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Education System in Afghanistan; A Comparative Analysis on Evaluation Policy and Equivalent System

In Afghanistan, there are 34 provinces. Nearly 35 million people call Afghanistan home, with a variety of ethnic groups making up the majority. Afghanistan is a country where more than 30 different languages are spoken, with Pashtu and the Persian-related language Dari (also known as Farsi) being the two most common.Afghanistan has had numerous battles and wars over the past 30 years, which have had a significant impact on schooling as a whole. For instance, education for girls and women was outlawed from 1996 to 2011.

Afghanistan started its rehabilitation in 2001, with a focus on education. Over three decades of chronic turmoil have wreaked havoc on Afghanistan's educational system. Despite significant advances in increasing enrolment, finishing elementary school remains a faraway goal for many children in the country, particularly in rural regions and for girls. Afghanistan has an estimated 3.7 million out-of-school children, 60% of whom are female.[1]

Insecurity and conventional attitudes and behaviors surrounding girls' and women's roles in society are the main causes of low girl enrollment. A paucity of female instructors, particularly in rural schools, can partially account for other factors. In Afghanistan, just 16% of schools are exclusively for girls, and many of them lack adequate sanitary facilities, which makes it harder for students to attend. Traditional attitudes and certain socio-cultural elements also work against girls' educational success. Girls are still getting married quite young; 17% do so before becoming 15 years old.

Challenges
The main obstacles to education in some areas of the nation are a lack of schools and inadequate transportation; children who have a far walk to school are less likely to attend. Geographical impediments, particularly in hilly places, make it difficult for kids to go to class. When students succeed, their education is frequently of inferior quality since only 48% of their instructors possess the required academic credentials (equivalent to an Associate Degree).

A vulnerable educational system is severely impacted by the sociopolitical and humanitarian challenges Afghanistan is now experiencing. Natural catastrophes like floods, earthquakes, and landslides make things worse for all kids. These elements cause parents to worry about their children's safety and may make them reluctant to send them to school.

Possible solution
More children attending school, staying there, and developing into healthy, responsible adults all depend on a good educational system. Future incomes are typically increased by 3.9 percent every year of education. To combat the lack of learning brought on by poverty, discrimination, and conflict, we work at the national, provincial, and community levels in close cooperation with the Ministry of Education and other partners. Our support is particularly targeted at girls who are the most at risk in underprivileged areas.

More Children Enrolled in School
Every youngster has the right to access an education. For many years, UNICEF has collaborated with the government and other organizations to boost the number of kids attending school.

UNICEF focuses on the enrollment and retention of the most at-risk kids, particularly females and kids who aren't in school. We promote the establishment of Neighborhood-Based Schools and Accelerated Learning Centers within a three-kilometer radius of each child's community as part of the government's Community-Based Education (CBE) initiative and the official educational system. We support the development of alternate learning avenues and broaden educational possibilities for those who are most difficult to reach. The goal for the upcoming years is to mobilize support for the CBE Investment to enroll about 50% of the 1.7 million out-of-school children.[2]

Improving institutional capacity
To raise the standard of education, establish better educational systems, and support settings that are supportive of learning and development, UNICEF collaborates with the Ministry of Education and other partners.

The Afghan government has chosen a strategy that emphasizes inclusivity, child-centered learning, a safe, healthy, and protective learning environment, as well as active community involvement. A national assessment framework for the primary education system that is connected to a national qualification framework is being developed by the Ministry of Education with assistance from UNICEF.

To raise the standard of education, establish better educational systems, and support settings that are supportive of learning and development, UNICEF collaborates with the Ministry of Education and other partners.

The Afghan government has chosen a strategy that emphasizes inclusivity, child-centered learning, a safe, healthy, and protective learning environment, as well as active community involvement. A national assessment framework for the primary education system that is connected to a national qualification framework is being developed by the Ministry of Education with assistance from UNICEF.

During emergencies and wars, UNICEF offers emergency education to ensure that kids continue attending school. The Ministry of Education's catastrophe response is aided by the Education in Emergencies Working Group, which is co-led by UNICEF and Save the Children. In local communities, UNICEF works on fostering social cohesiveness and a culture of peace, especially in places where fear and violence are still prevalent.

Education System Profiles
Afghanistan's education system has been severely damaged by wars and strife that have lasted for more than thirty years. However, significant progress has been made after the Taliban were overthrown in 2001 as a result of reconstruction initiatives. For instance, previous to 2002, it was estimated that just one million pupils, virtually all of whom were boys, attended ordinary schools. More than nine million youngsters are currently enrolled, according to government figures.

Girls, who were mostly prohibited from attending school during the Taliban, have been included in the expansion. In general schools nowadays, female students make up around 39% of the total enrollment. (A caveat on the accuracy of schooling statistics from official sources in Afghanistan may be found in the sidebar.) The other levels have also undergone restoration and reform.

However, rates of involvement and educational achievement are still quite low across Afghanistan. The country's projected adult literacy rate as of 2015 is 38 percent, which is much lower than both the global average of 84 percent and neighboring nations like Pakistan (56 percent) and Iran (48 percent) (87 percent). Astonishingly low participation percentages may be found in both elementary and secondary school.

Less than 25% of students finish the first nine years of school, and less than 10% continue their education through [grade] 12, according to a 2015 report from the Netherlands organization for international cooperation in higher education, NUFFIC. The issue of gender discrimination is still very much present. Along with outdated instructional methods and equipment, teacher credentials are a persistent problem for many educators.

In other words, in a country where 41.8 percent of the population is under 15 years of age, education quality, equity, and access remain urgent national development concerns.

Understanding Afghan Education Data: Almost Nine Million Enrollments
The American government has made significant investments in Afghanistan's rehabilitation since the Taliban were overthrown in 2001. A quarterly report on "developments in the three primary areas of Afghanistan's reconstruction effort," one of which is education, was released by the U.S. government's Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) in July 2016. The study makes it very apparent not to take enrollment figures at face value:

Nearly 8.7 million pupils are enrolled in Afghanistan's 15,249 general-education (government) institutions. The total of present and absent pupils is the number of enrolled students. Due to the possibility that they could return to school, the [Afghan Ministry of Education (MOE)] classifies absent students who have been away for up to three years as enrolled. The MOE is aware that many kids are not in school, but it has no idea how many there are, who they are, where they are, or what their backgrounds are.

MOBILITY OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS
Despite its fast growth over the last 10 years, Afghanistan's higher education system is still unable to meet demand from students, particularly at the master's and nearly nonexistent PhD levels. Competent students who can afford it frequently look to further their studies overseas. According to a 2013 World Bank report, "the lack of higher education opportunities has led to many Afghan students seeking degree and postgraduate degree programmes overseas."

The World Bank estimated that about 5,000 Afghan students studied abroad in 2013, however estimates of this figure vary depending on the source. As of 2016, according to UNESCO, around 17,0001 Afghan students have studied abroad in 2013, with 9,033 (53%) of them going to Iran, 2,330 (14%) to India, 1,310 (88%) to Turkey, 1,226 (7%) to Saudi Arabia, and 428 (3%), respectively. According to IIE statistics, the amount of Afghan students studying in the United States rose by barely 10% during the academic years 2010–11 and 2014–15, indicating that outbound mobility to the country has remained mostly stable over time.

System of Education: Overview
The elementary, secondary, higher education, vocational, teacher preparation, and religious education sectors of the Afghan educational system are all included. The Education Law of 2008 established a nine-year mandatory schooling period (primary education and lower secondary education). In Afghanistan, the right to a free bachelor's degree is guaranteed under the constitution. However, governmental schools are understaffed, and over the past ten years or so, dozens of fee-paying private institutions—the most of them for-profit—have popped up to meet the rising demand for higher education among young Afghans. Private school fees are erratic and mostly uncontrolled.

Oversight of the Primary and Secondary Systems
The administration of elementary, secondary, vocational, and religious education, as well as funding, policy creation, curriculum design, assessment, and basic teacher preparation, is handled by the Ministry of Education (MoE). All district offices are under the control of the MoE, which also controls the 34 provincial ministries of education. (As of 2008, there were 412 such district offices.)

Control of the Tertiary System and the Development of the Private Sector
The administration of higher education, including finance, policy creation, institution establishment, quality assurance, and advanced teacher preparation, falls under the purview of the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE). The MoHE was charged with creating an organisation to manage the accreditation of all public and private institutions of higher education under Afghanistan's 2010-2014 National Higher Education Strategic Plan.

Historically, the MoHE has had considerable influence over both the operational and academic facets of public institutions. To provide institutions more authority, post-Taliban reform initiatives have been made, however they are still not complete.

Universities and higher education institutions both fall within the higher education umbrella. In 2012, Afghanistan has 12 higher education institutions, 19 universities, and 31 public higher education institutions. 2 Since 2001, the private higher education market has experienced rapid expansion. According to various reports, there were between 68 and 100 private institutions operating in Afghanistan in 2014.

This number was reported by the World Bank to be 68 in 2012 and Ahmad Hasib Farhan, communications director for US AID's Afghanistan University Support and Workforce Development Program, to be 100 in 2014. According to the World Bank, universities that "usually concentrate in profitable programmes such as medicine, finance, management, ICT, and marketing" as well as schools that "provide pre-degree professional diploma and certificate courses" are examples of private sector institutions.

Growing Tertiary Enrollments
Since 2001, there has been a significant increase in higher education enrollment in Afghanistan, with growth accelerating in 2009 when the first cohorts of pupils who attended basic and secondary school after the Taliban reached university age. The World Bank reports that higher education enrollment in Afghanistan "grew from fewer than 8,000 in 2001 to nearly 152,000 in 2012." (U.S. AID indicates that as of 2015, enrollments have increased to 174,425) The majority of volume is accounted for by public entities. From around 8,000 students in 2001 to nearly 100,000 in 2012, their enrollments increased.

The public higher education system has grappled with capacity difficulties in the face of this increased demand. According to reports, 117,000 students took the national exam needed for admission to public colleges in 2011. About 25,000 of the approximately 84,000 people who applied for admission to higher education were admitted. Another 17,000 were admitted into teacher education or technical-vocational education programmes. (NOTE: Technical and vocational education is covered under secondary education above. Programs for teacher preparation are discussed below.)

A sizeable (and growing) proportion of pupils have been absorbed by the mostly for-profit private sector. Private universities had an estimated 73,000 students enrolled as of 2013, increasing from nearly nothing less than a decade earlier. 3 The American University of Afghanistan and Cheragh Medical School and Hospital are the only private, non-profit schools that have so far arisen, according to a 2014 article in the journal Planning for Higher Education. The publication stated that quality is an issue in the profit-driven economy. "From 2010 to 2013, more than 40 private higher education schools received approval." The authors remark that this quick growth "has made it impossible to assure... quality," particularly in light of a nascent approval and certification procedure that is readily manipulated.

Faculty Qualifications
Both within Afghanistan and by the several foreign assistance groups devoted to enhancing the sector, the presence of underqualified professors is widely known. The majority of research-based suggestions for changes identify raising the proportion of professors with master's degrees as a short-term objective and raising the proportion with PhDs as a long-term objective.

According to the World Bank, the majority of Afghanistan's public institutions of higher learning have, at most, one or two PhD-level faculty members as of 2013. Five percent was the total rate. The majority of PhD-trained academics or personnel in the public sector is only found at Kabul University, Kabul Polytechnic University, and Nangrahar University. At the time, 57% of all professors had merely a bachelor's degree, and the remaining 38% had higher degrees.

Faculty compensation is a significant quality-related issue in the higher education sector, as the British Council observed in another study from 2013 in this regard. According to researchers' interview with Dr. C. Michael Smith, president of the American University of Afghanistan. "People are compelled to work for meagre pay. For instance, in Kabul, teachers are compelled to teach at for-profit universities on the side to augment their income. Another concern raised by the British Council Report, particularly in the context of public higher education, has quality implications: Political favouritism, rather than academic quality, has always been used to determine who is appointed to academic positions.

EDUCATION SYSTEM: STRUCTURE AND REQUIREMENTS
  1. Primary Education
    The primary grades are 1 through 6. Typically, between the ages of six and eight, children start school. Although the basic curriculum is uniform across the country, instructors can modify it to fit the local content. There are two cycles in the primary school system.

    The first cycle, which encompasses grades 1 through 3, involves topics including religious studies, first language (which may be Dari or Pashtu, depending on the location), arithmetic, the arts, and physical education. Grades 4 through 6 are covered under the second cycle. The curriculum includes the same courses as the first cycle in addition to extra classes in history, geography, natural sciences, and a second language (Dari or Pashtu, depending on the region).

    For entry into lower secondary education, children must pass an exam at the conclusion of sixth grade (Maktabeh Motevasteh). They can now choose to follow a route in religious studies or a more broad education track. Most pupils choose the latter, by far.
     
  2. Secondary Education
    Two three-year cycles are included in secondary education. Lower secondary education refers to the first cycle, which spans grades 7 through 9, while upper secondary education refers to the second cycle, which spans classes 10 through 12.

    Religious studies, regional languages, mathematics, natural sciences, social studies, foreign languages (English, German, French, and Russian), and physical education are all included in the first cycle's curriculum.

    If they do well on the exam at the conclusion of ninth grade, students can move on to upper secondary school. Students may choose to pursue technical and secondary vocational education rather than further secondary school after completing grade nine. Whether students choose to concentrate on social studies or natural sciences shapes the curriculum for further secondary education.

Higher Education
Admission and Enrollments
Admission to public higher education institutions depends on students' performance on the national university entrance examination, the Kankor Exam. Private higher education institutes do not typically require that students take the exam.

Undergraduate Education: Structure, duration, and requirements
Similar to the higher education system in the United States, first-year bachelor's students complete one year of general education before deciding on a course of study or major. Each major has different requirements for coursework and length of study. For instance, four years of full-time study are often needed to get a bachelor of arts or science. Engineering, pharmacy, and veterinary medical programmes are all five-year programmes.

Medical degrees can be started by undergraduate students. A first-year and a final-year internship are both required in medical schools, which run seven years on average. (Students who perform poorly on the Kankor test may be expelled from the first year.) Medical Doctor (MD) degrees are given to medical programme graduates.

Bachelor
A general introduction to the programme is given in the first year. In the following years, the courses are tailored to a specific field. Only a few programmes, depending on the specialisation, incorporate work placements. In the majority of programmes, writing a thesis does not form a component of the curriculum. After obtaining a bachelor's degree, students may transfer to the master's degree programme or enter the labour market. There is no standard designation for bachelor's diplomas. Depending on the era and regime, the term used on the document is Diploma or Certificate. In recent years the designation used is

Bachelor of Arts/ Science.

The bachelor's degree programmes usually have a nominal duration of 4 years, or 8 semesters.

With a nominal duration of 5 years or more the Bachelor of Engineering and the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine are among the programmes that form an exception to the above.

The degree programme in medicine currently has a nominal duration of 7 years, including one preparatory year and a 1 -year work placement at the end of the study programme. Students obtaining good konkur results do not need to pursue the preparatory year. T his means that the duration of the programme will be shorter for some students. Upon completion of the programme, students are awarded the degree of Medical Doctor (MD).

Postgraduate Education: Capacity and Access
After earning their bachelor's degrees, students can enrol in graduate-level coursework. But there aren't many master's programmes available right now. Although a small number of public colleges have started to offer master's degrees, the majority of master's programmes are in engineering and teaching and are offered by private schools. Collaborations with universities throughout the world, including those in Sweden, Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom, have aided in the development of this area of higher education.

At present a limited number of master's programmes are offered in Afghanistan. Master's programmes have a nominal duration of 2 years and are mainly offered at private higher education institutions.

In Afghanistan, PhD programmes are essentially nonexistent. In the autumn of 2014, Nangarhar University, a public university in Jalalabad, introduced the first PhD programme ever offered in the nation. Others are being created.

Grading Scale
Afghanistan's higher education institutions grade assignments on a 100-point scale. Failure is defined as a score of less than 40. The same scale is used at upper secondary institutions. Some private higher education institutions make use of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS). The ECTS had not yet been formally accepted by Afghanistan's Ministry of Higher Education, according to NUFFIC's 2015 report.

Recognition and Accreditation
All governmental and private higher education institutions in Afghanistan must be accredited, according to the National Higher Education Strategic Plan 2010-2014. Within two years, all institutions must at the very least be candidates for accreditation.

The National Commission on Quality Assurance and Certification (NCQAA), a relatively new entity operating under the MoHE's auspices, is in charge of overseeing the accreditation process. The following are the steps in the accreditation process:

First, an institution must show that it meets minimum requirements (e.g., registration with the Ministry of Higher Education) and undertake a self-assessment process.

The next step is peer review. Upon passing peer review, the institution receives accreditation level one status.

Level one status lasts one year, at which point an institution enters level two. During this year, it conducts another self-assessment and undergoes additional peer review.

A positive recommendation from peer reviewers to the Council of the Accrediting Agency triggers full accreditation, which is valid for 5 years.

The accrediting system's implementation has proven difficult. When presenting certification in practise in a 2014 paper for the Afghanistan Analysts Network, the author sounded a strong warning. The author stated that the accrediting procedure "gives the impression of [rigour] at first glance." The ability of [relevant] agencies to really implement these rules and procedures is the biggest problem, though. The departments are "chronically under-resourced in the face of onerous and growing tasks," the author wrote.

The study continues by noting that, in some circumstances, the MoHE has delegated control of accreditation to public institutions like the University of Kabul in order to solve capacity difficulties. The journey hasn't always been easy: For accreditation, private institutions go via their public equivalents.

Evaluation Chart
The left-hand column in the table below lists the most common foreign qualifications applicable to admission to higher education. The other columns show the Dutch equivalent along with the corresponding levels in the Dutch and European qualifications frameworks.

Assessment Systems
In the Afghan education system, one grading scale is used for both secondary and higher education. Grades range from 0 to 100. A grade below 40 for a specific subject is deemed unsatisfactory.
Degree or qualification Dutch equivalent and NLQF level EQF level
Vocational Education Certificate MBO diploma (qualification level 2, 3 or 4) 2-4 2-4
12 Grade Graduation Certificate HAVO diploma 4 4
Bachelor of Arts/Science HBO bachelor's degree or 2 years of WO 6 6
Bachelor of Engineering / Veterinary Medicine WO bachelor's degree 6 6
Master's degree 1-year WO master's degree 7 7

Secondary and Higher Education
In numbers Letter grade Description Definition
100-86 A Alaa Excellent
85-79 B Aali Very good
78-70 C Khoob Good
65-40 D   Satisfactory
< 40 Fail   Unsatisfactory

International Degree Equivalencies
Countries A through D
Afghanistan - 12th Grade Graduation Certificate/Baccaluria

Albania - Diplomë e Maturës Shtetërore

Algeria - Baccalauréat de ľEnseignement Secondaire

Angola - Certificado de Habilitação Literária (Secondary Leaving Certificate)

Argentina - Bachiller or Bachiller especializado(a)

Armenia - Hasunutian Vkaiakan (Certificate of Maturity)

Australia - Senior Secondary Certificate of Education (Year 12 Certificate)

Bahamas - Bahamas General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) and/or GCE "A" Levels

Bahrain - General Certificate of Secondary Education or Secondary School Leaving Certificate or Tawjahiya Secondary School Certificate

Bangladesh - Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC)

Brazil - Diploma/Certificado de Ensino Medio (Secondary Education Graduate)

Cameroon - Baccalauréat or Cameroon General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level

Cape Verde - Certificado da Habilitações Literárias

Central African Republic - Baccalauréat

China, Peoples Republic - Senior High School Graduate (Upper Middle School Graduate Certificate)

Cote d'Ivoire - Baccalauréat / Diplôme de Bachelier de ľEnseignement du Second Degré / Baccalauréat Technique

Cyprus - Lise Diplomasi (Secondary School Diploma)

Czech Republic - Maturitni Vysvedceni (Maturity Certificate)

Democratic Republic of the Congo - Diplôme ďEtat ďEtudes Secondaires du Cycle Long (State Diploma of Long Cycle Secondary Studies)

Denmark - Studentereksamen (Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate)

Countries E through I
Ecuador - Bachiller (Upper Secondary Graduate in Humanities or Sciences)

Egypt - Thanaweya a 'Amma (General Secondary Education Certificate)

El Salvador - Bachiller/ Bachillerato (General Academic Baccalaureate)

Eritrea - Eritrean Secondary Education Certificate Examination

Ethiopia - Ethiopian General Sec Education Cert. & Ethiopian Higher Educ. Entrance Exams

Finland - Lukion päästotödistus/Dismissionsbetyg (Upper Secondary Completion Certificate)

France - Baccalauréat de l'Enseignement de Second Degré/ Baccalauréat Général

Gambia - West African School Certificate

Georgia - Sashualo Skolis Atesti or Sashualo Ganatlebis Atestati

Germany - Zeugnis der allgemeinen Hochschulreife (i/ii) (Cert. of General Maturity of Higher Ed)

Ghana - Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE)

Greece - Apolytirio Eniaiou Lykeiou (Upper Secondary School Certificate)

Guinea - Baccalauréat Première Partie (Baccalaureate First Part) or Baccalauréat Deuxième Partie (Baccalaureate Second Part)

Haiti - Certificat de Fin ďEtudes Secondaires Classiques (Baccalauréat II)

Honduras - Bachillerato

Hong Kong - Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE) and/or Advanced Level Exams

Hungary - Érettségi Bizonyitvány (Maturity Certificate)

Iceland - Studentspróf (Upper Secondary School Certificate)

India - Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) or Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC)

Indonesia - Surat Tanda Tanat Belajar (STTB) from Sekolah Menengah Unum Tingkat Atas (SMA)

Iran - Pre-University (Peesh-daneshgahii)

Iraq - Secondary School Certificate

Ireland - Leaving Certificate (Applied or Ardteistimeireacht)

Israel - Teudat Bagrut

Italy - Diploma di Maturita or Diploma di Esame di Stato

Countries J through N
Jamaica - CAPE (Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination)

Japan - Kotogakko Sotsugyo Shosho (Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate - Academic)

Jordan - Tawjihi-Academic (General Secondary Education Certificate)

Kazakhstan - "Attestat" or attestation of middle (complete) secondary education

Kenya - East African Cert. of Education (EACE)/Kenyan Cert. of Education (KCE) or East African Adv. Cert. of Education (EAACE)/ Kenyan Adv. Cert. of Education (KACE)

Korea - Inmungye Kodung Hakkyo (High School Certificate)

Kuwait - Shahadat Al-Thanawia-Al-A'ama (Secondary School Diploma)

Kyrgyzstan - "Attestat" or attestation of middle (complete) secondary education

Lebanon - Baccalauréat Libanaise (Lebanese Baccalaureate)

Lesotho - Cambridge Overseas School Certificate

Libya - Secondary Education Certificate

Malawi - Malawi General Certificate of Education

Malaysia - Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia(SPM) and/or Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia (STPM) (Malaysian Higher School Certificate)

Mexico - Certificado de Bachillerato (Baccalaureate Certificate) or Titulo de Bachiller (Title of Baccalaureate)

Mongolia - School Leaving Certificate (Gerchilgee)

Morocco - Baccalauréat

Myanmar - Certificado de Bachillerato

Namibia - Namibian Secondary School Certificate (NSSC) or International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE)

Nepal - Higher Secondary Certificate

New Zealand - National Certificate of Education Achievement (NCEA) Level 3

Nigeria - West African Examinations Council Senior School Certificate (academics)

Norway - Vitnemål Fra Videregaende Skole

Countries P through S
Pakistan - Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC)/Higher School Certificate (HSC) or Intermediate Certificate Examination

Philippines - High School Diploma (Form 137A)

Poland - Świadectwo Dojrzalości (Maturity Certificate)

Portgual - Diploma de Ensino Secundário (Diploma of Secondary Education)

Qatar - Al-Thanawiya Aama Qatari

Romania - Diploma de bacalaureat – academic (Baccalaureate diploma)

Russian Federation - Assestat o srednem (polnom) obschem obrazovanii (Cert. of Complete Gen Sec Educ)

Rwanda - Diplome de Fin d'Etudes Secondaires or Secondary Education Advanced Level Examination Certificate

Saint Kitts & Nevis - Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) Secondary Education Certificate or General Certificate of Education (Ordinary or "A" level)

Sao Tome and Principe - Certidão de 12ª Classe (Certificate of 12th Grade)

Saudi Arabia - Shahadat Al-Marhalat Al-Thanawiyyat (General Secondary Education Cert. – GCSE)

Scotland - Scottish Qualifications Certificate (SQC) Advanced Higher Grade

Senegal - Baccalaureate/Technical Baccalaureate

Singapore - Sinagpore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education (GCE) - Advanced Level Exams

South Africa - National Senior Certificate or Senior Cert. with Matriculation Endorsement/Exemption

Spain - Titulo de Bachiller (Title of Bachelor) or Curso de Orientación Universitaria (Univ Orientation Course)

Sri Lanka - Sri Lankan General Certificate of Education Advanced Level

Sudan - Sudan Secondary School Certificate

Sweden - Avgångsbetyg (or Slutbetgy) från Gymnasieskole or Högskoleförberedande Examen Higher Education Preparatory Diploma

Switzerland - Federal Maturity Certificate

Syria - Al-Shahâda Al Thânawiyya-Al'Amma (Baccalaureate)

Countries T through Z
Taiwan (PRC) - Senior High School Diploma

Tanzania - Certificate of Secondary Education

Thailand - Matayom VI (Certificate of Secondary Education)

Turkey - Lise Diplomasi (General Secondary School [Lyceum] Certificate)

Uganda - Uganda Certificate of Education

Ukraine - Atestat (Certificate of Complete General Secondary Education or Matriculation Certificate)

United Arab Emirates - Secondary School Leaving Certificate

United Kingdom - General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and/or General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary or Advanced Level (GCE with AS or A level exams)

Uzbekistan - O'rta Ma'lumot To'g'risida Shahodatnoma (Certificate of Secondary Education)

Venezuela - Bachillerato en Ciencias, Humanidades o Artes

Vietnam - Bắng Tõt Nghiêp Trung Hoc Phố Thông (Senior High School Certificate)

Yemen - Al Thanawiya (ii) (General Secondary Education Certificate)

Zambia - Zambian School Certificate Examination or General Certificate of Education "Ordinary" Level

References:
  • Education, https://www.unicef.org/afghanistan/education (last visited Jul 20, 2022).
  • Education in Afghanistan, https://wenr.wes.org/2016/09/education-afghanistan (last visited Jul 20, 2022).
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Written By: Sayed Mahdi Sadat Nasiri - Kabul, Afghanistan
Email: [email protected]

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