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Artificial Intelligence And Laws In India

Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by humans or animals. AI applications include advanced web search engines, recommendation systems (used by YouTube, Amazon and Netflix), understanding human speech (such as Siri or Alexa), self-driving cars (e.g. Tesla), and competing at the highest level in strategic game systems.

As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. The use of AI in the legal system is still in its nascent stage, but is slowly being adopted by several countries, law firms and judiciaries alike.

It provides cost effective solutions to lawyers by pointing out the legal infirmities in judgments, providing assistance in drafting contractual documents, due diligence, legal analytics etc. Similarly, AI can act as catalyst in lessening the burden of the judiciary, especially in those cases that involve menial offences, leaving the complex cases to be decided by human judges.

Development across the World: History
Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding.

AI research has tried and discarded many different approaches during its lifetime, including simulating the brain, modeling human problem solving, formal logic, large databases of knowledge and imitating animal behavior. In the first decades of the 21st century, highly mathematical statistical machine learning has dominated the field, and this technique has proved highly successful, helping to solve many challenging problems throughout industry and academics. The field was founded on the assumption that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it".

This raises philosophical arguments about the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence. These issues have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Science fiction and futurology have also suggested that, with its enormous potential and power, AI may become an existential risk to humanity.

AI Ross, developed by IBM, has been adopted many law firms worldwide, particularly in the USA and is primarily used to vet legal contracts, conduct legal research, and briefly summarize case laws etc.

A. Atabekov, O. Yastrebov 781 Bearing in mind the research results the authors would recommend to the Russian lawmakers to consider the following:
The possibility of introducing a self-regulation institute in the field of robotics, which will be able to develop standards and codes of conduct that are mandatory for owners and owners of robot agents to comply with, as well as by the robot agents themselves. - The introduction of such an institution as the authorized body at the national (federal) level in the field of robotics, that will be able to determine the types of activity acceptable for robots, taking into account the fact that the robot is a source of great danger.

Current Position in India
India does not have specific laws for data protection but personal information is safeguarded under Section 43A and Section 72A of The Information Technology Act. It gives a right to compensation for improper disclosure of personal information similar to GDPR. In 2017, the Supreme Court declared the Right to privacy as a Fundamental Right protected under the Indian Constitution.

.AI has the prospect of adding 957 US billion dollars which would be around 15% of India's current gross value in 2035. AI will be able to touch everyone's life in some form of the other in the years to come. In the year 2018, NITI Aayog (Policy Commission) initiated various programs on the applications of AI.

Four committees were instituted by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology to emphasis and analyse multiple ethical issues of AI. A Joint Parliamentary Committee is currently considering the PDP Bill - Personal Data Protection Bill 2019 based on a draft statute on data protection. Once the bill is passed by both houses of Parliament, it will become the law. In India, the pace of AI adoption is faster than the rules formed to regulate it. Industries have now begun the process of up-skilling their manpower with AI technology.

The recently-launched New Education Policy stresses on teaching coding to students' rights from Class VI. India is going to be a hub of new AI technologies in the years to come.
Cyril Amarchand Mangaldas is perhaps the first law firm in India to adopt AI which is primarily used to analyse and improvise contractual and other legal documents. Current CJI SA Bobde also spoke on and has advocated for greater use of AI in the legal system, especially in the field of docket management and decision making.

At an the event organized by the Supreme Court Bar Association (SCBA). However, in developing countries like India, the usage of AI may not be regularized because of reluctance to adapt to this new change. There is also an apprehension that AI may cause serious ramifications in a labour surplus economy like India, with majority of people being uneducated and poverty stricken.

AI and Cyber Security
AI and machine learning are now becoming essential to information security, as these technologies are capable of swiftly analyzing millions of data sets and tracking down a wide variety of cyber threats — from malware menaces to shady behavior that might result in a phishing attack. AI is the ideal cybersecurity solution for businesses looking to thrive online today. Security professionals need strong support from intelligent machines and advanced technologies like AI to work successfully and protect their organisations from cyberattacks.

Advantages
Some of the advantages are as follows:
  1. AI Learns More Over theTime
    As the name suggests, AI technology is intelligent, and it uses its ability to improve network security over time. It uses machine learning and deep learning to learn a business network's behavior over time. It recognizes patterns on the network and clusters them. It then proceeds to detect any deviations or security incidents from the norm before responding to them.
     
  2. Artificial Intelligence Identifies Unknown Threats
    A human being may not be able to identify all the threats a company faces. Every year, hackers launch hundreds of millions of attacks with different motives. Unknown threats can cause massive damage to a network. Worse still is the impact they can have before you detect, identify, and prevent them.

    As attackers try new tactics from sophisticated social engineering to malware attacks, it is necessary to use modern solutions to prevent them. AI has proven to be one of the best technologies in mapping and stopping unknown threats from ravaging a company.
     
  3. AI Can Handle a Lot of Data
    A lot of activity happens on a company's network. An average mid-sized company itself has huge traffic. That means there's a lot of data transferred between customers and the business daily. This data needs protection from malicious people and software. But then, cybersecurity personnel cannot check all the traffic for possible threats.
     
  4. Better Vulnerability Management
    Vulnerability management is key to securing a company's network. As mentioned earlier, an average company deals with many threats daily. It needs to detect, identify and prevent them to be safe. Analyzing and assessing the existing security measures through AI research can help in vulnerability management.
     
  5. Better Overall Security
    The threats that business networks face change from time to time. Hackers change their tactics every day. That makes it difficult to prioritize security tasks at a company. You may have to deal with a phishing attack along with a denial-of-service attack or ransomware at a go.

These attacks have similar potential but you must know what to deal with first. Bigger threats that can make security a challenge are human error and negligence. The solution here is to deploy AI on your network to detect all types of attacks and help you prioritize and prevent them.
Disadvantages

The advantages discussed above are just a small chunk of the potential of AI in improving cybersecurity.
However, as with anything, there are also some downsides to using AI in this field. In order to build and maintain an AI system, organizations would need substantially more resources and financial investments.

Furthermore, as AI systems are trained using data sets, you must acquire many distinct sets of malware codes, non-malicious codes, and anomalies. Acquiring all of these data sets is time-intensive and requires investments that most organizations cannot afford.

Without huge volumes of data and events, AI systems can render incorrect results and/or false positives. And getting inaccurate data from unreliable sources can even backfire.
Another major downside is that cybercriminals can also use AI to analyze their malware and launch more advanced attacks, which brings us to the next point…

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