The typical organization of mankind in primary history was the tribe. Today,
in many parts of the world, the tribal community is still a major form of human
political organization. Even in advanced systems, traces can still be found of
its influence. Some of the landers of modern Germany, such as Bavaria, saxony,
or Westphalia, have maintained their identity since the days of the Germanic
tribal settlements. In England too, many country boundaries can be explained
only by the reference to the territorial divisions in the period after the end
of Roman occupation.
In its primary sense, tribe is a community organized in terms of kinship, and
its subdivisions are the intimate kindred groupings of moieties, genets and
totem groups. Its territorial basis is rarely defined with any precisions and
intermittent structures of an omni functional social system. The leadership of
the tribe is provided by the group of adult males, the lineage elders acting as
tribal chiefs, the village headmen, or the shamans, or the tribal magicians.
These groups are individuals who are the guardians of the tribal customs and of
an oral tradition of law. Law is thus not made but rather invoked; its
repository is the collective memory of the tribal council or chief men. This
kind of customary law, sanctioned and hallowed by religious belief, nevertheless
changes and develops for each time it is declared something may be added or
omitted to meet the needs of the occasions .
The Reang is the second largest sub-tribe in Tripuris after the ancient Tripuri
clan. According to legends, one of the princes of Tripuri was expatriated by the
king, who along with his followers immigrated to the Mayani Thalang area of the
Lusai Hills and established a state there. He proclaimed himself king of the
state and the descendant of the exiled Prince Tripuri ruled the state for
generations. In due course there was no heir to the throne, leading to anarchy
in the kingdom.
Due to internal strife and revenge, four sub-tribal chiefs, namely Twikluha,
Yongsika, Paisika, Tuibruha and their entourage left their homeland and migrated
to the state of Tripura via Chittagong centuries ago. These Reang chiefs failed
to scale the top of Dombur Hill twice in a row, and succeeded for the third
Mahendra Manikya was on the throne of the Tripura Kingdom. After reaching the
capital, these chiefs tried to persuade the ministers and other bureaucrats to
give them permission to meet with the king and present their memorandum, but
were unsuccessful. By then, they have used up all the food and groceries they
brought and have suffered greatly. They were very sad and discouraged about
this. They were determined to send word of their arrival to the king anyway.
In order to send information to the king, they broke the dam on the Gomati
River, where the cult was taking place at the time. This was a serious crime and
all were brought before the king. The king ordered the death penalty. Somehow
this news reached Queen Gunavati.The caciques prayed before the queen who, after
convincing the king, motivated them to forgive these caciques for their crime,
who forgave them in writing.
Since then, the Reang have become very obedient and loyal to the Queen and the
throne of Tripura. It said that Queen Gunavati fed these chiefs with their
breast milk in a large brass pot still intact with Kotor Dofa, a gift from the
Queen. The queen gave away many other valuable things that Reangs carefully
preserves to this day.
Reang (aka Bru in Tripura and Mizoram) are one of the 21 scheduled tribes of the
Indian nation of Tripura.The Bru may be observed all around the Tripura region
and additionally in Mizoram and Assam. They speak the Reang dialect of Bru
language that is of Tibeto-Burmese origin and is regionally known as Kau Bru.
The Bru or Reang are a community indigenous to Northeast India, living mostly in
Tripura, Mizoram, and Assam. In Tripura, they are recognised as a Particularly
Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG).
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group
The particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs) generally are socially as well
as economically terribly backward within the sense that they need very little
access to the resources for their development, low rate of literacy,
comparatively little population size, dwindling in numbers and a few of the
groups are at the verge of extinction. In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created
the Primitive Tribal Groups (PTG) as a separate category, less developed among
tribal groups. In 2006, the Indian government changed the name of the PTGs to
In this context, in 1975 the Government of India initiated the identification of
the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTG and
declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 another 23 groups were added to this
category, making a total of 75 PVTG out of 705 scheduled tribes. The PVTG have
some basic characteristics, they are largely homogeneous, with a small
population, relatively isolated physically, with no written language, relatively
simple technology and a slower rate of change, etc.
State-wise list of PVTGs shows that there are 75 communities, that are
distributed in four states: Bihar, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, however
on the opposite hand, a tribe enjoys the standing of PVTG in one state but not
into another state. If solely the names of the tribes are considered, the
quantity of the communities within the list could also be reduced to some
extent. they're distributed in numerous ecological zones on the far side the
state boundaries with huge variation in subsistence pattern, technological
development, ways that of living and call with outside world similarly like
completely different worldviews in respect with neighbourhood so referred to as
Origin Of The Crisis For The Reang Tribe
Over two decades ago, Bru were targeted by the Young Mizo Association (YMA),
Mizo Zirwlai Pawl (MZP), and a few ethnic social organisations of Mizoram who
demanded that the Bru be excluded from electoral rolls in the state as they were
not indigenous to their state. In October 1997, following ethnic clashes, nearly
37,000 Bru fled Mizoram's Mamit, Kolasib, and Lunglei districts to Tripura,
where they were sheltered in relief camps.
They were sheltered in temporary camps and sustained efforts since 2010 were
being made by the government for providing rehabilitation to these individuals.
By 2014, 1622 families had returned to Mizoram. Another agreement was formed on
3rd July 2018, requiring the community to return to Mizoram. Only 328 families
consisting of about 1369 people accepted this agreement and returned back to
Conditions Of People In Refugee Camp
They are rendered "refugees" in their own nation with neither of the two
governments (Mizoram & Tripura) willing to give them full rights of a citizen.
They get a minimal ration of 600g rice/salt and Rs. 5/day/person, with minimal
support for livelihood. About 7,000 kids from the Bru-Raeng community in North
Tripura have in no way been to high school and they're dwelling in makeshift
camps that lack fundamental centres of healthcare and hygiene dwelling
conditions, in line with child rights body NCPCR .
In terms of healthcare, only two Primary Health Centres (PHCs) are functional
and available for the total population of the community living in all six camps
of North Tripura. A majority of the respondents neither benefited with any
health camps, nor received any subsidized medicine from the authorities, the
NCPCR said in the report.
Families living in the camps do not have access to basic necessities of life
such as clean drinking water, sanitation facilities and electricity. Several
members of the community do not have proper identification documents such as
Aadhar Card, Voter Id Card, Birth Certificate etc. due to which they face
various problems in their daily lives and in accessing financial and banking
Schemes For PVGTs
The theme for Development of Primitive Vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs), came
into impact from Apr 1, 2008. The theme defines PVTGs because the most
vulnerable among the scheduled Tribes thus the and also the} theme therefore
seeks to prioritize their protection and development. It identifies 75 PVTGs.
The theme seeks to adopt a holistic approach to the socio-economic development
of PVTGs and provides state governments flexibility in coming up with
initiatives that are geared towards the precise socio-cultural imperatives of
the specific groups at hand.
Activities supported beneath the scheme embody housing, land distribution, land
development, agricultural development, cows' development, construction of link
roads, installation of non-typical sources of energy, social security, and so
forth Funds are created offered just for activities essential for the survival,
protection and development of PVTGs and not already funded by the other theme of
the central/state governments. The Conservation-cum-Development (CCD) set up is
approved by a professional Committee, appointed by the Ministry of social group
Affairs. The theme is then funded entirely by the Central government.
How Did The Agreement Come About?
In June 2018, Bru leaders in Delhi signed an agreement with the centre and the
governments of the two states, providing for repatriation to Mizoram. However,
most camp residents rejected the "inadequate" terms of the agreement. camp
residents said the package did not guarantee their safety in Mizoram and that
they feared a repeat of the violence that forced them to flee.
On November 16, 2019, Pradyot Kishore Debbarma, a descendant of the former
Tripura royal family, wrote to the Home Secretary asking for the resettlement of
the Bru in the state.
All Bru tribals presently living in temporary relief camps in Tripura are
settled within the state if they need to remain on. The Bru who came back to
Mizoram in the eight phases of return since 2009, cannot return to Tripura.
Every relocated family will get 03 acre (1.5 ganda) of land for building a home,
Rs 1.5 100000 as housing assistance, and Rs 4 lakh as a one-time money profit
for sustenance. They'll conjointly receive a monthly allowance of Rs 5,000, and
free rations for 2 years from the date of resettlement.
All cash help is through Direct benefit Transfer (DBT), and also the government
can expedite the gap of bank accounts and the issue of Aadhaar, permanent
residence certificates, ST certificates, and voter identity cards to the
Relocation Of The Tribe
The move will require khash or government land, but since Tripura is a small
state (only 10,491 square kilometres), state authorities would explore the
possibility of relocating forest land.
However, the diversion of forest land for human settlements requires approval
from the MoEFCC, which is expected to take at least three months.
Issues With The Agreement
The settlement to settle a few 35,000 Bru tribal human beings in Tripura and now
no longer in Mizoram from which they have been displaced, should inspire the
introduction of ethnocentric States withinside the northeast, rights activists
Activists argue that the "solution" has the capability of causing conflicts
among the Brus and indigenous groups of Tripura, however it addresses the
insecurities of a tribe that survived and fled violence.
The northeast has had a record of ethnic conflicts � now no longer handiest
among the "indigenous" and "settlers" however inter-tribe too � and troubles can
also rise up inside smaller sub-companies withinside the equal tribe. Decisions
can also throw up questions of citizenship, especially in Assam in which a
technique is directly to outline who's indigenous and who's now no longer.
Assam-primarily based totally activists started the flow at the Brus
legitimizing the agreement of foreigners beneath the Citizenship (Amendment) Act
too, growing conflicts with the indigenous human beings in addition to groups
that settled earlier.
Despite the troubles flagged with the aid of using numerous stakeholders
withinside the region, the settlement has supplied the Brus with a solution.
Various Mizo corporations have reassured they've welcomed folks that got here
back. According to those corporations, they haven't any troubles with the ones
diagnosed with the aid of using the authorities as Mizoram population even
supposing they go back now regardless of the Tripura rehabilitation offer. The
Brus can't stay in transit camps forever.