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Role Of Government In Disaster Management At Central, State And District Level

Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management:

  • Floods: Ministry of Water Resources, CWC
  • Cyclones: Indian Meteorological Department
  • Earthquakes: Indian Meteorological Department
  • Epidemics: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
  • Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
  • Chemical Disasters: Ministry of Environment and Forests
  • Industrial Disasters: Ministry of Labour
  • Rail Accidents: Ministry of Railways
  • Air Accidents: Ministry of Civil Aviation
  • Fire: Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Nuclear Incidents: Department of Atomic Energy
  • Mine Disasters: Department of Mines

Disaster Management Act

  • The Government have enacted and notified the Disaster Management Act, 2005 on December 26, 2005 to provide for institutional mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of the disaster management plans, ensuring measures by various wings of Government for prevention and mitigating effects of disasters and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated and prompt response to any disaster situation.
     
  • The Act provides for setting up of a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister, State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) under the chairmanship of the Chief ministers and District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) under the chairmanship of District magistrate.

Role of Central and State Govts

  • Basic responsibility for rescue, relief and rehabilitation with the State Governments.
  • The Central Government supplements the efforts of State Governments. by providing financial and logistic support in case of major disasters.
  • The logistic support includes deployment of aircrafts and boats, specialist teams of Armed Forces, Central Para Military Forces and personnel of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), arrangements for relief materials & essential commodities including medical stores, restoration of critical infrastructure facilities including communication network and such other assistance as may be required by the affected States to meet the situation effectively.

Funding Mechanisms

  • The existing scheme, based on the recommendations of the Eleventh Finance Commission, is valid for the period 2000-05. Under this, expenditure on immediate relief to the victims of natural calamities can be met by the State Governments through the following Funds: Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) constituted for each State with pre-determined annual allocations for each of the five year period. The Central Government contributes 75% and the State Govt. 25%.
     
  • When the calamity is of a severe nature and the CRF is not sufficient, the States may approach Central Government for additional assistance from the National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) which is financed by levy of a special surcharge on Central (federal) taxes for a limited period.

Govt.'s approach to Disaster Management

  • Change in orientation from a primarily relief-centric approach to a holistic approach emphasizing mitigation, prevention and preparedness besides strengthening response, relief and rehabilitation mechanisms.
  • Creation of institutional mechanisms at National and State levels to provide appropriate coordinating platforms keeping in view the multidisciplinary nature of the activities required to be undertaken to reduce and manage the risk from natural hazards.
  • The Government of India, after considering the recommendations of the Expert Group, approved revision of items and norms of assistance from CRF/NCCF.
  • The revised items and norms of assistance were circulated to all the States and concerned Central Ministries on June 27, 2007.
     

Mitigation Measures

  • Core Groups comprising eminent experts / administrators set up to guide and facilitate formulation of strategies and programmes for mitigation of earthquakes, cyclones and landslides.
  • Emphasis on adherence to prescribed standards/codes for seismically resistant building designs and construction. Programmes for sensitization/training of Engineers, Architects and Masons in these aspects being implemented.
  • Model building bye laws/regulations developed and interaction with State level authorities in progress to facilitate adoption and enforcement of appropriate techno- legal regime for hazard resistant construction
  • Evaluation of existing building stock and infrastructure, particularly life-line buildings and vital installations, for seismic safety, to carry out retrofitting/reconstruction.
  • Sensitization and training of elected representatives, Civil servants/Police/Forest Service Officers and other public officials in disaster risk management.
  • Awareness generation to inform and educate the general public on hazard risks, vulnerability, and basic do's and don'ts
  • Community level preparedness through programmes involving preparation of village/Block/District level Disaster Management Plans, constitution and training of Disaster Management Committees/teams.
  • Strengthening of disaster warning systems for cyclones, floods and landslides
  • Drawing up project proposals for construction of multi-utility cyclone shelters, coastal shelter belt plantations
  • Emphasis on drawing up and periodic rehearsing of on-site and off-site hazard management plans by industries stocking/producing hazardous materials
  • Incorporating disaster management basics in school education.
  • Disaster management/mitigation aspects being incorporated in Engineering/Architecture/Medical Education curricula

New Directions for Disaster Management in India

  • A National Disaster Mitigation Fund will be administered by NDMA. States and districts will administer mitigation funds.
  • A National Disaster Response Fund will be administered by NDMA through the National Executive Committee. States and Districts will administer state Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Response Fund respectively.
  • 8 Battalions of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) are being trained and deployed with CSSR and MFR equipment and tools in eight strategic locations.
  • A National Disaster Management Policy and National Disaster Response Plan will also be drawn up.

Role of the state government during a disaster:

  • In the state level disaster management it is the responsibility of the chief minister or the chief secretary of the state. All decisions on relief operations are taken by them
  • Work is further delegated to the Relief commissioner who is in charge of relief and rehabilitation measures. He functions under the directive of the state level committee.
  • The secretary of the department of Review is sometimes in charge of relief measures.

Disaster management at the district level

  • Government plans for disaster management are implemented by the district administration.
  • The actual ground work for relief is the responsibility of the district magistrate, the district collector and the deputy commissioner; they coordinate and supervise the relief work.
  • The district disaster management committee is headed by the district magistrate.
  • Officers from the health; irrigation; veterinary; police; fire services and the water and sanitation departments are members of this committee
  • The district disaster management committee takes decisions on the relief measure and those decisions are carried out by the disaster management committee.
  • Trained persons from all the departments carried out the relief measures.

Main functions of the District disaster management committee

  • The committee prepares the District disaster management plan for the state Administration.
  • The committee trains members of the disaster management Team in rescue and relief operations.
  • The committee carries out mock rescue drills as a preparation for disaster management.

The Role of Government in a Disaster Management

What is a disaster?

Disaster is a sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life.

"A disaster can be defined as any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services on a scale, sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area". (W.H.O.)

There are mainly two types of disaster:

  1. Natural
  2. Man-Made

What is disaster management?

"Disaster management" is the creation of plans through which communities reduce the impact of disasters.

Components of Disaster Management:

  1. Preparedness
  2. Response
  3. Recovery
  4. Mitigation / Reduction

Principles of Disaster Management:

  • Minimize casualties
  • Prevent further casualties
  • Rescue the victims
  • First aid
  • Evacuate
  • Medical care
  • Reconstruction

Role of Government:

  • The Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act, which envisaged the creation of "National Disaster Management Authority" (NDMA), "National Disaster Response Force" (NDRF).
  • Symbolic of National will to provide a multidisciplinary, multi-skilled, high-tech Specialist Response Force for all types of disaster capable of insertion by Air, Sea & Land.

Capabilities & Strength Of NDRF:

  1. Capable in CSSR(Collapsed Structure Search & Rescue) operations
  2. Men are trained in MFR (Medical First Responder)
  3. Men are trained in Flood and mountain rescue operations.
  4. Each unit has deep divers.
  5. 36 Dogs would be present with capability of search & rescue operations.
  6. Presence of specialized manpower viz. 36 Engineers, 19 Doctors, 36 Nurses, 18 Technicians, 18 Electricians etc. make it a highly specialized professional Force.
  7. Authorization and presence of highly specialized equipment.
  8. High mobility.

Role Of NDRF:

Pre-Disaster

  • Will impart Disaster Management training to the local police, District Authorities, PRIs and other Stakeholders
  • Will organise community awareness and preparedness programme during familiarization & recee of vulnerable areas in the A.I.R.
  • Will impart training to the teachers and school children in the management of Natural Disasters.

During - Disaster

  • Pro-active deployment at level - III disaster.
  • Provide hi-tech-specialist response during search and rescue of victims.
  • Provide immediate relief with available men and material in the affected areas.

Post - Disaster

To assist States in recovery- maintenance of normalcy at the areas of disaster.

few specific types of disasters the concerned Ministries have the nodal responsibilities for management of the disasters, as under:
  • Drought - Ministry of Agriculture
  • Epidemics & Biological Disasters -Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
  • Chemical Disasters - Ministry of Environment & Forests
  • Nuclear Disasters - Ministry of Atomic Energy
  • Air Accidents - Ministry of Civil Aviation
  • Railway Accidents - Ministry of Railways

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