Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by
machines, especially computer systems. Artificial intelligence (AI) is
intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence
displayed by humans or animals. AI applications include advanced web search
engines, recommendation systems (used by YouTube, Amazon and Netflix),
understanding human speech (such as Siri or Alexa), self-driving cars (e.g.
Tesla), and competing at the highest level in strategic game systems.
machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence"
are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI
effect. The use of AI in the legal system is still in its nascent stage, but is
slowly being adopted by several countries, law firms and judiciaries alike.
provides cost effective solutions to lawyers by pointing out the legal
infirmities in judgments, providing assistance in drafting contractual
documents, due diligence, legal analytics etc. Similarly, AI can act as catalyst
in lessening the burden of the judiciary, especially in those cases that involve
menial offences, leaving the complex cases to be decided by human judges.
Development across the World: History
Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in
the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by
disappointment and the loss of funding followed by new approaches, success and
AI research has tried and discarded many different approaches
during its lifetime, including simulating the brain, modeling human problem
solving, formal logic, large databases of knowledge and imitating animal
behavior. In the first decades of the 21st century, highly mathematical
statistical machine learning has dominated the field, and this technique has
proved highly successful, helping to solve many challenging problems throughout
industry and academics. The field was founded on the assumption that human
intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to
This raises philosophical arguments about the mind and the ethics
of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence. These issues
have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Science
fiction and futurology have also suggested that, with its enormous potential and
power, AI may become an existential risk to humanity.
AI Ross, developed by IBM, has been adopted many law firms worldwide,
particularly in the USA and is primarily used to vet legal contracts, conduct
legal research, and briefly summarize case laws etc.
A. Atabekov, O. Yastrebov
781 Bearing in mind the research results the authors would recommend to the
Russian lawmakers to consider the following:
The possibility of introducing a
self-regulation institute in the field of robotics, which will be able to
develop standards and codes of conduct that are mandatory for owners and owners
of robot agents to comply with, as well as by the robot agents themselves. - The
introduction of such an institution as the authorized body at the national
(federal) level in the field of robotics, that will be able to determine the
types of activity acceptable for robots, taking into account the fact that the
robot is a source of great danger.
Current Position in India
India does not have specific laws for data protection but personal information
is safeguarded under Section 43A and Section 72A of The Information Technology
Act. It gives a right to compensation for improper disclosure of personal
information similar to GDPR. In 2017, the Supreme Court declared the Right to
privacy as a Fundamental Right protected under the Indian Constitution.
.AI has the prospect of adding 957 US billion dollars which would be around 15%
of India's current gross value in 2035. AI will be able to touch everyone's life
in some form of the other in the years to come. In the year 2018, NITI Aayog
(Policy Commission) initiated various programs on the applications of AI.
Four committees were instituted by the Ministry of Electronics and Information
Technology to emphasis and analyse multiple ethical issues of AI. A Joint
Parliamentary Committee is currently considering the PDP Bill - Personal Data
Protection Bill 2019 based on a draft statute on data protection. Once the bill
is passed by both houses of Parliament, it will become the law. In India, the
pace of AI adoption is faster than the rules formed to regulate it. Industries
have now begun the process of up-skilling their manpower with AI technology.
recently-launched New Education Policy stresses on teaching coding to students'
rights from Class VI. India is going to be a hub of new AI technologies in the
years to come.
Cyril Amarchand Mangaldas is perhaps the first law firm in India to adopt AI
which is primarily used to analyse and improvise contractual and other legal
documents. Current CJI SA Bobde also spoke on and has advocated for greater use
of AI in the legal system, especially in the field of docket management and
At an the event organized by the Supreme Court Bar Association
(SCBA). However, in developing countries like India, the usage of AI may not be
regularized because of reluctance to adapt to this new change. There is also an
apprehension that AI may cause serious ramifications in a labour surplus economy
like India, with majority of people being uneducated and poverty stricken.
AI and Cyber Security
AI and machine learning are now becoming essential to information security, as
these technologies are capable of swiftly analyzing millions of data sets and
tracking down a wide variety of cyber threats — from malware menaces to shady
behavior that might result in a phishing attack. AI is the ideal cybersecurity
solution for businesses looking to thrive online today. Security professionals
need strong support from intelligent machines and advanced technologies like AI
to work successfully and protect their organisations from cyberattacks.
Some of the advantages are as follows:
- AI Learns More Over theTime
As the name suggests, AI technology is intelligent, and it uses its ability to
improve network security over time. It uses machine learning and deep learning
to learn a business network's behavior over time. It recognizes patterns on the
network and clusters them. It then proceeds to detect any deviations or security
incidents from the norm before responding to them.
- Artificial Intelligence Identifies Unknown Threats
A human being may not be able to identify all the threats a company faces. Every
year, hackers launch hundreds of millions of attacks with different motives.
Unknown threats can cause massive damage to a network. Worse still is the impact
they can have before you detect, identify, and prevent them.
As attackers try new tactics from sophisticated social engineering to malware
attacks, it is necessary to use modern solutions to prevent them. AI has proven
to be one of the best technologies in mapping and stopping unknown threats from
ravaging a company.
- AI Can Handle a Lot of Data
A lot of activity happens on a company's network. An average mid-sized company
itself has huge traffic. That means there's a lot of data transferred between
customers and the business daily. This data needs protection from malicious
people and software. But then, cybersecurity personnel cannot check all the
traffic for possible threats.
- Better Vulnerability Management
Vulnerability management is key to securing a company's network. As mentioned
earlier, an average company deals with many threats daily. It needs to detect,
identify and prevent them to be safe. Analyzing and assessing the existing
security measures through AI research can help in vulnerability management.
- Better Overall Security
The threats that business networks face change from time to time. Hackers change
their tactics every day. That makes it difficult to prioritize security tasks at
a company. You may have to deal with a phishing attack along with a
denial-of-service attack or ransomware at a go.
These attacks have similar potential but you must know what to deal with first.
Bigger threats that can make security a challenge are human error and
negligence. The solution here is to deploy AI on your network to detect all
types of attacks and help you prioritize and prevent them.
The advantages discussed above are just a small chunk of the potential of AI in
However, as with anything, there are also some downsides to using AI in this
field. In order to build and maintain an AI system, organizations would need
substantially more resources and financial investments.
Furthermore, as AI systems are trained using data sets, you must acquire many
distinct sets of malware codes, non-malicious codes, and anomalies. Acquiring
all of these data sets is time-intensive and requires investments that most
organizations cannot afford.
Without huge volumes of data and events, AI systems can render incorrect results
and/or false positives. And getting inaccurate data from unreliable sources can
Another major downside is that cybercriminals can also use AI to analyze their
malware and launch more advanced attacks, which brings us to the next point…