Globalization is a process of integration and interaction among the people of a
different nation. Globalization impacts the environment which led to global
warming. MNC's release their waste into the sea, the soil absorbs harmful
chemicals and affects the ecosystem. Most of the developing countries invite
developed countries to invest and remove global barriers and to generate
employment but face negative impacts.
The Rapid development of the emerging
countries over the years has also led to major emitters of Green House Gases.
Climate change is the main environmental problem it has connectivity through the
greenhouse gas emission. MNC's play a role in social, cultural & political
issues; the growing trend of MNC's has led the international law to think about
CSR- Corporate Social Responsibility the most important aspect of CSR is the
environmental issue. Corporate environmental responsibility (CER)is to create
awareness about the environmental impact and carbon footprint on natural
"Where globalization means, as it so often does, that the rich and powerful now
have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the power
and weaker, we have a responsibility to protest in the name of universal
freedom." - - By Nelson Mandela.
Globalization refers to how the world has become more connected economically,
politically, socially and culturally over time. Through globalization Trade,
ideas, people, technology, disease, services were shared across the world. The
standard of living changed; countries became interdependent. The financial
status of the developing and under-developing countries increased. The developed
countries brought a new era into the lives of people.
After World War -I, World War II, The Great Depression, and ending the regime
of the Nazi. The United Nations, NATO, International Monetary Fund, World Bank,
and other global organisations. These organisations were formed to help to bring
peace, stability and economic prosperity to the world. By the globalization IMF,
WB helped in cross-border transactions in goods and services, to keep the flow
of capital in the international market which helps in the growing economy of the
nation, the interdependency of the countries worldwide.
Globalization is not reversible we need to learn how we change its negative
impact and implement them to make our world a happy and prosperous place to live
eliminating all environmental, national security and humankind issues. Through
this Article, I would like to throw the light on the environmental issue of
Impact of Globalization on Environment
Globalization - Act of globalizing "; from the noun "global "meaning "About or
involving the whole world ", "worldwide "; "universal "(Oxford English
According to the WHO Globalization can be defined as" the increased
interconnectedness and interdependence of peoples and countries. It is generally
understood to include two interrelated elements: the opening of international
borders to increasingly fast flows of goods, services, finance, people, and
ideas; and the changes in institutions and policies at national and
international levels that facilitate or promote such flows."
People are trading goods as long as they have been around. In the 1st century
trading of luxury products started from China to the European continent-Rome.
They travelled for thousands of miles along the silk road. Trade stopped being
regional or local but now it was global. Silk was the most luxurious good, later
species were added to the intercontinental trade between Asia and Europe.
middlemen were involved to get the goods to their destination. Silk Roads were
dominated by the two great emperors, most of the time trade was interrupted by
the local enemies of Rome or China. Silk Road eventually closed because of the
fall of the emperors they were blamed for the closure. But later during the
medieval period - (The Mongols) the route was started again. It kept on rising
and falling as per the need of the nation.
7th-15th Century- Islam was the new religion spreading in all the direction, the
founder of Islam the Prophet Mohammed, was famously a merchant. Muslim traders
dominated the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean trade. The spices were traded the
chief among them were the Cloves, nutmeg, and mace along with silk, they also
remained as a luxury product.
15-18th Century- During this period Europe introduced potatoes, chocolate,
coffee, and tomatoes to the world.
The prices of the species fell. By the end of
the 18th century, Great Britain has started to dominate the world through the
establishment of the British Empire and their innovation like Steam Engine,
Industrial weaving machines, etc. The Era of the first industrial revolution
The 1914 outbreak of World War- I Everything was destroyed war was replaced by
trade, countries closed their borders, hundreds of thousands of civilians died
as collateral damage. Monetary market breakdown. The global economy got
affected. Another world war followed in 1939-1945. By the end of World War II,
trade as a percentage of world GDP has fallen to 5%.
In the 19th century Through the third industrial revolution world witnessed a
huge change in the global market. To move barriers from trade and commerce
introduced to the new technology which made communication easier and
availability of a product, increase in demand of services, helped underdeveloped
and developing country generating employment increased the financial growth of
the country. As globalization has its pros and cons depending upon the type of
situation of the country.
It is noticed in most cases that developed countries use the developing
countries and underdeveloped countries for their benefits for example, in these
countries, the MNC's get cheap labour and availability of resources in abundance
so they use them to increase the profit of their company this lead to affect the
developed countries because they have skilled labour and which are available to
them at the high price so they search for low price labour and make them skilled
in the field.
As through the globalization we get interdependent to each other so if the
financial growth of one country gets affected the other face it as well
Globalization has a huge impact on the environment both in positive and negative
aspects. But globalization helped to increase the major environmental damage
that we are facing. Today some of the national, international policies have been
made to reduce the effects of globalization on the environment.
- Increased greenhouse gas emission
Climate change is the main environmental problem it has connectivity through
the greenhouse gas emission -excessive retention of solar energy in the
atmosphere due to accumulation of certain gases, particularly the CO2.
The main source of CO2 emission is the industrial production, transportation,
and the deforestation but they are also considered as the source of development
in the 20th century, and particularly in the recent times.
Transportation through sea links also increases the chances of oil spills which
affects the water bodies and the marine animals 1,000 large fish and small fish
die because of sea pollution.
The developed countries are the main players of global industrialization and the
biggest polluter has the biggest share in the GHG emission example- the United
States is responsible for around 20% of global GHG.
The Rapid development of the emerging countries over the years has also led to
major emitters of GHG. The developing countries heartfully thanks to
globalization often putting the environment at the cost of making a profit. The
greatest example China whose quench for thirst for energy is unbeatable it opens
a new coal-fired power plant every week though, coal is the cheapest and most
abundant fossil fuel and the most polluting one. China is considered the world's
largest emitter of CO2 emissions. But it manages drastic renewable energy
programs. Countries like India, the US, the UK, and some of the countries are
trying to reach 100% renewable energy by 2030.
- Globalization encourages Deforestation.
Logging and burning of the trees reduce the volume of the CO2 that plants
convert into oxygen. Converting the rainforest/oxygen house into the farmland or
to the concrete jungle for the production of the goods and fulfilling the demand
in the market by one way or the other almost twice the size of Paris every day
is converted into the farmland for the agricultural purpose especially in the
developing countries. For instance, in Brazil a few years ago much of its
agriculture was export-oriented. Brazilian soy exports to China rocketed from
15,000 to 6 million tonnes.
The poorest region is most affected by global warming. By 2060, drought could
render 90 million hectares in sub-Saharan Africa sterile. Some 1.8 billion
people could lack water in the next 70 years. Central Asia, northern China, and
the Andes are, particularly at risk.
Global warming is also one of the causes of an increase in the number of natural
disasters such as hurricanes, storms, floods, and earthquakes, melting of
glaciers increasing the sea level. Parts of the coastal region are in the utmost
danger. Due to the temperature rise the living species may disappear in the
nearby time such as penguins, snow leopards, Dolphins, Whales, Polar Bear is
declared as endangered species. It feels bad to know this beautiful creature has
to pay for their life's just because of human activities and will leave an
indelible marking of the world's ecosystem.
- Increase of fishing in the water bodies
Overfishing has emphasized the oceans of some fish species. Overfishing is done
due to the rise in the global demand not just for consumption but for medicinal
Mediterranean bluefin tuna has met the same fate, delicacy in Japan is
threatened with extinction from overfishing. In Denmark on Faroe Island, 1400
dolphins have been killed hunting of dolphins and whales have increased on this
island earlier they use to hunt dolphins for their consumption but now illegal
marketing has increased the hunting.
According to the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN),22% of the world's mammals are threatened with
extinction, as well as 24% of the world's snake species 31% of the world's
amphibians, and 35% of the world's bird.
Flora is also at great risk
The rising demand for exotic raw materials and
farm products is affordable to consumers at a reasonable price in developed
countries. Rising demand slowly decreases the availability of the plants. The
demand for teak wood for the furniture and the other high quality of wood is on
the list of the threatened species category.
The increasing need for paper leading the way for deforestation, urbanization is
also a reason which led to wiping out the flora and fauna from the earth's
surface. Forest in Latin America and Sub -Saharan Africa are also being ravaged.
As total damages to the ecosystem would result in an annual loss of USD 68
Billion to the world economy.
The World wildlife fund for nature (WWF) predicts that by 2030 if nothing
changes the humanity will exhaust annually twice the resource produced by the
planet every year.
Globalization has a great effect on our lifestyle. It has made our life faster
easy access to technology, improved innovation, and communication, it has also
brought people of different cultures together. Apart from the cross border
through which the countries developed, it led to a strong economic channel for
the state. This also led to great concern for the environment because every
good thing comes with some negative impact.
Also due to globalization world came
together which led to an increase in demand for the product as to fulfil those
demands production needs to be done in a short period. The most impacted element
was the natural resource because it takes time to form a natural resource. But
in a short period, it gets consumed so the scarcity or we can say, some species
have listed in the endangered species considered as rare consumption in huge
demand has seriously impacted the ecological cycle.
Earlier people use to consume those products which were available to them
locally but globalization as brought people closer they share their culture,
food, traditions. The demand for the product from the international border
increased which led to an increase in transportation. The amount of fuel which
is consumed for global transportation causes pollution and cause noise and air
pollution, as well as to make a way for huge cargos with the shortest route has
impacted the landscape of some continent. To avoid traffic in such route several
other routes are constructed. Transportation also stressed the need for a
non-renewable sources of energy i.e., gasoline. The gases released from the
aircraft also led to the depletion of the ozone layer apart from the increasing
All the industrial wastage is either dumped in the ocean or the soil. That
release harmful chemicals make the land infertile, Barren to grow crops or
plants. The underwater organism gets killed the major example, is oil which is
spilt from the leaking containers or the pipelines is harmful and which is very
difficult to clean.
Recent scenario from September 2021
- The Gulf of Mexico is covered with a tangle of pipes, wells, and other
energy infrastructure, many of them are no longer used, as a result of
generation of oil extraction from these unused pipelines, the oil spilt
which was used by Talos, the former holder of which was on the offshore lease in the
area. Coast Guard are asked to clean the spill but when the investigation was
conducted and questioned Talos they stated that the spilt pipeline was not owed
- In July 2020, the oil tanker MV Wakashio reported to be carrying 4,000
metric tons of oil, ran aground on a coral reef on the island of Mauritius's
south coast, 1000 metric tons of fuel leaked from the cracked vessel into the
Indian ocean which led polluting surrounding beaches and lagoons. In another
case, the huge diesel oil spill in Russia's Arctic north polluted a large
freshwater lake and risk to arctic ocean up to 12 miles. These types of
disasters are huge risks in this modern times.
Plastic is the major toxic pollutant as it is the non-biodegradable product it
is immensely used for packaging and preserving goods that are to be exported
this lead to increase in plastic use and cause environmental pollution.
Globalization is all about competition and sustainment. Private companies should
start using eco-friendly techniques which is economically feasible. MNC's play a
role in social, cultural & political issues; the growing trend of MNC's has led
the international law to think about CSR- Corporate Social Responsibility the
most important aspect of CSR is the environmental issue. In the case of
environmental damages, they should be responsible for it and should compensate
for such damages.
The corporation has adopted an Environmental Management System
(EMS) that requires informed consensus on environmental management objectives
and policies that are based on the good understanding and the roles
&responsibilities of the players including the polluters and the affected
community. As to prevent the unfavourable environmental problem different laws
are enacted but the implementation of these laws is poor. MNC's considered
environment management a trend so includes it in their annual reports but the
meaningful approach has not been taken.
- Coca-Cola case:
A plant in Uttar Pradesh has been shut down because
they were extracting too much groundwater for their bottling plant. It was
directed to them the water you extracted twice of which should be treated as
depleting the groundwater. Uttar Pradesh pollution control board ordered the
closure of a Coca-Cola co. The company appealed to the National Green Tribunal
for a closure order.
In India Parle, Britannia, Amul, and ITC are the top most polluters. While
the MNC's PepsiCo, Perfetti Van Melle, Hindustan Unilever, and Coca-Cola are the
top most polluters.
The practice of using single-use disposable and low-value plastic packaging
onto consumers to improve their profit margins. PepsiCo cited that company by
2025 will recycle its packaging and plastic waste and will use 100% compostable,
plant-based packaging for two of its most popular products. CSR focus on energy
use, water use, waste management, recycling, emissions, etc. Developed nation
considers Environmental issue as the trade barriers they exploit the
underdeveloped country by polluting them and using polluting technologies they
should be severely punished for their dumping policies.
Corporate environmental responsibility (CER) is to create awareness about the
environmental impact and carbon footprint on natural resources.
Industrialization is encouraged to Globalize. We should not ignore the
consequences of these industries in our environment and on our health for the
long run. These kinds of disasters like oil spills, Gas leak leaves its print
for years in our environment and the lives of people. To recover from this loss
requires a lot of support and every individual has to play its part in
conserving the environment.
Glaciers are melting sea- levels are rising, deforestation, burning of forests
every year bring us closer to the destruction of the world. Globalization is
good in several aspects but before setting up a Plant in a Developing country
they should take care of the environment and frame such policies that help the
environment how much they take from nature pay it back in little percentage at
least could try to do good.
The industries should be in touch be with the government of the locality and
explain to them about their setup and the policies which would be followed by
them the government of the country should also monitor timely and think of
environment irrespective of profitmaking. Before setting up a hazardous chemical
industry should take approval from the environment tribunals or authority of the
country, with the approval certificate the land should be provided to them and
it should be far away from the residential area.
Global warming is the most important concern for every country. Countries should
switch towards renewable source of energy. Setting up and promoting the solar
plants in industries, schools, the residential areas will be helpful and the
consumption of electricity would be less.
Products should be recycled, factories should start investing in the latest
technology and innovation through which they can reduce manufacturing waste, use
less energy, and water. The countries should have the goal to become carbon
neutral, net-zero or carbon negative.
Switching to electric vehicles is the latest trend, UK Government has intended
to buy Electric cars in the next 5 years and to ban petrol and diesel cars by
2030. The new housing plans include an electric vehicle plug-in hybrid.
To avoid spilling in the ocean the cargos should not be overfilled with the fuel
to reduce the capacity, regular inspection of the fittings as to reduce the
risk. The pipelines in the ocean should also be regularly checked, the old and
leaking pipes should be changed to avoid spills.
The hazardous chemical industries should regularly keep an eye on the chemical
storage tanks, maintain the temperature and the refrigeration process should be
done with due care. The tank which holds the chemicals and the pipes need to be
checked regularly change them on a regular interval of time as to avoid the
unnecessary circumstances which harm the life of workers, people, and the
Apart, from profit-making, management should give importance to life and a
healthy environment. The lease with the country for setting up the plant in the
country should only be approved after the industry fulfils the environmental
protection requirement. Authority should strictly monitor the working,
maintenance, and disposing of the waste from the industry.
While framing the laws on environmental issues and setting up tribunals strict
laws should be framed without any loopholes, because loopholes allow the
developed countries to take advantage of such weak laws and take advantage of
The developed countries use developing countries to dump their chemical waste in
the developing country and they are unaware of the dumping which makes their
land infertile, barren slowly plant, start dying water bodies become polluted
and consuming the water animals, humans get infected.
Dumping of chemical waste in the ocean kills thousands of water habitats. Birds
consume those fish; grass and they are suffering from this infectious chemical
disease. Inhaling chemical gases affects the lungs, exposure to fumes generally
complains about eye irritation, conjunctivitis, skin irritation. People die due
to respiratory problems, neurological, gastrointestinal symptoms.
Workers working in these chemical industries should be provided with a mask, eye
shields, gloves, boots and another safety requirement which are designed for
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