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Electric Vehicles: The Future Of Developing India

Electric Vehicles (EVs) are a viable technology for establishing a sustainable transportation sector in the future because of their extremely low to zero carbon emissions, great efficiency, low noise pollution, and flexibility in grid operation and combination. Electric vehicles can be the new trend in developing countries like India if some significant changes are made in the policymaking methods. Electric vehicles have become immensely important in the Indian subcontinent considering the current environmental conditions in the country.

Introduction:
The upsurge of the Indian automobile industry has enabled the enlargement of the electric vehicle sector in the Indian subcontinent. EVs(hereinafter EV) have become the promising and trusted channel for the improvement of air quality, energy security, and resource management problems. Since the Kyoto protocol was signed in 1998; The Indian government has put immense efforts into curbing greenhouse gases(GHGs) and carbon-based emissions.

These have become the critical issues that policymakers have been working to address globally. If closely analyzed, it would be evident that the Transportation sector alone consumes 98 percent reliant on fossil fuels which are very susceptible to fluctuations in energy supply. With the running time, the government and auto sector companies have recognized the potential of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) for environmentally friendly transportation, and auto sector companies have been enacting measures to boost the market for EVs. However, the country is still struggling to identify the medium to replace the existing usage of fuel mechanisms with environment-friendly EVs.

Fossil fuel burning will create a negative impact on climate change because vehicle emissions generally contain CO2, CO, NO2, and other particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) which have been considered the major contributors to the effect of greenhouse gases and also cause various diseases like cancer. EVs play a very vital role in making India a developed country. The manufacturing of EVs is getting increasingly popular. Additionally, its market share is likely to grow in India in the coming decades.

Whilst India's GDP is staggering increasing the EVs can be the best source of increasing GDP in the coming years. Furthermore, to the benefit of decreasing pollution, according to the research, "EVs can reduce oil imports by $60 billion by 2030" (Kumar 2021). It is a relatively new concept in the automobile industry. Although some manufacturers have built their entire model around being proactive and using electricity, others provide a hybrid vehicle that runs on both electricity and gas. Thus, this paper would analyze EVs concerning their importance in India.

The objective of this paper lies in identifying whether India is ready to have EVs when the sub-continent is standing on the verge of exhausting the necessary electricity-producing resources? Even if some renewable resources like solar and hydroelectricity are present, how is it going to be implemented? furthermore, after discussing these important questions the paper will establish a relationship to its importance in India.

To achieve this, the paper will proceed in four sections. The first section will have a comparative analysis between India and Norway to establish the need for EVs in India. The second section of the paper will discuss the existing condition of environmental conditions in India and how EVs can make a significant change. The third section of the paper will discuss the obstacles in establishing the roots of EVs in India. The fourth section of the paper will consist of the recommendations made by the author to overcome these obstacles and understand the significance of EVs in India.

A Comparative Analysis Between India And Norway

Globally, EVs are transforming the world of road transportation. Over the last five years; the global market has grown at a rate of 43% each year on average, with a penetration rate of roughly 2.6% in 2019. India lags behind China, Europe, and the United States in terms of significant markets. "In 2019, the worldwide EVs stock reached 7.2 million units, with China for 47%, Europe for 25%, and the United States for 21%. Only 6,00,000 copies were sold throughout the rest of the world, with only 1,70,000 sold in India" (Morgan et al. 41). EV is a hot topic in India. However, it will take a lot of time for EVs to make a huge entry into India. The key component of EVs is the global net-zero goals and an essential carbon-neutral tool that helps in lowering pollution and combating climate changes. The green industrial approach can help the Indian economy to recover after the pandemic.

EV sales in India are limited to electric bikes and rickshaws, the car arena is still away from reaching its goal. Nevertheless, the global trends are quite different from the Indian scenario. The latest record-breaking statistics highlight that the Scandinavian nations have made the target to stop the buying capacity of fossil fuels latest by 2025. The authors highlighted that "there are 5,600 stations in Norway and 1,400 of those within the city of Oslo.

That's one charging station per 446 cars. For India to have the same ratio, we would need 67,700 charging stations. At these stations, EV drivers can charge their cars for free. There are also a few quick charging stations that can deliver an 80 percent charge in about 30 minutes" (Khan and Maqbool, 2). The survey in the Scandinavian state projects that most of the people in Norway do not prefer EVs just because they are amazing global citizenry who all wants to save the planet rather than this, they prefer EVs because of the 'economic motivation'.

The people who buy EVs are exempted from paying purchase tax or the parking charges and EVs are considerably cheaper for them. However, in India, these are things that have never been paid attention to. Even though some state governments like Delhi, have introduced EV laws to provide financial incentives to new electric vehicle buyers, the problem of charging stations arises. If the Indian cities are well equipped with the charging infrastructure for the EV cars then this will become the most viable option for the people wherein they will be able to enjoy financial incentives (Khan and Maqbool, 3).

 
Year India Norway
Financial Total Adoption Rate (%) Total Adoption Rate (%)
2010-2011 0.25 19.6
2011-2012 0.27 23.66
2012-2013 0.35 26.83
2013-2014 0.38 31.50
2014-2015 0.39 35.75
2015-2016 0.43 39.67
2016-2017 0.48 43.65
2017-2018 0.50 45.80
2018-2019 0.65 49.14
2019-2020 0.70 59.93
Rounded 1% 60%
Source : (Khan and Maqbool, 3).

The way India generates electric power is the main reason electric vehicles are not popular in India. While most of the globe is switching to electric vehicles to reduce pollution, India's electric power is still largely derived from coal and other fossil fuels. If electric vehicles become more widespread, our country's carbon footprint will increase, and the core problem for which electric vehicles were developed would be solved in vain.

A Medium To Overcome India's Climate Catastrophe

The time has arrived to move away from fossil fuels. The cost of pollution is beginning to spiral out of control for residents and economies alike, as seen by global weather disasters and the levels of pollution in major Indian cities. The disruption caused by climate change presents both opportunities and challenges. Faced with the necessity for a substantially decreased CO2 footprint per capita, forward-thinking countries will be able to develop new technologies and achieve leadership positions in the development of future energy-efficient products and services.

As the recent United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report reveals, worldwide net-zero emissions by 2050 were the very minimum required to keep global warming from reaching 1.5 degrees Celsius (Climate Change). It highlights that limiting future climate change, and its most harmful consequences will necessitate a rapid transition from non-renewable to renewable and sustainable energy sources like wind, solar, electric, and tidal power. That requires rethinking how people use energy, including how they move, what and where they build, how goods are manufactured, and how food is grown.

EVs are more viable options for the climate than the existing road vehicles. Even though it is not the full proof plan for climate change still it can make a difference in the current scenario. They emit fewer greenhouse gases and air pollutants than the fuels like petrol and diesel. The EVs have significantly contributed to the betterment of the air quality index.

The metropolitan cities are the major areas on which we should focus. The urban population of India is expected to roughly account for 17% of the worldwide urban population increase. Cities are concentrated emission centers because they are dense agglomerations of people and economic activity. They have the potential to dramatically reduce emissions if meticulously planned the implementation of EV charging stations.

Hurdles In Implementation Of EVs In India

EVs are the future of the Indian automobile industry as the economy slows. Government incentives and innovation are critical to India's EV technology. At the same time, the government must address the slowdown while also investing in future-proof technology. This has caused a major divide in the Indian electric car industry, casting doubt on the technology's future in the country.

While there are numerous government incentives in India, businesses and customers are concerned about a lack of sufficient infrastructure and the high cost of electric vehicles. When it comes to the future of electric vehicles in India, the focus will be primarily on EV infrastructure.

Charging Infrastructure

In 2018, India had 650 charge stations, compared to China's 456k. A dearth of affordable renewable energy means that charging EVs puts pressure on the already overcrowded coal-powered electricity infrastructure.

Range Anxiety
It is one of the most serious issues confronting India's electric vehicle growth path. Customers buying electric vehicles (EVs) are frequently concerned about the vehicle's ability to drive from point A to point B before the battery runs out. This difficulty is exacerbated by India's lack of charging infrastructure. In comparison to gas stations, India's electric vehicle charging infrastructure is woefully inadequate. Furthermore, the available electric vehicle charging stations are mostly concentrated in urban areas. On average, it can only travel roughly 100 miles on a single battery. The range and speed of electric cars are also constrained.

Electric Vehicles Are Expensive

EVs are often more expensive than gasoline and diesel vehicles since their batteries are more expensive, and the larger the battery, the more we must spend. Electric vehicles use the same rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that power our laptops and smartphones; they're just bigger and have a lot more capacity. This is owing to the high cost of elements like cobalt, nickel, lithium, and manganese, which are utilized in cathodes to store more energy. The high pricing of EVs in India is due to this.

Exclusion Of Evs From Fame Scheme

The Indian government is attempting to promote electric mobility in the country by offering incentives and discounts for electric automobiles. The FAME scheme's criteria and regulations do not support the majority of EVs. The FAME program also excludes two- and three-wheeled electric vehicles. As a result, a lot of individuals are afraid to buy electric cars.

Charging Time

The issue of charging time is inextricably linked to the issue of driving range. EVs typically take 8 hours to completely charge. The length of time it takes to charge a battery is largely determined by its size: the larger the battery, the longer it will take to charge. If we wish to charge in a shorter amount of time, the charging station charges will be greater. The charging rate of the battery with a rapid charger, on the other hand, decreases as the temperature drops or as the temperature drops.

Recommendations To Boost India's Electric Vehicle Sector

Minister of road transport and highways minister Nitin Gadkari indicated that the government has been abandoning the idea of a national electric vehicle (EV) policy in the hope that new technology would provide a better alternative to government regulation. There will be a need for the government to take a more active role in helping the sector.

According to the Paris climate accord, India has promised to reduce its emission intensity by 33-35 percent by 2030, compared to 2005 levels. Although the EV sector has experienced a surge in sales, long-term growth and changes in customer behavior are required. The electric vehicle industry in India is picking pace with 100% FDI possible, increased push to improve the charging infrastructure and establish new manufacturing hubs.

Amending FAME scheme to boost EVs: FAME India is a part of the national electric mobility mission plan. Phase I started in 2015 and Phase II started in April 2019, both the scheme covers hybrid and electric technologies like mild hybrid, strong hybrid, and battery electric vehicles. These two phases of the scheme encourage faster adoption of electric vehicles, set up necessary charging infrastructure for EVs, and address the issue of environmental pollution. It will help in the development of its manufacturing eco-system in the country.

Establishing more charging stations: It is critical to standardize the charging stations. To encourage the adoption of electric vehicles, the industry should develop fast charging options. The government has also started to have EV charging stations installed at selected pumps. Implementation of a charging station helps to boost India's electric vehicle industry rapidly.

Lowering taxes on imports of EVs: The low manufacturing of EVs by domestic automakers is a big challenge in achieving the government's aim of 30 % sales by 2030. Imports will almost certainly be required to close the gap between India's production capacity and its aim. Reduced taxes and charges on EVs are a critical step toward expanding the EVs sector in India.

Conclusion
The upsurge in the environmental disbalance has created the need for adopting the technology of electric vehicles in India. The developed countries with the help of the available sources have paved the way for the wider usage of EVs all around the country. It has enabled them to enhance technological power and curb the usage of non-renewable resources. On a similar note, India too needs electric vehicles to curb pollution.

As the comparative study highlighted how the Scandinavian countries have identified the medium to promote EVs rather than the vehicles using petrol or diesel. Economic motivation has become the key to the benefit of both the environment and the people as well. The Indian policymakers must also address the medium of economic motivation by reducing the taxes for the people purchasing electric vehicles.

Furthermore, they should also frame the ideas and methods to increase the establishment of charging stations just like the petrol pumps. The technology of EVs can give chance to increase other technologies like it can help invent the methods to reduce the charging time required by the EVs. Although there are many contentions related to the fact that EVs reduce pollution completely. However, the EVs might not be completely helpful but they still can make a huge difference in a country like India.

References:
  • "Climate Change." United Nations, 2021, www.un.org/en/global-issues/climate-change
  • Khan, Tanveer Ahmad, and Dr. Adeel Maqbool. "A Comparative Study of E-Vehicles Adoption - Europe VS India." International Journal of Science Technology and Management, vol. 10, no. 02, 2021, pp. 1-11, www.ijstm.com.
  • Kumar, Gaurav. "Electric Vehicle Market in India Looks Absolute Electric." Medium, 8 Oct. 2021, medium.com/@knowyourev/electric-vehicle-market-in-india-looks-absolute-electric-faa932604b0f.
  • Morgan, Richard A., et al. "International Institute of Sustainable Development." Trade and Sustainability Review, vol. 1, no. 3, 2021, pp. 1-46, www.iisd.org/system/files/2021-07/iisd-trade-sustainability-vol-1-issue-3-en.pdf



Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr.Siddharth Raj

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Authentication No: MA212141559898-01-0522

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