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Historical Reasons Behind Radicalization In The State Of Maharashtra

Radicalization is one of the gradual social processes which results into a form of extremism. They also form a phase of explaining changes in the idea and behavior. Radicalisation as a concept of relative in nature and not absolute in nature. Thus, the term derived from the Latin word radix (or root) means affecting the fundamental nature of something.

From the end of the 19th century, it stated that those who supported the sections of a political party was viewed as Extreme. Since 2005, the term radicalization has been related to the adoption of extreme beliefs and violent behavior. The term is mostly applied with reference to individuals belonging to left-wing, Islamist jihadists, and right-wing groups etc. Thus, the term 'radical' depicts mostly similar meaning like 'terrorism' through several decades.

Main causes of radicalisation include economic, social, political, psychological, historical and ideological conditions which lead to individuals and groups to become radicalized. Appropriate identification of the causes of radicalisation is indispensable for framing accurate policies and innovative strategies.

As there occurred a border dispute, Shiva sena rose up with many allegations, even abandoning of the Marathi language, also separating their cultural beliefs, functionaries etc. A commission report named Mahajan Commission Report stated that: Maharashtra wants the land recommended by the commission and also claimed for Marathi dominated area which was being encroached by the Karnataka were highlighted. Even the dispute for Belgaum was also for the similar cause.

A question was raised that whether Karnataka was in contempt of court by declaring Belgaum (disputed area) as its second capital, while the case is subjudice.

It has been pending before the Honourable Supreme Court regarding the dispute of two states over Belgaum. This was the beginning of cultural terrorism in the state of Maharashtra.

Mumbai has become one of the most targeted areas in and around for terrorist attacks.
  • 2006
    CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation) arrested Riyaz Siddique who was one of the most look out person got indulged in supplying arms etc. He was the major man who stood in the war front. Numerous terrorists were arrested even including practicing Unani doctors in Central Mumbai.

    All other remaining were a part of Lashkar-e- Toiba. Major parts of Mumbai areas including Borivli stations, Khar, Mahim, Bayandhar etc. were the targeted spots for bomb blast and hence it resulted in injuring and even causing death. (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) a major Hindu wing at Nagpur were also hit hard during the times.

    Maharashtra Police arrested (Anti- Terrorist Squad) arrested Ehtesham in relation to July 11 serial Bomb blast in Bombay. Final suspect who got indulged in the bomb blast in a major textile town of Malegaon.
  • 2007
    Leading terrorists and famous underworld don Dawood Ibrahim even arrested by the Delhi police in Mumbai. People with TNT explosives were seized and detained by the Special Cell from Nasik District etc. Around 7 tonnes of ammonium nitrate- based explosives were also seized. Even Bombay Stock Exchange (VSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE) received threatening and spam emails for hacking and other fraudulent means.
  • 2008
    An ex- Servicemen Shailesh Jadhav arrested for having external international relations and other terrorism involvement. SIMI (Students Islamic Movement of India) cadres were mostly arrested and one among them surrendered. He was granted bail and was released due to failure of producing evidence against him.

    Even CBI introduced 500000/- as reward for those who finds any sort of hint against criminals. A major key accused was also arrested who was also a part of 1993 Mumbai Serial blast case. Charged were made under Explosive Act, Indian Penal Code, Criminal conspiracy, Arms act etc. NRIs were also arrested as they used to channel funds illegally.
  • 2009
    MCOCA court revoked the application of MCOCA in the Malegaon blast case. A stay order was obtained by Maharashtra Anti -Terrorist Squad (ATS). Special POTA court sentenced all 3 persons who indulged in the bomb blast case of August 25, 2003. A high-level committee appointed by the Maharashtra Government to go into the 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attacks has found serious lapses on the part of the then Mumbai Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor in handling the "war-like" multi-pronged attack.
  • 2010
    Imprisonments and other punishments were made strict and legally enforced. Cases were filed and registered under Unlawful Activities (Prevention Act).

2011 and 2012
In order to crack down terrorism, Maharashtra government made strict enforcement against extreme terrorism as well as against another terrorist. Permissions were granted to CBI in order for the re investigation on September 8, 2006 bomb blast case. The Centre warned Maharashtra Police about a possible terror plot to target the cricket World Cup final in Mumbai on April 2. Group engaged in triple serial bomb blast were also identified.

The Supreme Court stayed a Bombay HC order permitting custodial interrogation of Malegaon blast. Dawood Ibrahim (1993 Mumbai serial blasts accused) has at least 20 fake passports, 8 of which were issued in Mumbai, Chhota Rajan has 8, and Chhota Shakeel 6 and the simplicity with which fake passports can be acquired is a major reason for gangsters' ability to slink across borders and elude the Police.

The youths who were radicalized were considered as misguided but not as culprits. As per Maharashtra model, youths were considered to be deradicalized. An organization named Maharashtra Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) they emerged with a successful approach towards its de radicalisation.

According to 2019 report, the ATS had succeeded in reintegrating almost 114 men and six women who had been influenced by extremist ideologies. It had also blocked more than 500+ websites leading the youths into the pool of radicalisation. In 2018, as many as 239 men were imparted training at institutes set up by the Maharashtra ATS.

The deradicalization program focuses on four key points, the candidate, his family, psychologists or clergy, and the police. The viability of the deradicalisation programme functioning in the state of Maharashtra is also a matter of great concern within the policing ecosystem. According to some reports, the idea of these programmes was initiated by the Central government, with the implementation of the states taking care of it.

Written By: Surya. A. Nair

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