"The best among you is the one who doesn't harm others with his tongue and
."- Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)
Before we proceed with the specific topic, "Human Rights Violations With Regards
To the Blockade of the Gaza Strip", we must look at the overall history of the
Israel Palestine conflict in summary and further information related thereto,
otherwise it may cause confusion as it is a considerably complicated and
Palestine 1came under British sovereignty after World War One ended the Ottoman
Empire's dominance over that part of the Middle East. In the area, an Arab
majority and a Jewish minority coexisted. Tensions between the two groups
increased when Britain was given the job by the international community of
creating a "national home" for Jews in Palestine. Palestinian Arabs also claimed
the region and resisted the evacuation, despite the fact that it was
historically the home of the Jewish people.
Between the 1920s and the 1940s,
Jewish immigration increased; many of them were looking for a new home in the
wake of the Holocaust of World War Two and were escaping persecution in Europe.
In 1947, the UN resolved to split Palestine into Jewish and Arab
administrations, with Jerusalem emerging as a major world city. The concept was
accepted by Jewish officials, but because of opposition from the Arab side, it
was never carried through. After failing to find a solution, British officials
left in 1948, and Jewish leaders announced the creation of the state of Israel.
When many Palestinians objected, a fight broke out. Armed forces from
surrounding Arab countries invaded. Numerous Palestinians fled or were forcibly
evicted from their homes as a result of the "Catastrophe," or Al Nakba, as it is
known By the time the battle ended in a truce the following year, Israel
controlled the bulk of the region.
Jews and Arabs engaged in more violence as anti-British feeling grew. Egypt took
over Gaza, while Jordan took over what is now known as the West Bank. The
western part of Jerusalem was occupied by Israeli troops, and the eastern part
by Jordanian troops.
Since a peace agreement was never reached, there were more wars and hostility in
the decades that followed, with each side blaming the other. During a second
battle in 1967, Israel won control of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, most of the
Syrian Golan Heights, Gaza, and the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula.
Most Palestinian refugees and their descendants live in Gaza, the West Bank, as
well as the surrounding countries of Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Since returning
to their original homes would threaten Israel's existence as a Jewish state and
destabilise the country, Israel has forbade them and their descendants from
doing so. Despite its departure from Gaza, Israel still maintains sovereignty
over the West Bank, which the UN still regards as being occupied.
While Israel claims the entire city of Jerusalem as its capital, the
Palestinians only claim East Jerusalem as the seat of a future Palestinian
state. The US is one among the few countries that recognises the city as
Israel 2 established colonies in these locations throughout the last 50 years,
and more than 600,000 Jews now reside there. The UN Security Council hold the
view that settlements are prohibited by international law; Israel disagrees.
The Gaza Strip, or simply Gaza, is a Palestinian enclave on the eastern coast of
the Mediterranean Sea. Israel borders it on the east and north for 51 km (32
mi), and Egypt borders it on the southwest for 11 km (6.8 mi). The de jure
sovereign State of Palestine claims ownership of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
After Hamas3, an anti-Israel supposedly Islamic terrorist organisation, brutally
took over control of Gaza from the military of the internationally recognised
Palestinian Authority, Israel enforced the blockade. The passage of persons and
products into and out of the zone has been strictly regulated by Israeli
measures as well as limitations imposed by Egypt, a nearby neighbour.
Israel claims that the limitations are necessary to prevent Hamas from acquiring
more military might. Over the years, the fierce rivals have engaged in multiple
wars and several skirmishes.
However, detractors claim that the embargo has amounted to collective
punishment, harming Gaza's 2 million residents' living standards while failing
to depose Hamas or control its actions.
Gazans are unable to freely go abroad, there is nearly no access to clean
drinking water, and there are regular power outages.As a result, Gaza's regional
economy came dangerously close to collapsing, and it was cut off from the rest
of Palestine and the rest of the world.
For this research paper, I have decided to put emphasis specifically towards the
Blockade of the Gaza Strip as it is recognized as being most egregious human
rights violations of recent history. Recent developments in Gaza, in particular
during the COVID time, have once again brought the blockade into the limelight.
The blockade is presented, described, analyzed with respect to international
human rights laws, investigated, examined and discussed in order to fulfill the
aim of our research, which is to further broaden current knowledge of the
Israel's Response To The Blockade Of Gaza
Israel said that the embargo was intended to stop dual-use products from
entering Gaza and to defend Israeli people from "terrorism, rocket strikes, and
any other hostile action."
Israel has claimed since 2005 that it stopped occupying Gaza when it withdrew
from the coastal region. Israel no longer has troops stationed in the Gaza Strip
as a result of its unilateral withdrawal plan. Israel continues to maintain
control over the airspace, coastal, and land border with Gaza. Egypt is in
charge of Gaza's border.
The movement of commodities in and out is also governed by Israel and Egypt. In
addition to controlling the bulk (about 60%) of the power used in Gaza, which it
distributes via the Israeli electrical infrastructure, Israel also has control
over the importation of gasoline into Gaza. In addition to rocket strikes on
Israel and cross-border attacks against Israeli troops by terrorist groups in
Gaza, there have been several attacks by Israeli ground forces, such as the
Israel-Gaza conflict in 2008�2009.
Israel halted the flow of gasoline, power, and other supplies into Gaza in
September 2007 because to the escalation of Qassam rocket assaults. According to
Israel, the embargo was put in place to put pressure on Hamas to stop its rocket
strikes and to deny them access to the resources they need to carry them out.
Israel claims that, beyond what is required to avert a humanitarian disaster, it
is not legally obligated to take care of Gaza.
While there are varying opinions in Israel on the Gaza barrier, according to a
US Congressional Research Service assessment, "most Israelis link security with
survival and peace." Israel's officials seem to believe that, among other
security and deterrent measures, the embargo of the Gaza Strip has resulted in
peace. No Israeli had been murdered in a terrorist assault or a cross-border
rocket attack in more than a year as of the date of the Gaza flotilla event. As
a result, from its standpoint, the Israeli government is hesitant to give up the
According to Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, the embargo is required
to stop weapons from reaching Gaza. According to international law and plain
reason, he said, "(I)t is our obligation�as well as our right�to stop these
weapons from arriving by air, sea, and land." He said, "I'm referring about the
Gaza flotilla." "This flotilla would have been followed by dozens, even
hundreds, of ships had the embargo been breached. The number of weapons that can
be transported on a ship is very different from the number that we observed pass
through the tunnels." He stated that if Israel didn't keep up the siege, "an
Iranian port in Gaza, barely a few hundred kilometres from Tel Aviv and
Jerusalem" would ensue.
An Israeli government paper stated: A country has the right to determine that it
chooses to operate using "economic warfare" or that it decides not to
participate in economic ties or to provide economic support to the other side to
The siege, according to an Israeli government spokeswoman in 2010, is meant to
achieve a political objective, and Israel "could not lift the embargo fully as
long as Hamas is in charge" of Gaza.
Israelis briefed diplomats stationed at the US embassy in Tel Aviv about the
siege of the Gaza Strip, according to US diplomatic documents that the WikiLeaks
organisation was able to obtain. According to one of the cables, "Israeli
authorities have affirmed (...) on several times that they seek to maintain the
Gazan economy on the verge of collapse without exactly pushing it over the
brink" as part of their larger embargo plan against Gaza.
International Perspective On The Issue
Israel's4 blockade of the Gaza strip has repeatedly been condemned by the
international community as violative of international laws and guidelines, such
Hague Regulations (1899)
Article 50 of the 1899 Hague Regulations provides: "No general penalty,
pecuniary or otherwise, can be inflicted on the population on account of the
acts of individuals for which it cannot be regarded as collectively
Hague Regulations (1907)
Article 50 of the 1907 Hague Regulations provides: "No general penalty,
pecuniary or otherwise, shall be inflicted upon the population on account of the
acts of individuals for which they cannot be regarded as jointly and severally
Geneva POW Convention
Article 46, fourth paragraph, of the 1929 Geneva POW Convention provides:
"Collective penalties for individual acts are also prohibited."
Geneva Convention III
Article 26, sixth paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention III states:
"Collective disciplinary measures affecting food are prohibited."
Geneva Convention III
Article 87, third paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention III provides that
"[c]ollective punishment for individual acts" is forbidden.
Geneva Convention IV
Article 33, first paragraph, of the 1949 Geneva Convention IV provides:
"Collective penalties � are prohibited."
Additional Protocol I
Article 75(2)(d) of the 1977 Additional Protocol I provides: "The following acts
are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever, whether
committed by civilian or by military agents: � collective punishments".
Additional Protocol II
Article 4(2)(b) of the 1977 Additional Protocol II provides: "The following acts
against the persons referred to in paragraph I are and shall remain prohibited
at any time and in any place whatsoever: � collective punishments".
Israel is regarded as the "Occupying Power" in the "Occupied Territories" of the
West Bank and Gaza Strip, which were taken during the 1967 conflict. The 1907
Hague Regulations annexed to the Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs
of War on Land and the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection
of Civilian Persons in Time of War both serve as major international legal
frameworks that govern its actions as an occupying power. On July 6, 1951,
Israel ratified the Geneva Conventions.
The 1907 Hague Regulations are enforceable on all governments, even those that
are not parties to the treaty, according to the Israeli High Court, despite the
fact that Israel has neither ratified nor signed the treaty.
Despite the above facts, Israel has since its inception violated the above laws
without ever facing any real repercussions. Many countries and groups have
condemned Israel as follows:
UN Human Rights Council
The UN Human Rights Council acknowledged that human rights abuses caused by
Israeli military incursions into the Occupied Palestinian Territory,
particularly the most recent one in northern Gaza and the attack on Beit Hanoun,
in a resolution issued in 2006. "the Israeli military incursions in the Occupied
Palestinian Territory, including the recent incursion in northern Gaza and the
assault on Beit Hanoun, constitute a collective punishment of the civilians
In 2006, the permanent representative of Norway said during a discussion on the
situation in Gaza in the UN Security Council: "Norway is also deeply concerned
about the humanitarian situation in Gaza caused by Israeli attacks on vital
infrastructure. Such collective punishment is unacceptable."
When asked about international tensions in 2008, Ireland's Minister for Foreign
Affairs responded in writing as follows:
"The Government has consistently called for an end to the isolation of the
people of Gaza, in particular through the reopening of crossing points for the
movement of people and goods. Gaza has been isolated, in effect, since the Hamas
takeover in June 2007, even during the ceasefire between Israeli forces and
Hamas that was broadly respected from 19 June 2008 until 4 November 2008. Since
June 2007, Israel has maintained the closure of all border crossings for the
movement of people, with limited exceptions. � The Government agrees with those
who say that the effective isolation of Gaza constitutes collective punishment
and is illegal under international humanitarian law."
The deputy permanent representative of Cuba to the UN General Assembly made the
following remarks about the Middle East in 2010:
"Cuba reiterates its great concern at the constant deterioration of the
situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, owing
� inter alia to � illegal policies and practices, like the inhumane and
destructive measures of collective punishment of the Palestinian civilian
population, including the blockade of Gaza."
"We reiterate the call on the international community to demand that the Israeli
authorities immediately end the illegal, cruel and genocidal blockade against
the Palestinian people in the Gaza Strip � [Israel] � must � comply with the
legal obligations arising from the  Fourth Geneva Convention and relevant
resolutions of the United Nations."
Case Studies Of Rights Violations Related To The Gaza Blockade
For this section we will be referring to Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Articles and the violations specific to them:
UDHR Article 3:
According to the Data on casualties collected by the UN OCHA
, Till date, 5298 Palestinians have been killed and 62,470 have been injured as
a result of Israel's attacks on the Gaza strip. Israeli bombing strikes on the
Gaza Strip have resulted in a large number of civilian fatalities throughout the
Israeli-Palestinian war, as have Israeli artillery, rocket, and bomb attacks on
the Gaza Strip. Such operations are allegedly carried out to carry out targeted
killings of militants from Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and other organisations
considered a danger to Israel, whose Shin Bet data banks monitor thousands of
Palestinians for potential targeting. Israel views such incidents as either
regrettable mistakes, the result of using people as human shields for militants,
or as acceptable collateral damage.
UDHR Article 5- Article 9-, Article 10- Article 11:
Israeli torture in the occupied territories is the
systematic use of cruel treatment against Palestinians held captive by Israeli
troops in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The technique, which had been common for
many years, was finally examined by the Supreme Court of Israel in 1999, which
determined that "coercive questioning" of Palestinians had been pervasive and
declared it illegal, while it was permitted in some circumstances.
According to Dr. Rachel Stroumsa, the director of the Public Committee Against
Torture in Israel, and Lisa Hajjar (2005), torture has consistently been a
feature of Israeli tactics used to interrogate Palestinians. Despite being
legally outlawed by the High Court in 1999, permitted exceptions that have been
approved by the Israeli Attorney General continue :
Shabeh is one of the other methods; in 1998, 76% of Israelis believed it to be a
form of torture, while just 27% opposed its application to Palestinians. This
involves being made to sit on a tiny chair while having a dirty hood shoved over
your head and loud music being beaten into your ears. It could last up to 10
days, as it did with one woman; other forms of torture included beating the
detainees' bare feet (falaqa) or making them sit through endless lectures while
deprived of sleep on subjects like: "Palestinians ought to return to Saudi
Arabia, where they originally hail, as all Arabs are Bedouin, and Bedouin are
Saudis. You are not welcome here."
The purpose of blindfolding is to prevent the target from ever knowing when he
will be struck. In addition to extended beatings during the First Intifada,
victims�including children�could also face threats of having their sisters,
husbands, or mothers sexually assaulted, confinement in a "coffin," suspension
by the wrists, denial of food and drink, and denial of access to restrooms.
Despite the fact that over 1,000 complaints against these practises have been
made since 2001, Amnesty International revealed in 2018 that "no criminal
investigations were started," suggesting that methods, including torture, are
still used on Palestinian youngsters.
Twenty Beita and Huwara men were abducted from their homes, shackled hand and
foot, gagged, and then had their limbs crushed with clubs in one significant
case that finally made it to the Israeli Supreme Court. In 2017, allegations of
torture against 16-year-old Palestinian Fawzi al-Junaidi in Israeli custody
garnered public attention. A roadside explosion in 2019 that killed an Israeli
child sparked a manhunt by the Shin Bet during which up to 50 Palestinians were
apprehended and brutally tortured. Three of the suspected suspects were admitted
to the hospital, including one who had renal failure and 11 fractured ribs and
another who was "almost unrecognizably to his wife as he was brought into a
Yet another recent example of Israeli police's arbitrariness and discrimination
is the case of Gaza aid worker, Mohammed el-Halabi. He reportedly endured
mistreatment, solitary confinement, pressure, and coercion to make a confession
throughout his imprisonment, all of which may constitute torture under
Udhr Article 19:
Since5 the conflict's8 start in 1948, international war
reporters, professional journalists, and amateur journalists have perished while
covering the Israeli-Palestinian conflict or have passed away as a result of
their reporting. A complete list is given below:
|9 May 2021
||Yusef Abu Hussein
||Sheikh Radwan, Gaza Strip
||Radio broadcaster killed in his house by
Israeli missile strikes
|13 April 2018
||Ahmad Abu Hussein
||Jabalia, Gaza Strip
||Photographer shot in the abdomen by IDF
|6 April 2018
||Khan Yunis, Gaza Strip
||Video journalist shot in the abdomen by IDF
13 August 2014
||Ali Shehda Abu Afash
||Associated Press journalists killed by live
bomb dropped by IDF on soccer field in the Gaza Strip
|Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip
|31 July 2014
||Shuja'iyya, Gaza City, Gaza Strip
||Al-Resalah newspaper editor who was
critically injured by an Israeli strike on his house on July 20 (during
the Battle of Shuja'iyya) and died 11 days later
30 July 2014
||Mohammed Nour al-Din al-Deiri
||Shuja'iyya, Gaza City, Gaza Strip
|Palestine Network for Press and Media
cameramen killed in Israeli bombing of a market in Gaza
||Al-Aqsa TV cameraman killed in Israeli
bombing of a market in Gaza
||Gaza City, Gaza Strip
||Former Palestine national football team player and
sports television presenter killed in Israeli bombing of his building as
|20 July 2014
||Shuja'iyya, Gaza City, Gaza Strip
||Continue TV cameraman killed by Israeli
|9 July 2014
||Driver for Media 24 new killed in his car by Israeli
20 November 2012
||Gaza City, Gaza Strip
||Al-Aqsa TV cameramen killed in car by Israeli missile
||Al Quds Educational Radio employee killed in
car by Israeli missile strike
|Mohammed Abu Eisha
||Deir al-Balah, Gaza Strip
|7 January 2009
||Basil Ibrahim Faraj
||Palestinian Media and Communication Company cameraman
killed by Israeli airstrike
|6 April 2008
||Bureij refugee camp, Gaza Strip
||Reuters cameraman killed by flechette shell during Al
|2 May 2003
||Rafah, Gaza Strip
||Documentary filmmaker shot in the neck by IDF
Thus, it is clear to see that despite Israel claiming to be more politically
free and democratic than neighboring countries in the Middle East, the truth is
that they have murdered lots of journalists in cold blood without ever really
facing any real repercussions.
Udhr Article 13
The West Bank and Gaza Strip12 are acknowledged by the Oslo Accords as "a single
geographical unit, whose integrity would be protected throughout the interim
period." The West Bank and the Gaza Strip are now viewed by Israel as "two
independent and different regions," reversing its previous stance.
Only6 extraordinary humanitarian situations, such as urgent medical needs, are
permitted for Gazans to go to the West Bank; this excludes marriage. Only those
who agree to relocate permanently to Gaza are permitted to travel from the West
Bank to Gaza. HaMoked and B'Tselem question if Israel's stated reasons for
allowing entry for a West Bank resident who wants to move permanently to Gaza
cover illicit demographic concerns.
Israel only allows admission of Gazan citizens under extreme humanitarian
circumstances. Due to their marriage to an Israeli, they have been prohibited
from residing or staying in Israel since 2008. For a few months, Israelis who
wish to go to see their partners in Gaza must get permission, and they can only
travel to see their first-degree relatives in Gaza under extraordinary
At the Kerem Shalom border, a cutting-edge container scanner was constructed in
2013 to facilitate the restart of imports into and exports from Gaza while
allaying Israel's security concerns. Israel, however, is unwilling to deploy the
scanner for shipment to the West Bank because it "wants to separate the West
Bank from the Gaza Strip for security reasons," and doing so would go against
Israeli policy. The scanner was a multi-million euro donation from the Dutch
government to the PA. As part of Israel's unilateral disengagement strategy, the
Israel Defense Forces evacuated the Gaza Strip on September 1, 2005.
In order to increase Palestinians' freedom of movement and economic activity in
the Gaza Strip, Israel and the Palestinian Authority reached an Agreement on
Movement and Access (AMA) in November 2005. The Palestinian National Authority
and the European Union were to monitor transits as part of the agreement's
requirements for the reopening of the Rafah border crossing with Egypt. Only
those with Palestinian identification cards or foreign nationals who qualified
for an exemption and were under Israeli control were allowed to enter and exit.
Hamas overthrew Fatah authorities and assumed control of the Gaza Strip in June
2007. With Fatah having left and no longer provide security on the Palestinian
side, Egypt and Israel generally closed their border crossings with Gaza after
B'Tselem claims that the siege of Gaza has hurt the economy of the Gaza Strip
and severely restricted Palestinian trade between the West Bank and the Gaza
Strip. In order to prevent Palestinians from accessing 85% of the ocean regions
assigned to them in the 1994 Gaza-Jericho Agreement, Israel has significantly
reduced the fishing zone around the coast of Gaza. Attacks against fishermen
frequently result in boat seizures.
In defiance of later agreements between Israel and the Palestinians, Israel
forbids the operation of planes and seaports in Gaza. Israeli bulldozers and
bombardments have completely demolished the Gaza Airport, which was supported by
Israeli bulldozers and bombardments have completely demolished the Gaza Airport,
which was supported by donor nations. A few months after the development phase
had started on a Gaza Seaport project that had been launched in 2000, the
Israeli army demolished it.
Since the delivery date is typically uncertain and the licences issued only last
one or two days, as is the case for the majority of sick people, getting medical
care is especially difficult for pregnant Palestinian women who are about to
give birth. Because of this, the women are required to renew their permissions
often. As a result, in some cases, moms have given birth at checkpoints because
they lacked valid licences. Such births had place at 5 Israeli checkpoints in
Statistics from the Palestinian Health Ministry show that between 2000 and 2006,
more than 68 Palestinian women gave birth at Israeli checkpoints. 35 of these
ladies miscarried, and five lost their lives giving birth. [
Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was approved by
the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, recognises the right to freedom of
movement within nations.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights guarantees
certain rights, including the right to a livelihood, the right to an acceptable
standard of living, the right to adequate food, clothing, and housing, as well
as the right to achieve the highest possible level of physical and mental
health. According to B'Tselem, the effects of the economic restrictions on the
Palestinian population have been so severe that they violate these rights.
In addition, B'Tselem claims that the limitations placed on Palestinians who are
unwell, injured, or pregnant and seeking immediate medical attention are illegal
under international law, which mandates that patients and medical personnel be
allowed free access to hospitals.
Conclusion And Suggestions
In conclusion, my research has led me to conclude that despite Israel's claims
of being a forward, progressive, democratic nation, It has effectively
transformed a Gaza region, once a famous, bustling successful seaside region,
into an open air prison, a living hell to native Palestinian inhabitants.
This study's research reveals that Israel frequently breaches the UDHR. Israel
continues to violate human rights in the most severe and brutal ways despite
having signed both the Geneva Convention and the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights. Israel committed several human rights violations against Palestinians in
the Gaza Strip, including starvation, death, intimidation, and blockade, all in
the pretext of "personal security
If that were not bad enough, despite praising itself for its journalistic
freedom and freedom of speech, Israel regularly stifles any legitimate criticism
towards its hateful policies as "anti-Semitic", along with invoking the horrors
of the holocaust. This serves no purpose, and only serves as a basis to muddy
legitimate debates and criticism.
Another fact I'd like to add is that The United States has vetoed dozens of
United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions critical of Israel, including
at least 53 since 1972, according to UN data. Empowered and emboldened with a
powerful ally like the USA, it seems obvious that Israel would never get
properly sanctioned, and thus, actively push their racist apartheid policies to
Thus, a negative implication of this is the possibility that other nations may
be inspired by Israel's actions, and the lack of consequence it faces, and thus
may oppress minorities and marginalized communities within their own borders.
This would set back human rights by decades, and would lead to a more fractured
Now, let's move on to the suggestions. My research has highlighted, stressed and
underlined the importance of A far more democratic fair and just system within
the United Nations. What I mean is a complete removal of the veto system.
The five permanent members9 of the UN Security Council (China, France,
Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) have the authority to veto
any "substantive" resolution. The veto, which essentially bans UN action against
the permanent members and their supporters, is seen by critics as the UN's most
undemocratic component and as the primary reason for inactivity on war crimes
and crimes against humanity.
With regards to the US specifically, The first US veto was cast by Ambassador
Charles W. Yost in 1970 about Rhodesia, and in 1972, the US only used one veto
to stop a resolution that criticised Israel for its war against Syria and
Lebanon. Since then, the United States has exercised its veto power the most
frequently, primarily in response to resolutions that criticise or condemn
Since 2002, the United States has used the Negroponte doctrine to veto the
majority of resolutions that have anything to do with the ongoing
Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The General Assembly and the Security Council have
frequently clashed over this. For the first time, the Obama administration
abstained on a resolution on December 23 calling for an end to Israeli
settlements. Under the Trump administration, however, the United States started
using its veto again.
The veto power has come under fire for being undemocratic. A single nation has
the power to block the Security Council's majority from acting. For instance,
the US often vetoes resolutions that criticise Israel on its own11. The five
permanent members allegedly used their veto to "advance their political
self-interest or geopolitical interest above the interest in safeguarding
civilians," according to Amnesty International.
I consider the veto power reserved for the Permanent Five to be outdated,
unfair, and even unproductive.
Thus, I suggest a complete removal of the veto system. As such, It is
fundamentally contradictory to the Article 2 Of the UN Charter, which states
"The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its
It is only then that sanctions against aggressor countries can ever have real
teeth, instead of being mere condemnations.
Written By: Mohammed Arafat Mujib Khan