Radicalization is one of the gradual social processes which results into a
form of extremism. They also form a phase of explaining changes in the idea and
behavior. Radicalisation as a concept of relative in nature and not absolute in
nature. Thus, the term derived from the Latin word radix (or root) means
affecting the fundamental nature of something.
From the end of the 19th century, it stated that those who supported the
sections of a political party was viewed as Extreme. Since 2005, the term
radicalization has been related to the adoption of extreme beliefs and violent
behavior. The term is mostly applied with reference to individuals belonging to
left-wing, Islamist jihadists, and right-wing groups etc. Thus, the term
'radical' depicts mostly similar meaning like 'terrorism
' through several
Main causes of radicalisation include economic, social, political,
psychological, historical and ideological conditions which lead to individuals
and groups to become radicalized. Appropriate identification of the causes of
radicalisation is indispensable for framing accurate policies and innovative
As there occurred a border dispute, Shiva sena rose up with many allegations,
even abandoning of the Marathi language, also separating their cultural beliefs,
functionaries etc. A commission report named Mahajan Commission Report
stated that: Maharashtra wants the land recommended by the commission and also
claimed for Marathi dominated area which was being encroached by the Karnataka
were highlighted. Even the dispute for Belgaum was also for the similar cause.
A question was raised that whether Karnataka was in contempt of court by
declaring Belgaum (disputed area) as its second capital, while the case is
It has been pending before the Honourable Supreme Court regarding the dispute of
two states over Belgaum. This was the beginning of cultural terrorism in the
state of Maharashtra.
Mumbai has become one of the most targeted areas in and around for terrorist
2011 and 2012
CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation) arrested Riyaz Siddique who was one of
the most look out person got indulged in supplying arms etc. He was the
major man who stood in the war front. Numerous terrorists were arrested even
including practicing Unani doctors in Central Mumbai.
All other remaining were a part of Lashkar-e- Toiba. Major parts of Mumbai
areas including Borivli stations, Khar, Mahim, Bayandhar etc. were the
targeted spots for bomb blast and hence it resulted in injuring and even
causing death. (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) a major Hindu wing at
Nagpur were also hit hard during the times.
Maharashtra Police arrested (Anti- Terrorist Squad) arrested Ehtesham in
relation to July 11 serial Bomb blast in Bombay. Final suspect who got
indulged in the bomb blast in a major textile town of Malegaon.
Leading terrorists and famous underworld don Dawood Ibrahim even arrested by
the Delhi police in Mumbai. People with TNT explosives were seized and
detained by the Special Cell from Nasik District etc. Around 7 tonnes of
ammonium nitrate- based explosives were also seized. Even Bombay Stock
Exchange (VSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE) received threatening and
spam emails for hacking and other fraudulent means.
An ex- Servicemen Shailesh Jadhav arrested for having external international
relations and other terrorism involvement. SIMI (Students Islamic Movement
of India) cadres were mostly arrested and one among them surrendered. He was
granted bail and was released due to failure of producing evidence against
Even CBI introduced 500000/- as reward for those who finds any sort of hint
against criminals. A major key accused was also arrested who was also a part
of 1993 Mumbai Serial blast case. Charged were made under Explosive Act,
Indian Penal Code, Criminal conspiracy, Arms act etc. NRIs were also
arrested as they used to channel funds illegally.
MCOCA court revoked the application of MCOCA in the Malegaon blast case. A
stay order was obtained by Maharashtra Anti -Terrorist Squad (ATS). Special
POTA court sentenced all 3 persons who indulged in the bomb blast case of
August 25, 2003. A high-level committee appointed by the Maharashtra
Government to go into the 26/11 Mumbai terrorist attacks has found serious
lapses on the part of the then Mumbai Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor in
handling the "war-like" multi-pronged attack.
Imprisonments and other punishments were made strict and legally enforced.
Cases were filed and registered under Unlawful Activities (Prevention Act).
In order to crack down terrorism, Maharashtra government made strict enforcement
against extreme terrorism as well as against another terrorist. Permissions were
granted to CBI in order for the re investigation on September 8, 2006 bomb blast
case. The Centre warned Maharashtra Police about a possible terror plot to
target the cricket World Cup final in Mumbai on April 2. Group engaged in triple
serial bomb blast were also identified.
The Supreme Court stayed a Bombay HC order permitting custodial interrogation of
Malegaon blast. Dawood Ibrahim (1993 Mumbai serial blasts accused) has at least
20 fake passports, 8 of which were issued in Mumbai, Chhota Rajan has 8, and
Chhota Shakeel 6 and the simplicity with which fake passports can be acquired is
a major reason for gangsters' ability to slink across borders and elude the
The youths who were radicalized were considered as misguided but not as
culprits. As per Maharashtra model, youths were considered to be deradicalized.
An organization named Maharashtra Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) they emerged with a
successful approach towards its de radicalisation.
According to 2019 report, the ATS had succeeded in reintegrating almost 114 men
and six women who had been influenced by extremist ideologies. It had also
blocked more than 500+ websites leading the youths into the pool of
radicalisation. In 2018, as many as 239 men were imparted training at institutes
set up by the Maharashtra ATS.
The deradicalization program focuses on four key points, the candidate, his
family, psychologists or clergy, and the police. The viability of the
deradicalisation programme functioning in the state of Maharashtra is also a
matter of great concern within the policing ecosystem. According to some
reports, the idea of these programmes was initiated by the Central government,
with the implementation of the states taking care of it.Written By: Surya. A. Nair