
Afghanistan's integrity and national sovereignty.
The United Nations Security Council, with the resolution of 1267 of 1999, formed
a committee of sanctions on both the Taliban and Al- Qaida to impose sanctions
on their funding, travel, and arms deliveries. On 9th September 2001, Ahmad Shah
Massoud, commander of the Northern alliance anti-Taliban assassinated by Al-Qaida;
in the expert view, his death assured Osama Binladin protection by the Taliban
in Afghanistan and the Taliban 1.0, which rose from the ruins of post-Soviet
civil war, provided sanctuaries and protection to Al- Qaida for the terrorist
On 11 September 2001, Al- Qaida Operative hijacked four commercial airlines and
crashed them into the World Trade Center, New York, and the Pentagon in
Washington DC. On 18th September 2001, US former President George W. Bush signed
a joint resolution that authorized force to counter-terrorism. On 7th October
2001, the United States bombed the Taliban with the help of the United Kingdom,
officially launched the operation continuing freedom, and received the pledge
for future support of Germany, France, Canada, and Australia to combat the
terrorists. The Taliban regime disentangled from north Afghanistan in mid of
On 14th November 2001, the UN security council passed a resolution 1378to
establish transitional administration and invited member states to send
peacekeeping forces to maintain peace and humanitarian assistance. The United
Nations asked the major Afghan groups to a conference held at Bonn, Germany. The
invitee signed an agreement on 5th December 2001; the UN SC endorsed the
resolution of 1383. The agreement installed Hamid Karzai as the Head
Administration of the Interim government and created an international
peace-keeping force to maintain peace and security in Kabul. Following the Bonn
Agreement on 20th December 2001, the UN security council has passed Resolution
1386, which established the International Security Assistance Force or ISAF.
On 9th December 2001, the Taliban 1.0 collapsed, and the Taliban leader Mullah
Omer fled the country. Based on the historical realities and the requirement of
the current government, 502 Afghan representatives in the Loy Jirga on
3rd January 2004 adopted a new constitution, contained the idea of republic,
social, political, and economic justice, and ensured the attainment of
democratic values based on the Art.6 protect basic rights and fundamental
Eventually, the government of Afghanistan, too, fight terrorism
according to Article 7, has entered into several international treaties and
conventions to suppress the terrorist and maintain peace and security of the
nation. The government of Afghanistan has enacted several domestic legislation
to empower women and established separate women affairs ministers under women's
leadership. On the arrival of the Taliban to power, the ministry has removed
from the government structure. Women are subject to confinement at home.
Understanding War Crimes
Article 8 of the Rome Statute deals with war crimes, and the following are
considered the breach of the Geneva Convention of 12 August.
1949. International Humanitarian Law is based on humanity, impartiality, and
the protection of civilians. The idea of the law of war conflict is based on
A war crime breaches the Geneva convention, 1949, and violates Rome statute and
customs adopted during the armed conflict. The Rome Statute list out the
activities that constitute war crimes, include willful killings, torture,
extensive destruction and appropriation, unlawful confinement in intentional
attacks against civilian population and objects, vehicle and personnel,
delivering humanitarian assistance and pillage,
War crimes apply to international and non-international armed conflicts;
crimes against humanity may be committed during peacetime. The ICC prosecutor
received the report by the UNAMA in 2009 and repotted had indicated more than
26,500 were killed.
Expressively, the request was made for the commencing an
investigation into the types of crimes:
- War crime and a crime against humanity committed by the Taliban and its
- Crime committed by Afghan National Security force c) war crime committed
by the U.S. armed forces including Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) not
only within Afghanistan but in the secret imprisonment homes facilities that
CIA operated in Poland, Romania and Lithuania.
The ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda contended that the US forces had committed 54
instances of crimes. The ICA achieved 24 additional samples on the territory of
Afghanistan during 2003 and 2004. She argued that the CIA committed torture and
sexual violence on Afghan nationals in its overseas detention facilities
War crime in Afghanistan by NATO under U.S. commandant
War crime initiates the retro of arm conflict from 1979 to the present. Starting
the USSR in 1979, 40 years of civil wars in various arrangements. All the
parties have committed war crimes against the conflict parties. The Taliban has
the highest figure for committing a crime against humanity. The insurgent groups
have committed crimes since the 1990s, covering the extrajudicial killing of
civilians, sexual violence, and execution of civilians during the war.
The Rome Statute forming the ICC entered into force on July 1, 2002, and the
court. The International criminal court is the apex adjudicating body is
established in 2002 to punish the people who committed atrocities in the
countries that cannot or will not bring committers of a war crime to justice,
known as the principles of complementarity.
Afghanistan became a state party to the Rome Statute on 10 May 2003. Based on
numerous communications received from the Human rights organisation by the
Prosecutor (OTP) office about the commission of war crimes in Afghanistan, the
situation prevailing during the armed conflict in Afghanistan, especially
between pro-government and anti-government, the ranged commission of war crimes
The ICC has failed to punish the Afghan warlord in the first hand, the Taliban,
Afghan arm force, and the International Security forces.
The severity, measure, and ongoing nature of so-called war crimes by the Taliban
and the Islamic State covers the undiscriminating attack on civilians, embattled
extrajudicial, torture of women and girls, crimes against children, and other
forms of corruption affecting the civilian at large.
The ICC had passed 15 years to the aspect of war crime allegation in
Afghanistan; the prosecutor had formerly also viewed to into suspected of war
crimes by U.S. forces and Afghan government troops and left due to lack of
resources and nature of crime and jurisdiction the court. The court had found
the reason to believe that war crimes had been committed between 2003 and 2014
among the Taliban, the Afghan government, and the U.S. forces. The prosecutor
will not take action in the new Afghanistan, and the United States is not the
party to ICC.
The US's actions in Afghanistan
There were as many as 2,500 U.S. forces in Afghanistan, along with 6,346 U.S.
contractors. The American attained its primary objective of attacking Al- Qaida
and tumbling the Taliban, uprooting the radicals from Afghanistan. In contrast,
most Taliban leaders had fled to Pakistan and Iran, establishing a
democratically based government. But the USA failed to penalize the Taliban in
Pakistan and did not enter into counter-terrorism talks with the government of
On establishing the Taliban's political office in Doha, the US did not react to
the Qatar government, legally asking how the Senior Taliban has entered Doha
under which international documents and who facilitated the visa and entrance
Doha airport. The US failed to investigate to find out the departure of the
Taliban and Al-Qaida and non-state fighters.
The U.S. has created a vacuum in Afghanistan where neighbours will mobilize the
terrorist for civil war and destroy natural resources. The Taliban and Al-Qaida
celebrate their victory that defeated a superpower in the world, inspiring them
to attack any neighbour. The region's security has fallen to danger; for
instance, The Al- Qaida groups under the Haqqani network wish to take the
Taliban and arm conflict to Kashmir of India, in turn, leading to a civil war in
The Taliban and Al Qaida give credit to themselves as they win the war against
foreign forces in Afghanistan have got the enormous warfare for its future war
in Afghanistan. The Taliban impose harsh Sharia laws throughout Afghanistan.
Women activists were subject to death, and the women were confined to the home.
The schools are closed on the girls, freedom of speech and freedom of movement
have been taken away. Overall the situation of Afghanistan deteriorates.
The human rights violation has been subject to transitional justice. The
U.S. failed to put the victims of war in the Transnational justice domain. TJ in
Afghanistan is inaccessible from a victim-centric approach. In 2001 during the
government transition to democracy, i.e., UN � Funded Bonn agreement, a part was
removed in the draft prohibiting amnesty for wartime crimes and established a
precedent peace over justice.
Both Hamid Karzai and Ghani forbade the publication of documents concerning war
crimes in Afghanistan from 1978 to 2001 on the ground it will increase
insecurity in Afghanistan. Those who committed war crimes will retaliate, and
the International criminal court had jurisdiction to punish the perpetrators but
has denied it.
In 2005 peace, settlement, and justice in Afghanistan, a framework was included
and conceded the people's complaints to deal with the past. Still, it was never
implemented in response to that. In 2008, the Afghan parliament passed the
General Amnesty and national stability laws, and all warlords and belligerents
The law was aimed to build trust among the belligerent parties to end the war.
It is to be understood it clear colourable legislations. The concept of pit and
substance of coming to pictures
The legislation made the law, but the same law granted the privilege and
protections to war criminals.
The international criminal court has never punished any Afghan warlord who has
committed war crimes in Afghanistan; The same usage is carried for the US forces
In January 2010, the government introduced the Afghanistan Peace and
Reconciliations Program. It was focused on addressing insurgents' grievances
unfortunately ignored the victims of war. The government of Afghanistan and the
U.S. has failed to provide justice to victims of war. For instance, Burhanuddin
Rabbani (killed by the suicide attack), who had a clear record of human rights
violations and war crimes, was appointed as the chair of the High peace Council.
He was responsible for implementing the Afghanistan peace and Reconciliation
Program (A.P.R.P). In 2020 president Ghani said, "I will not allow that past to
destroy the present and future."
liability under international criminal law
War crimes have been committed in Afghanistan against innocent people for four
decades. It was committed by an Afghan warlord, Afghan government troops, and
international forces under the leadership of the US.
The crime documented mass killings, enforced disappearances, summary execution
of 10,000 Afghans, indiscriminate bombing and rocketing, torture, mass rape,
sexual and gender-based violence. The fall of the Afghan government on
15th August 2021 and with hurriedly U.S. risky withdrawal without any
appropriate procedures led to chaotic and heard breaking scenes at Kabul
airport; it was a painful and perplexing decision on the part of the U.S. led
to the death of as many of as 169 civilian Afghan in a suicide attack and many
fallen from an aeroplane.
Critics have been raised that the against the Biden's Administration the
withdrawal was rushed, off-colour, prearranged, and chaotic evacuation that
Afghan fled to a foreign country. The legal question attracts the core
attention that under what authority of law and precedent the U.S. intervened
into the affairs of Afghanistan and withdrew its force facilitated the transfer
of power to the hands of the Taliban.
In the light of international law, the issue of intervention has been written by
many and found that international law is not a hard norm does not have the
binding character of binding the U.S. in the present study, we can refer to
authoritative principles such as the "Responsibility to Rebuild as Part of
Responsibility to protect.
President Biden addressed on 16th August 2021 on the withdrawal of forces from
Afghanistan "Our mission in Afghanistan was the national interest and preventing
the terrorist that attacks the U.S. not the nation-building or creating a
unified and centralized democracy." International law is so disregarded and
against the plan of peace, preventive diplomacy and peacemaking report of
secretary-general of UN to Security Council A/47/277- S24111 dated 1st January
1992 ant the principle of responsibility to protect (R2P) world summit 2005, was
The rapid evacuation from Kabul invited the Afghan people to the airport, but
many lives were in danger. It violated the human rights violations in the last
weeks of August 2021.
In the last twenty years, the U.S. as an intervener to Afghanistan not only lost
whatever civilian has achieved but also the U.S. did not work in Afghanistan to
help in the eradication of corruption and mismanagement and were not capable of
building up an Afghan army able to operate independently and without any foreign
air support and help by contractors servicing helicopters and aeroplanes. The
resource has been given to a few contractors and foreign and Afghan
Doha Peace Agreement between U.S. and Taliban
The United States of America and the Taliban have entered into a comprehensive
peace agreement known as Doha Agreement between the USA and the Taliban,
signed bilaterally on 29 February 2020 at Doha. The core themes of the Doha
Agreement are expressed in written form as:
That the United States of America is
not recognising Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan as a state but the Taliban.
group has to guarantee that after the withdrawal of the foreign forces from
Afghanistan, the Afghanistan soil shall not be used by any group or individual
against the US security and its allies. After the complete withdrawal, the
Taliban had to begin intra negotiation with the Afghan Government as the
deadline was 10 March 2020. The Taliban has to maintain the absolute ceasefire
with the Afghan government as the main agenda of Afghan dialogue.
The content of the Agreement has put for discussion as follows in the first
part, The United States has undertaken within fourteen months from the sign of
agreement withdraw the civilian, contractors non-diplomats, advisors, and
supporting the team from Afghanistan and within one hundred thirty-five (135)
days in the first obligation will reduce the number of the coalition force to
eight thousand six hundred (8600) and in the second parts of its responsibility
within nine and half months (9.5) will withdraw the complete foreign force form
Afghanistan, on the other hand, the United State has committed to releasing five
thousand (5000) combatant and political prisoners from Afghanistan jail as the
matter of confidence-building and release of one thousand (1000) in the progress
of negotiations. In part of the agreement, the Taliban has assured the US that
the Taliban will not allow any group, including al-, Qaida, to use the soil of
Afghanistan against the US and its allies.
In the past three: the US has ensured the Taliban for recognising the agreement
by the UN security council and undertaken to seek economic cooperation to post
negotiations and maintain positive relationships with the Taliban. The study
found that the United States has entered into a mutual understanding with a
group that twenty years called them terrorists. Most of the members of the
Taliban were under the United States blocklist.
This agreement only protects the
political strategies of the United States of America, and America has undermined
at first the security of Afghanistan, next to the safety of the region, and
finally the world security. The United States indirectly has given the freedom
to the group that whatever the Taliban wants to do in Afghanistan, have absolute
freedom to do. Still, the interest and security of the USA and its allies shall
not be affected.
The United States has misused the amicable relationship and confidence-building
that the Afghanistan government had. Indeed, this agreement was made arbitrarily
contrary to international standards and customary rules of public international
law. The principle of Pacta Sunt Servanda finally had undue influence and even
coerced the Afghan government to release the Taliban fighters from the Pole
Charkhee jail without any future anticipation. Even Afghan security forces were
not aware of the terms of the agreement; this document has not been put for the
referendum to the Afghan people.
According to Art. Eight of Montevideo convention which is the United States is
the signatory does not have the right to interfere with Afghanistan's affairs.
Similarly, according to Art. 2.4  the state member state shall refrain in
their international affairs to threaten or use force against the sovereignty of
other states, and Art.2.7 accordingly clearly emphasises the political
independence of the member state that the UN shall not interfere with the
domestic affairs of any country. The United States is liable for the war crime
and responsible for empowering the Taliban through a colourable agreement.
United States had alternatives to seek peace in Afghanistan; this matter has not
been addressed to the UN General Assembly for resolution and further discussion.
The UN security council did not use any of the provisions of Chapter VII of the
UN charter as the collective security measures to maintain peace and security to
suppress the Terrorist in Afghanistan as a member of the UN since 1946.
Legally speaking, under what law did the US agree with the insurgents' group?
Indeed, the US has violated international humanitarian laws. Violates the
International human rights laws.
How was the Afghan government not the party to the Doha Agreement? The
government of Afghanistan was called post-agreement. The questions arise: What
was the USA's purpose to Afghanistan to eliminate the terrorist or empower the
Taliban with sophisticated artilleries.
Based on various observations and studies, it is clearly shown that the US left
Afghanistan to empower the Taliban to dissolve a stable democratic government,
create security threats in the regional countries and build up a protective
sanctuary to terrorists and its allied groups. In the presence of the US
evacuation, the Kabul airport was subject to a suicide attack as a result of it,
13 US soldiers and 169 Afghan people were killed; based on the terms of the
agreement, the Taliban is liable to the USA if the USA does not play dual policy
why does not take the Taliban responsible of for the terror attack.
Extraterritorial Human Rights responsibilities in Afghanistan's interminable arm
The endless war in Afghanistan is eventually focused on fundamental freedoms and
human rights violations. Afghan civilians are trapped in the antagonism between
In Kandahar city, where the founder of the Taliban 1.0 had arisen, the Islamic
State Khorasan (IS-K) exploded a bomb in a Shia mosque during Friday prayers,
whereas 40 people were killed. It is a clear violation of human rights
against minorities; in this case, the Taliban has breached their pledge, which
is assured to international communities.
According to Art. 2 Para 1 of ICCPR, the scope and application of convention
applies to all individuals within the member state's territory and those who are
subject to its jurisdiction. In this context, during the evacuation in the Kabul
airport, a bomb is set exploded killed many civilians. It is very clearly
evident that the Taliban breached the pledge and the terms of the Doha
So Why the US forces did not count them responsible for breach of
their obligation? And to put it for further discussion, the US had jurisdiction
over the Kabul airport, especially during the evacuation, failed to prevent such
gross human rights violations. The US added fuel to the fire instead of stopping
the fire get spreading. On 29th August 2021, in response to the Kabul airport
attack, the US forces had used the drone strike to kill ten civilians.
It is a
human right violation and breaches international humanitarian laws. Accordingly,
Articles 12, 13  prescribe for the protection of civilians, and
specifically, those who are not taking part in the conflict shall not be
targeted. Afghan civilians are subject to arms conflict, target killing of US
forces, and compete for the same line. The Taliban commit murder, brutality, and
torture civilians who were never part of this proxy game.
Based on theory, Art.
4 of Protocol II, the person who did not participate in the hostilities
shall be protected. On the other hand, in Afghanistan, non-combatant casualties
were more than the combatant. In addition to this discussion, Art.
4 Children are protected and expatriated from the arm conflicts. In
contrast, on 30th November 2018, the US forces could not kill the Taliban but
could kill 23 children in the airstrike.
According to the UNAMA report of 2020, 44 per cent of victims of arm
conflict in Afghanistan were women and children during the nine months. It is a
clear violation of humanitarian law in Afghanistan. According to Human right
watch, on 12 May 2020, the MSF killed 24 people, including five women
staff andten0 women who had delivered babies.
Art. 15 protection of wounded
and sick in the event of conflicts in Afghanistan either has been killed or
tortured by both the parties. Hence, the US forces violated their peers'
International Human Rights and International Humanitarian laws. In this power
play, only the civilians were the people to pay the cost of war. Afghan women
and children are the primary victims of the armed conflicts differently.
The children either lost their father or target in US airstrike or were
subjected to the Taliban bomb in the school. The Afghan children did not enjoy a
fundamental human right as human beings. On the other hand, the women lost the
husband or brother, father, or other family members.
The U.S. failure in Afghanistan
The United States failed in Afghanistan the based on the following
Solution to Afghanistan Conundrum
- The Doha agree
- All arms and ammunitions which was donated by others also fell into the
hands of terrorist
- All the government resources and data fell into the hand of the Taliban
- The idea of democracy and fundamental right eliminated from Afghanistan
- The US undermined the efforts of other countries such as India European
Union to Afghan people in terms of Human rights protections and
- The US has put the country into twine terrorist struggles
- The US created enmity and ground for the extrajudicial killings
- The US indirectly empowered the terrorist to lead another civil war
- The US committed a war crime in Afghanistan
- The US did not leave good precedent as to maintain peace in Afghanistan
- The USA could put the issue before the UN General Assembly
- The US could put sanctions over Pakistan on account of funding and
providing protections to the Taliban and Al- Qaida
- US could make tringle dealing between the Afghan government, the USA,
and the Taliban with a condition to not fight against the government, accept the
rule of law and observe international human rights laws.
- The USA could put the issue of withdrawal to the UN General assembly,
and the Unilateral withdrawal is not fitted to the situation of Afghanistan.
- The US could maintain diplomatic relations with the Afghan government
and evacuate its embassy from Kabul.
- The US could propose the matter to the SAARC countries for maintaining
peace and securities.
- The US could ask the UN peacekeeping force to maintain peace in
Based on the personal experience in Afghanistan, close observation, and study of
various international armed conflicts, one can conclude that the U.S. force
operations did not suppress the terrorists. The US force and its allies were
able to eliminate the Terrorist and their groups. The US force has claimed that
we fight against those who threaten our securities and its partners; we also
combat against those who fund the give the sanctuaries to the terrorist
Osma Bin Laden, who put the foundation stone to Islamist militant
group and the founding father Al- Qaida was killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan, on
2nd May 2011 by the US Navy Special Warfare Development Group (DEVGRU or SEAL
Indeed, the US did not put Pakistan responsible for sanctuaries to the terrorist
leader for nine years. Pak- US benefits to Afghanistan is so complex the reality
is easy to see out of the box. The US is the leading entrepreneur of arms in
conflicted countries like Afghanistan. Suppose the US wished to eradicate the
roots of terrorists. In that case, it is suggested that Pakistan could be under
question how your Intelligence service failed to discover the presence of the
terrorists in Pakistan.
The Quetta Shura is the apex court of the Taliban in
Pakistan. The same court has passed several verdicts to the extrajudicial
killing of Innocent people in Afghanistan. The United Nations General Assembly
and UN Security council omit to try Pakistan for a proxy war against Afghanistan
with arm backup of the USA. According to the Taliban, the Quetta Shura decision
is the command of the highest leader bound on everyone in Afghanistan.
to do such attracts torture, arbitrary killing, and even death penalties. The
release of 5000 thousand hardcore terrorists by the government of Afghanistan
with direction and pressure of the US was the promising future to the terrorist
and psychological instigation to fight the Afghan arm force on the contrast
depression and anxiety to see the release of the enemies in their eyes.
Finally, the main cities of Afghanistan fall to the Taliban, fueled by the
U.S.'s taking out of its force, and n. and new brutal episode of the armed
conflict discloses humanitarian crises such as mass killing, heinous crimes,
especially against women, dislocation human gloom. Against this unpredictable
and complex needlepoint, a call for accountability for a crime committed against
humanity in the past, now, and future. Hence, the USA engagement in Afghanistan
was not to bring peace and rehabilitation it is a sad truth. The USA presence in
Afghanistan were a mere military operation and powerplay with the country.
Sayed Qudrat Hashimy
- The Congress public law 40, the Join Resolution, available at https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-107publ40/html/PLAW-107publ40.htm last
visited 5th November 2021.
- art. 6 Constitution of Afghanistan (2004).
- Ibid art.7 The state shall observe the UN Charter, international
treaties, conventions and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and
shall undertake to prohibit all types of terrorist activities in
- Rome Statute define war crime as:
- Deliberate killing
- Torture of insensitive dealing, including genetic trials
- Deliberately triggering suffering or serious hurt to body or health
- Widespread devastation and annexation of property, not defensible by
military stipulation and carried out illegally and promiscuously
- Fascinating a prisoner of war and other protected person to serve in
forces of an antagonistic power
- Willfully depriving a prisoner of war or another person of the rights of
right and a regular trail
- Illegitimate extradition or handover or unlawful confinement
- Taking prisoner
- art. 8
- ICC, the prosecutor of the International Criminal court, Fatou
Bensouda, requests judicial authorisation to commence an investigation into the
Visited 7th November 2021
- Mike Corder, ICC Prosecutor, seek to resume the Afghanistan war crimes
last visited 6th November 2021
- UNAMA, The Protection of Civilian in armed conflict, reported on 30 June
2021 retrieved on 6th November
- Anthony Deutsch and Stephanie van den Berg, Asia Pacific, Reuters, War
crimes prosecutor would not focusthe on US. Force in new Afghanistan
probe, available at
visited 6th November 2021.
- Kobra Moradi , Sitting the Right precedent; victim centered justice in
Afghanistan, National Law University, Australia ,
http://opiniojuris.org/author/kobra-moradi/ last visited 6th November 2021. Transitional Justice means the situation where the country come out of the
oppression and violation of human rights'
- Saumya Uma, The Afghan Conflict and the Long Road to International Justice,
last visited 6th November 2021.
- Isac Chotiner, How American failed in Afghanistan, New yorker,
(6th November 2021 4: 30 PM) https://www.newyorker.com
- Prof. Peter Hilpold, The Afghan war and the responsibility to
rebuild, EJEL:Talk (6th November 2021 10: 46 AM) https://www.ejiltalk.org/
- Rachel Muller Heyndyk, the U.S. initially sought to fight terrorism in its
invasion of Afghanistan in 2001,
But later switched to restoring peace. Logically ( 6th November 2021 3: 04 PM)
- Mehdi Jalalddin Hakimi, The U.S.- Taliban Agreement and the Afghan peace
process, Stanford Law School (6th November 2021 9:51 AM)
- United Nations Charter 26, June 1945
- Ibid Art. 2.7
- Sophie Williams, War in Afghanistan, the BBC 5th November 2021 available
- The BBC, Afghanistan: suicide attack hits Kandahar Mosque during
prayers, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-58925863 last visited 6th November
- International covenant on Civil and political Rights Art. 2 para 1 "
which says " Each party to the present convention bound to respect and
guarantee to all citizens of its country and those subjects to its
jurisdictions and the right recognized in the present convention without any
discrimination as to sex, race, language, religion and political or other
opinion, national or social origin, birth, property and others
- The fourth Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949 and additional protocol
1977 and 2005 and supplement the Geneva conventions.
- Ibidart. 4
- Ibid art.4
- The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan
- Human Rights watch, Afghanistan events of 2020 world report, https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2021/country-chapters/Afghanistan last visited
6th November 2021.
- Ibid Meddcins Sans Frontiers at Dashtee Barchee, Kabul.
- The first Geneva convention for the amelioration of the condition of the
wounded and sick in arm forces in the field of 22 August 1949. "Wounded and
sick during war shall get adequate care and protection.
Email: [email protected]