The word criminology is derived from the Latin word "crimen"
accusations and from the Greek word "logos"
, which means study, and the origin
of the term can be traced back to 1890. The basic meaning of criminology is the
study of accusations. It can be explained more like a scientific study of crime
including law enforcement and the justice system. Criminology handles the
scientific study of prevention, nature, and extent of every aspect of criminal behaviour.
The term was coined by Italian Professor Raffaele Garofalo in 1885. He was a
professor of law and he wrote almost 9 books that deal with the study of
criminals and crime. The first book on criminology was written by an American
sociologist, Maurice Parmalee.
What Is Experimental Criminology?
Experimental criminology is one of the branches of criminology which handles
scientific knowledge of crime thus helping the justice delivery system. It uses
the most advanced scientific methods to answer major questions about the causes,
preventions, punishment, and effects of the crime.
The topic of experimental criminology has been developed in direct response to
the many questions regarding the cause of crime, that the lawmakers have. It can
be used to find out things like, how to prevent a murder or crime by a high-risk
gang of people. The experiments of experimental criminology are mainly focused
on how to deal with a crime and on trying to reduce the crime rate in society.
The matter of experimental technology is related to the crimes of modern-day.
It depends on the works of statisticians, criminologists, and on many other
experts who have complete knowledge of the justice system and crimes. Even
though it is not well developed, experimental criminology can be noted as the
most competent way to assess the link between the cause of crime and to aid in
framing precautionary measures to help the justice delivery system.
Experimental criminology can be pondered as encountering the crime which is
connected to refining the evidence-based movement which is predominant in
society. Using scientific evidence in experiments under an evidence-based system
can enhance the growth of society. Randomized controlled trials, natural
experiments, instrumental variables, and case-controlled designs are the
procedures that are comprised in Experimental criminology.
Experimental criminology is divided into two broad categories:
Pros And Cons
- Randomized experimental design:
The randomized experimental design is used when the subjects of the
experiment are assigned for the treatment and control of groups. It allows a
clear evaluation of the effects and cause of the experiment. The classic
form of this experiment includes three pairs of components. They are:
- Independent and dependent variables
- Treatment and control groups
- Pre-testing and post-testing
- Quasi-experimental design:
The quasi-experimental design is used when the
subjects of the experiment are accidentally assigned to the control or treatment
of conditions nonetheless rather if statistical controls are used to study
effects and cause. Even though there are many types of quasi-experimental
research designs, the element that is most frequently missing is the random
assignment of subjects to the control and treatment conditions. For the
development of an equivalent control group, the researcher usually uses matching
instead of randomization.
In estimating the several features related to experimental criminology as an
expedient of crime prevention, the field is in the initial phase and is thus
used primarily as a trial method. Experimental criminology reports focus on
issues of justice and crime, offering practical direction to the judiciary,
therefore supporting the judgments.
Thus, it makes the whole judicial system
come to a balance with the simplified view, which is modern, of the scientific
fraternity in that way resolving what is right and wrong, by the courts, more
Experimental criminology methodology poses a smaller number of threats to
society and reports many issues that cannot be countered by analytical
criminology. Experimental criminology is receiving acquaintances recently in
India, and both the judicial system and the police are using it to make their
judgments and investigations much easier.
In the modern era, experimental criminology has brought down the threat of
causing damage by discovering more efficient and humane replacements for long
imprisonments. The suggestion made in this process makes a tangible and strong
point that suggests the full practicality of the parts of the evidence and this,
eventually, becomes the highest accomplishment by satisfying the better idea
Until now, experts of crime have invested most of their efforts in
the science of criminal concepts and crime patterns rather than thinking about
how to avoid them and satisfy the consequences. The transportation of
scientific facts, which is compelling, is a difficult task and given the Indian
judicial system many times, the truth remains not answered and thus the balance
between public policy and criminal conclusions cannot be balanced.
breach here is that the crime is organized still, and just not trying to do that
becomes an issue in this developing field. To produce scholarly work which puts
them out to find establish working relationships with a legal entity of the
nation brings the criminal experts under a lot of pressure and the situation is
the same in India. This has an important impact on the usual function of the
criminal profession, therefore making a gap between the legislators and them.
Indian courts observe such evidence as the last option to establish the truth
and most of it is governed by law.
Scope Of Experimental Criminology In India
Although the state of experimental criminology is currently unknown, it's often
thought to be the foremost effective method for determining the cause-effect
relationship of crime and assisting within the development of preventive
measures to assist the justice delivery system. However, when experimental
criminology is finished correctly, it causes fewer risks for society and reports
a much bigger number of cases that helps in analyzing the causes of crime.
strategy is employed by both the police and therefore the court system in India
to streamline investigations and judgments. In India, experimental criminology
is becoming more well-known. it's decreased the threat of causing harm within
the epoch by developing more humane and effective alternatives to long run
An observation produced using this method makes a transparent
point, which makes the evidence credible, then serves the target that it
absolutely was created. Experimental Criminology tends to help to find the
particular cause and action of the crime and may help to realize justice against
the crimes to the particular accused. It provides an analogous set-up of the
environment to the place where the particular incident befell.
handled under this, aids to unravel issues about the done: its prevention,
penalty and injury. Possibilities of mistaken inferences are minimised because
these experiments aren't settled in laboratories but in day to day world
atmosphere.8 . Experimental criminology is meticulously connected to escalate
the evidence-based movement prevailing for policy. the event of Indian society
may be escalated if the scientific evidence utilized in these experiments, is of
highest quality under the evidence-based movement.
In many respects, the
evidence-based method may be a direct descendant of the experimenting society
concept. In India, it's tough to implement improvements based upon
Criminological interpretations thanks to politics, bureaucratic hindrances and
ideological clashes. India being home to innumerable communities cannot viably
hold a law founded upon such research because in a technique or the opposite
there would be a conflict of interest between several communities which again
becomes a hindrance.
In Indian judicatory, empirical evidence isn't comparable
to legislative provisions and this is often the very best failure of India
within the field of Criminology. Indian Courts reflect such evidence because the
last choice to know the reality and far is ruled by legal jargon which is
difficult for others to grasp.
The existing evidence proposes that the number of randomized experiments in
experimental criminology will rise because the 21st century moves on. In
determining effective crime control policy and practice, experimental
criminology findings have a privilege over the outcomes of the weaker research
designs. The outputs of randomized experiments are taken as more
scientifically valid than the outputs from quasi-experiments and observational
Executing randomized experiments in field settings will be
very tough for a no of ethical, practical, and political concerns. Though, many
of those blocks to experimentation can prevail over; so, randomized experiments
will last to become ever-important parts of criminological inquiry. Experimental
criminology reports strong issues in crime and justice, offering empirical
direction to the judiciary thus assisting the judgments.
It makes the entire
system come at balance with the contemporary rationalised view of the scientific
fraternity thereby making courts resolve what's right and wrong more
efficiently. There should be a technique implemented to present a good release
of experimental criminology in India. If implemented effectively then it may be
said and proved that Experimental criminology within the epoch has reduced the
threat of causing damage by finding more humane and effective substitutes for
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