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Human Rights Violations With Regards To The Blockade Of The Gaza Strip With Particular Reference To The UDHR

"The best among you is the one who doesn't harm others with his tongue and hands."- Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)

Before we proceed with the specific topic, "Human Rights Violations With Regards To the Blockade of the Gaza Strip", we must look at the overall history of the Israel Palestine conflict in summary and further information related thereto, otherwise it may cause confusion as it is a considerably complicated and controversial topic.

Palestine 1came under British sovereignty after World War One ended the Ottoman Empire's dominance over that part of the Middle East. In the area, an Arab majority and a Jewish minority coexisted. Tensions between the two groups increased when Britain was given the job by the international community of creating a "national home" for Jews in Palestine. Palestinian Arabs also claimed the region and resisted the evacuation, despite the fact that it was historically the home of the Jewish people.

Between the 1920s and the 1940s, Jewish immigration increased; many of them were looking for a new home in the wake of the Holocaust of World War Two and were escaping persecution in Europe. In 1947, the UN resolved to split Palestine into Jewish and Arab administrations, with Jerusalem emerging as a major world city. The concept was accepted by Jewish officials, but because of opposition from the Arab side, it was never carried through. After failing to find a solution, British officials left in 1948, and Jewish leaders announced the creation of the state of Israel.

When many Palestinians objected, a fight broke out. Armed forces from surrounding Arab countries invaded. Numerous Palestinians fled or were forcibly evicted from their homes as a result of the "Catastrophe," or Al Nakba, as it is known By the time the battle ended in a truce the following year, Israel controlled the bulk of the region.

Jews and Arabs engaged in more violence as anti-British feeling grew. Egypt took over Gaza, while Jordan took over what is now known as the West Bank. The western part of Jerusalem was occupied by Israeli troops, and the eastern part by Jordanian troops.

Since a peace agreement was never reached, there were more wars and hostility in the decades that followed, with each side blaming the other. During a second battle in 1967, Israel won control of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, most of the Syrian Golan Heights, Gaza, and the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula.

Most Palestinian refugees and their descendants live in Gaza, the West Bank, as well as the surrounding countries of Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Since returning to their original homes would threaten Israel's existence as a Jewish state and destabilise the country, Israel has forbade them and their descendants from doing so. Despite its departure from Gaza, Israel still maintains sovereignty over the West Bank, which the UN still regards as being occupied.

While Israel claims the entire city of Jerusalem as its capital, the Palestinians only claim East Jerusalem as the seat of a future Palestinian state. The US is one among the few countries that recognises the city as Israel's capital.

Israel 2 established colonies in these locations throughout the last 50 years, and more than 600,000 Jews now reside there. The UN Security Council hold the view that settlements are prohibited by international law; Israel disagrees.

The Gaza Strip, or simply Gaza, is a Palestinian enclave on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Israel borders it on the east and north for 51 km (32 mi), and Egypt borders it on the southwest for 11 km (6.8 mi). The de jure sovereign State of Palestine claims ownership of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

After Hamas3, an anti-Israel supposedly Islamic terrorist organisation, brutally took over control of Gaza from the military of the internationally recognised Palestinian Authority, Israel enforced the blockade. The passage of persons and products into and out of the zone has been strictly regulated by Israeli measures as well as limitations imposed by Egypt, a nearby neighbour.

Israel claims that the limitations are necessary to prevent Hamas from acquiring more military might. Over the years, the fierce rivals have engaged in multiple wars and several skirmishes.

However, detractors claim that the embargo has amounted to collective punishment, harming Gaza's 2 million residents' living standards while failing to depose Hamas or control its actions.

Gazans are unable to freely go abroad, there is nearly no access to clean drinking water, and there are regular power outages.As a result, Gaza's regional economy came dangerously close to collapsing, and it was cut off from the rest of Palestine and the rest of the world.

For this research paper, I have decided to put emphasis specifically towards the Blockade of the Gaza Strip as it is recognized as being most egregious human rights violations of recent history. Recent developments in Gaza, in particular during the COVID time, have once again brought the blockade into the limelight. The blockade is presented, described, analyzed with respect to international human rights laws, investigated, examined and discussed in order to fulfill the aim of our research, which is to further broaden current knowledge of the situation.

Israel's Response To The Blockade Of Gaza

Israel said that the embargo was intended to stop dual-use products from entering Gaza and to defend Israeli people from "terrorism, rocket strikes, and any other hostile action."[1]

Israel has claimed since 2005 that it stopped occupying Gaza when it withdrew from the coastal region. Israel no longer has troops stationed in the Gaza Strip as a result of its unilateral withdrawal plan. Israel continues to maintain control over the airspace, coastal, and land border with Gaza. Egypt is in charge of Gaza's border.

The movement of commodities in and out is also governed by Israel and Egypt. In addition to controlling the bulk (about 60%) of the power used in Gaza, which it distributes via the Israeli electrical infrastructure, Israel also has control over the importation of gasoline into Gaza. In addition to rocket strikes on Israel and cross-border attacks against Israeli troops by terrorist groups in Gaza, there have been several attacks by Israeli ground forces, such as the Israel-Gaza conflict in 2008–2009.

Israel halted the flow of gasoline, power, and other supplies into Gaza in September 2007 because to the escalation of Qassam rocket assaults. According to Israel, the embargo was put in place to put pressure on Hamas to stop its rocket strikes and to deny them access to the resources they need to carry them out.

Israel claims that, beyond what is required to avert a humanitarian disaster, it is not legally obligated to take care of Gaza[2].

While there are varying opinions in Israel on the Gaza barrier, according to a US Congressional Research Service assessment, "most Israelis link security with survival and peace." Israel's officials seem to believe that, among other security and deterrent measures, the embargo of the Gaza Strip has resulted in peace. No Israeli had been murdered in a terrorist assault or a cross-border rocket attack in more than a year as of the date of the Gaza flotilla event. As a result, from its standpoint, the Israeli government is hesitant to give up the siege strategy.

According to Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, the embargo is required to stop weapons from reaching Gaza. According to international law and plain reason, he said, "(I)t is our obligation—as well as our right—to stop these weapons from arriving by air, sea, and land." He said, "I'm referring about the Gaza flotilla." "This flotilla would have been followed by dozens, even hundreds, of ships had the embargo been breached. The number of weapons that can be transported on a ship is very different from the number that we observed pass through the tunnels." He stated that if Israel didn't keep up the siege, "an Iranian port in Gaza, barely a few hundred kilometres from Tel Aviv and Jerusalem" would ensue.

An Israeli government paper stated: A country has the right to determine that it chooses to operate using "economic warfare" or that it decides not to participate in economic ties or to provide economic support to the other side to the conflict.

The siege, according to an Israeli government spokeswoman in 2010, is meant to achieve a political objective, and Israel "could not lift the embargo fully as long as Hamas is in charge" of Gaza.

Israelis briefed diplomats stationed at the US embassy in Tel Aviv about the siege of the Gaza Strip, according to US diplomatic documents that the WikiLeaks organisation was able to obtain. According to one of the cables, "Israeli authorities have affirmed (...) on several times that they seek to maintain the Gazan economy on the verge of collapse without exactly pushing it over the brink" as part of their larger embargo plan against Gaza[3].

International Perspective On The Issue

Israel's4 blockade of the Gaza strip has repeatedly been condemned by the international community as violative of international laws and guidelines, such as:

Hague Regulations (1899)
Article 50 of the 1899 Hague Regulations provides: "No general penalty, pecuniary or otherwise, can be inflicted on the population on account of the acts of individuals for which it cannot be regarded as collectively responsible."

Hague Regulations (1907)
Article 50 of the 1907 Hague Regulations provides: "No general penalty, pecuniary or otherwise, shall be inflicted upon the population on account of the acts of individuals for which they cannot be regarded as jointly and severally responsible."

Geneva POW Convention
Article 46, fourth paragraph, of the 1929 Geneva POW Convention provides: "Collective penalties for individual acts are also prohibited."

Geneva Convention III
Article 26, sixth paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention III states: "Collective disciplinary measures affecting food are prohibited."

Geneva Convention III
Article 87, third paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention III provides that "[c]ollective punishment for individual acts" is forbidden.

Geneva Convention IV
Article 33, first paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides: "Collective penalties … are prohibited."

Additional Protocol I
Article 75(2)(d) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides: "The following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever, whether committed by civilian or by military agents: … collective punishments".

Additional Protocol II
Article 4(2)(b) of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides: "The following acts against the persons referred to in paragraph I are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever: … collective punishments".

Israel is regarded as the "Occupying Power" in the "Occupied Territories" of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, which were taken during the 1967 conflict. The 1907 Hague Regulations annexed to the Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War both serve as major international legal frameworks that govern its actions as an occupying power. On July 6, 1951, Israel ratified the Geneva Conventions.

The 1907 Hague Regulations are enforceable on all governments, even those that are not parties to the treaty, according to the Israeli High Court, despite the fact that Israel has neither ratified nor signed the treaty.

Despite the above facts, Israel has since its inception violated the above laws without ever facing any real repercussions. Many countries and groups have condemned Israel as follows:

UN Human Rights Council
The UN Human Rights Council acknowledged that human rights abuses caused by Israeli military incursions into the Occupied Palestinian Territory, particularly the most recent one in northern Gaza and the attack on Beit Hanoun, in a resolution issued in 2006. "the Israeli military incursions in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including the recent incursion in northern Gaza and the assault on Beit Hanoun, constitute a collective punishment of the civilians therein".

Norway
In 2006, the permanent representative of Norway said during a discussion on the situation in Gaza in the UN Security Council: "Norway is also deeply concerned about the humanitarian situation in Gaza caused by Israeli attacks on vital infrastructure. Such collective punishment is unacceptable."

Ireland
When asked about international tensions in 2008, Ireland's Minister for Foreign Affairs responded in writing as follows:

"The Government has consistently called for an end to the isolation of the people of Gaza, in particular through the reopening of crossing points for the movement of people and goods. Gaza has been isolated, in effect, since the Hamas takeover in June 2007, even during the ceasefire between Israeli forces and Hamas that was broadly respected from 19 June 2008 until 4 November 2008. Since June 2007, Israel has maintained the closure of all border crossings for the movement of people, with limited exceptions. … The Government agrees with those who say that the effective isolation of Gaza constitutes collective punishment and is illegal under international humanitarian law."

Cuba
The deputy permanent representative of Cuba to the UN General Assembly made the following remarks about the Middle East in 2010:

"Cuba reiterates its great concern at the constant deterioration of the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, owing … inter alia to … illegal policies and practices, like the inhumane and destructive measures of collective punishment of the Palestinian civilian population, including the blockade of Gaza."

"We reiterate the call on the international community to demand that the Israeli authorities immediately end the illegal, cruel and genocidal blockade against the Palestinian people in the Gaza Strip … [Israel] … must … comply with the legal obligations arising from the [1949] Fourth Geneva Convention and relevant resolutions of the United Nations."

Case Studies Of Rights Violations Related To The Gaza Blockade


For this section we will be referring to Universal Declaration of Human Rights Articles and the violations specific to them:

UDHR Article 3:

Violation Instance:

According to the Data on casualties collected by the UN OCHA , Till date, 5298 Palestinians have been killed and 62,470 have been injured as a result of Israel's attacks on the Gaza strip. Israeli bombing strikes on the Gaza Strip have resulted in a large number of civilian fatalities throughout the Israeli-Palestinian war, as have Israeli artillery, rocket, and bomb attacks on the Gaza Strip. Such operations are allegedly carried out to carry out targeted killings of militants from Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and other organisations considered a danger to Israel, whose Shin Bet data banks monitor thousands of Palestinians for potential targeting. Israel views such incidents as either regrettable mistakes, the result of using people as human shields for militants, or as acceptable collateral damage.

UDHR Article 5- Article 9-, Article 10- Article 11:

Violation Instance

Israeli torture[4] in the occupied territories is the systematic use of cruel treatment against Palestinians held captive by Israeli troops in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The technique, which had been common for many years, was finally examined by the Supreme Court of Israel in 1999, which determined that "coercive questioning" of Palestinians had been pervasive and declared it illegal, while it was permitted in some circumstances.

According to Dr. Rachel Stroumsa, the director of the Public Committee Against Torture in Israel, and Lisa Hajjar (2005), torture has consistently been a feature of Israeli tactics used to interrogate Palestinians. Despite being legally outlawed by the High Court in 1999, permitted exceptions that have been approved by the Israeli Attorney General continue :

Shabeh is one of the other methods; in 1998, 76% of Israelis believed it to be a form of torture, while just 27% opposed its application to Palestinians. This involves being made to sit on a tiny chair while having a dirty hood shoved over your head and loud music being beaten into your ears. It could last up to 10 days, as it did with one woman; other forms of torture included beating the detainees' bare feet (falaqa) or making them sit through endless lectures while deprived of sleep on subjects like: "Palestinians ought to return to Saudi Arabia, where they originally hail, as all Arabs are Bedouin, and Bedouin are Saudis. You are not welcome here."

The purpose of blindfolding is to prevent the target from ever knowing when he will be struck. In addition to extended beatings during the First Intifada, victims—including children—could also face threats of having their sisters, husbands, or mothers sexually assaulted, confinement in a "coffin," suspension by the wrists, denial of food and drink, and denial of access to restrooms. Despite the fact that over 1,000 complaints against these practises have been made since 2001, Amnesty International revealed in 2018 that "no criminal investigations were started," suggesting that methods, including torture, are still used on Palestinian youngsters.

Twenty Beita and Huwara men were abducted from their homes, shackled hand and foot, gagged, and then had their limbs crushed with clubs in one significant case that finally made it to the Israeli Supreme Court. In 2017, allegations of torture against 16-year-old Palestinian Fawzi al-Junaidi in Israeli custody garnered public attention. A roadside explosion in 2019 that killed an Israeli child sparked a manhunt by the Shin Bet during which up to 50 Palestinians were apprehended and brutally tortured. Three of the suspected suspects were admitted to the hospital, including one who had renal failure and 11 fractured ribs and another who was "almost unrecognizably to his wife as he was brought into a courtroom."

Yet another recent example of Israeli police's arbitrariness and discrimination is the case of Gaza aid worker, Mohammed el-Halabi[5]. He reportedly endured mistreatment, solitary confinement, pressure, and coercion to make a confession throughout his imprisonment, all of which may constitute torture under international law.

Udhr Article 19:

Violation Instance

Since5 the conflict's8 start in 1948, international war reporters, professional journalists, and amateur journalists have perished while covering the Israeli-Palestinian conflict or have passed away as a result of their reporting. A complete list is given below:
 
9 May 2021 Yusef Abu Hussein  Sheikh Radwan, Gaza Strip Radio broadcaster killed in his house by Israeli missile strikes [7]
13 April 2018 Ahmad Abu Hussein  Jabalia, Gaza Strip Photographer shot in the abdomen by IDF [8]
6 April 2018 Yaser Murtaja  Khan Yunis, Gaza Strip Video journalist shot in the abdomen by IDF sniper [9]
13 August 2014 Simone Camilli Ali Shehda Abu Afash  Associated Press journalists killed by live bomb dropped by IDF on soccer field in the Gaza Strip [10]
Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip
31 July 2014 Mohammed Daher  Shuja'iyya, Gaza City, Gaza Strip Al-Resalah newspaper editor who was critically injured by an Israeli strike on his house on July 20 (during the Battle of Shuja'iyya) and died 11 days later [11]
30 July 2014 Mohammed Nour al-Din al-Deiri Shuja'iyya, Gaza City, Gaza Strip
 
Palestine Network for Press and Media cameramen killed in Israeli bombing of a market in Gaza [12][13]
Rami Rayan Al-Aqsa TV cameraman killed in Israeli bombing of a market in Gaza
Sameh al-Aryan Gaza City, Gaza Strip
Ahed Zaqout Former Palestine national football team player and sports television presenter killed in Israeli bombing of his building as he slept
20 July 2014 Khaled Hamad  Shuja'iyya, Gaza City, Gaza Strip Continue TV cameraman killed by Israeli shelling [15]
9 July 2014 Hamid Shibab Gaza Strip Driver for Media 24 new killed in his car by Israeli airstrike [16]
20 November 2012 Mahmoud al-Kumi Gaza City, Gaza Strip Al-Aqsa TV cameramen killed in car by Israeli missile strike [17][18]
Hussam Salama  Al Quds Educational Radio employee killed in car by Israeli missile strike [18]
Mohammed Abu Eisha Deir al-Balah, Gaza Strip  
7 January 2009 Basil Ibrahim Faraj Gaza Strip Palestinian Media and Communication Company cameraman killed by Israeli airstrike [20]
6 April 2008 Fadel Shana'a Bureij refugee camp, Gaza Strip Reuters cameraman killed by flechette shell during Al Bureij massacre [21]
2 May 2003 James Miller Rafah, Gaza Strip Documentary filmmaker shot in the neck by IDF [25]

Thus, it is clear to see that despite Israel claiming to be more politically free and democratic than neighboring countries in the Middle East, the truth is that they have murdered lots of journalists in cold blood without ever really facing any real repercussions.

Udhr Article 13

Violation Instance

The West Bank and Gaza Strip12 are acknowledged by the Oslo Accords as "a single geographical unit, whose integrity would be protected throughout the interim period." The West Bank and the Gaza Strip are now viewed by Israel as "two independent and different regions," reversing its previous stance.

Only6 extraordinary humanitarian situations, such as urgent medical needs, are permitted for Gazans to go to the West Bank; this excludes marriage. Only those who agree to relocate permanently to Gaza are permitted to travel from the West Bank to Gaza. HaMoked and B'Tselem question if Israel's stated reasons for allowing entry for a West Bank resident who wants to move permanently to Gaza cover illicit demographic concerns.

Israel only allows admission of Gazan citizens under extreme humanitarian circumstances. Due to their marriage to an Israeli, they have been prohibited from residing or staying in Israel since 2008. For a few months, Israelis who wish to go to see their partners in Gaza must get permission, and they can only travel to see their first-degree relatives in Gaza under extraordinary humanitarian circumstances.

At the Kerem Shalom border, a cutting-edge container scanner was constructed in 2013 to facilitate the restart of imports into and exports from Gaza while allaying Israel's security concerns. Israel, however, is unwilling to deploy the scanner for shipment to the West Bank because it "wants to separate the West Bank from the Gaza Strip for security reasons," and doing so would go against Israeli policy. The scanner was a multi-million euro donation from the Dutch government to the PA. As part of Israel's unilateral disengagement strategy, the Israel Defense Forces evacuated the Gaza Strip on September 1, 2005.

In order to increase Palestinians' freedom of movement and economic activity in the Gaza Strip, Israel and the Palestinian Authority reached an Agreement on Movement and Access (AMA) in November 2005. The Palestinian National Authority and the European Union were to monitor transits as part of the agreement's requirements for the reopening of the Rafah border crossing with Egypt. Only those with Palestinian identification cards or foreign nationals who qualified for an exemption and were under Israeli control were allowed to enter and exit.

Hamas overthrew Fatah authorities and assumed control of the Gaza Strip in June 2007. With Fatah having left and no longer provide security on the Palestinian side, Egypt and Israel generally closed their border crossings with Gaza after the takeover.

B'Tselem claims that the siege of Gaza has hurt the economy of the Gaza Strip and severely restricted Palestinian trade between the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. In order to prevent Palestinians from accessing 85% of the ocean regions assigned to them in the 1994 Gaza-Jericho Agreement, Israel has significantly reduced the fishing zone around the coast of Gaza. Attacks against fishermen frequently result in boat seizures.

In defiance of later agreements between Israel and the Palestinians, Israel forbids the operation of planes and seaports in Gaza. Israeli bulldozers and bombardments have completely demolished the Gaza Airport, which was supported by donor nations.

Israeli bulldozers and bombardments have completely demolished the Gaza Airport, which was supported by donor nations. A few months after the development phase had started on a Gaza Seaport project that had been launched in 2000, the Israeli army demolished it.

Since the delivery date is typically uncertain and the licences issued only last one or two days, as is the case for the majority of sick people, getting medical care is especially difficult for pregnant Palestinian women who are about to give birth. Because of this, the women are required to renew their permissions often. As a result, in some cases, moms have given birth at checkpoints because they lacked valid licences. Such births had place at 5 Israeli checkpoints in 2007.

Statistics from the Palestinian Health Ministry show that between 2000 and 2006, more than 68 Palestinian women gave birth at Israeli checkpoints. 35 of these ladies miscarried, and five lost their lives giving birth. [

Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was approved by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, recognises the right to freedom of movement within nations.

The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights guarantees certain rights, including the right to a livelihood, the right to an acceptable standard of living, the right to adequate food, clothing, and housing, as well as the right to achieve the highest possible level of physical and mental health. According to B'Tselem, the effects of the economic restrictions on the Palestinian population have been so severe that they violate these rights.

In addition, B'Tselem claims that the limitations placed on Palestinians who are unwell, injured, or pregnant and seeking immediate medical attention are illegal under international law, which mandates that patients and medical personnel be allowed free access to hospitals.

Conclusion And Suggestions
In conclusion, my research has led me to conclude that despite Israel's claims of being a forward, progressive, democratic nation, It has effectively transformed a Gaza region, once a famous, bustling successful seaside region, into an open air prison, a living hell to native Palestinian inhabitants.

This study's research reveals that Israel frequently breaches the UDHR. Israel continues to violate human rights in the most severe and brutal ways despite having signed both the Geneva Convention and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Israel committed several human rights violations against Palestinians in the Gaza Strip, including starvation, death, intimidation, and blockade, all in the pretext of "personal security."

If that were not bad enough, despite praising itself for its journalistic freedom and freedom of speech, Israel regularly stifles any legitimate criticism towards its hateful policies as "anti-Semitic", along with invoking the horrors of the holocaust. This serves no purpose, and only serves as a basis to muddy legitimate debates and criticism.

Another fact I'd like to add is that The United States has vetoed dozens of United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions critical of Israel, including at least 53 since 1972, according to UN data[6]. Empowered and emboldened with a powerful ally like the USA, it seems obvious that Israel would never get properly sanctioned, and thus, actively push their racist apartheid policies to this day.

Thus, a negative implication of this is the possibility that other nations may be inspired by Israel's actions, and the lack of consequence it faces, and thus may oppress minorities and marginalized communities within their own borders. This would set back human rights by decades, and would lead to a more fractured world.

Now, let's move on to the suggestions. My research has highlighted, stressed and underlined the importance of A far more democratic fair and just system within the United Nations. What I mean is a complete removal of the veto system.

The five permanent members9 of the UN Security Council[7] (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) have the authority to veto any "substantive" resolution. The veto, which essentially bans UN action against the permanent members and their supporters, is seen by critics as the UN's most undemocratic component and as the primary reason for inactivity on war crimes and crimes against humanity.

With regards to the US specifically, The first US veto was cast by Ambassador Charles W. Yost in 1970 about Rhodesia, and in 1972, the US only used one veto to stop a resolution that criticised Israel for its war against Syria and Lebanon. Since then, the United States has exercised its veto power the most frequently, primarily in response to resolutions that criticise or condemn Israel.

Since 2002, the United States has used the Negroponte doctrine to veto the majority of resolutions that have anything to do with the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The General Assembly and the Security Council have frequently clashed over this. For the first time, the Obama administration abstained on a resolution on December 23 calling for an end to Israeli settlements. Under the Trump administration, however, the United States started using its veto again.

The veto power has come under fire for being undemocratic. A single nation has the power to block the Security Council's majority from acting. For instance, the US often vetoes resolutions that criticise Israel on its own11. The five permanent members allegedly used their veto to "advance their political self-interest or geopolitical interest above the interest in safeguarding civilians," according to Amnesty International.

I consider the veto power reserved for the Permanent Five to be outdated, unfair, and even unproductive.

Thus, I suggest a complete removal of the veto system. As such, It is fundamentally contradictory to the Article 2 Of the UN Charter, which states "The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members."

It is only then that sanctions against aggressor countries can ever have real teeth, instead of being mere condemnations.

Bibliography:
  1. https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-44124396
  2. https://www.civilsdaily.com/israel-palestine-conflict-explained/
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blockade_of_the_Gaza_Strip
  4. https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casualties_of_Israeli_attacks_on_the_Gaza_Strip
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_freedom_of_movement
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israeli_demolition_of_Palestinian_property
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_journalists_killed_during_the_Israeli-Palestinian_conflict
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_veto_power
  10. https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v2_rul_rule103
  11. https://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/israel/hebron6-04.htm
  12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_freedom_of_movement
End-Notes:
  1. https://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3907978,00.html
  2. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7069203.stm
  3. https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE7041GH20110105
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israeli_torture_in_the_occupied_territories
  5. https://www.ohchr.org/en/press-releases/2022/06/un-experts-condemn-israels-arbitrary-detention-and-conviction-palestinian
  6. https://www.un.org/depts/dhl/resguide/scact_veto_table_en.htm
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_veto_power
Written By: Mohammed Arafat Mujib Khan

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