The world's most fortified border lies between Morocco and Melilla. Melilla
is an autonomous city of Spain located in the northern part of Africa. Spain
conquered Melilla in the late 1400s as part of its rapid global expansion. After
the second world war when the country got independence and colonial rules were
wrapped down but Spain kept holding the Melilla and not giving them
The city is designed with a distinctive Spanish architectural style and the
residents speak the Spanish language and pay in euros. The planet's most
fortified border wall, a seven miles barrier with layers of protection lies on
the peripheries of the city of Melilla. The Moroccan town of Nador into the
forest in the hills surrounded by migrant enclaves mostly from sub-Saharan
Africa will try to cross into Melilla.
Morocco guards the Melilla border because they have advanced status partnerships
with Europe which gives them an economic and political advantage in trade and
political affairs. The European Union accounts for more than half of Morocco's
international trade and the Eu also provides Morocco with millions of euros in
aid for security and development.
The morocco police sent refugees far from the Melilla border when they attempted
to cross into the Melilla. They treated them badly and used weapons on them and
brutally beat them and burned their shelter.
- Whether the Spanish and morocco police personnel violate the human
rights of sub-Saharan migrants under European migrant law?
- Whether or not Spain will accept refugees from sub-Saharan countries?
- European Union migrant law
- Morocco's new immigrant policy September 2013
- International human rights law
The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant
Workers and Members of their Families (CRMW)
Whether the Spain and morocco police personnel violate the human
rights of sub-Saharan migrants under European migrant law? A report of Abused and Expelled III- Treatment of sub-Saharan African
migrants in morocco found that the morocco security guard used force against
sub-Saharan migrants and beat these migrants burning their shelter expelled
from the peripheries of Melilla to the morocco border without due Legal
The migrant who crossed the Melilla border security guard arrested them and
hand over to the morocco security guard at which the morocco authorities
beat the border crosser including the children and sexually harassed the
women. The morocco new immigrant policy,2013 suggested some ideas based on
recommendations of the national human right council endorsed by King
Mohammed VI including providing legal aid against any kind of harassment or
violence happening against them by security forces providing free food and
shelter to refugees whom united nation high commissioner has determined to
The National Office for Refugees commission will allot a special Identity
card to refugees with the help of this identity card the refugees will get
jobs and financial aid in their respective countries.
Article 23 of European immigration law provide the migrant right to get free
legal aid in case there is a violation of their Human right by the morocco
police force and it also provides to request a lawyer or an interpreter
prior to expulsion. The European Union (Spain) and morocco is a member of
the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant
Workers and Members of their Families (CRMW) which aim to protect the
dignity of a migrant worker and their families and protect women from sexual
abused and established equality of treatment with nationals with respect to
protection against discrimination on the ground of racial religion gender
language and origin and provide equal opportunity to all in employment
livelihood and education.
On another hand, the Spanish government did not allow the migrants to stay
or live in their country. They have very strict laws regarding migrants
illegally enter into the territory of Spain and send back to morocco.
Spanish law strictly requires the security and border force to follow
deportation procedures in removing migrants who entered Spain illegally.
They accept the refugees of Syria but not the sub-Saharan refugees. The
Spanish government forcibly returning migrants who illegally enter the
Melilla violate international and European Union migrant law and violate the
human right of migrants.
The European Union migrant law prohibits any country from used forced to
send back migrants to a place where they would face a risk of being
subjected to the inhuman threat of life and degrading treatment. An
investigation found that the Spanish government exert pressure on the
morocco government to use unwarranted force against migrants and gave the
order to the morocco security guard to use excessive force to return
migrants to far away from the Melilla border.
Therefore Spain has a different policy on migrants in comparison to the
European Union and thus European union established The European Asylum
Support Office (EASO) in 2011 to monitor and provide effective collaboration
and cooperation between the European Union country to establish the Common
European Asylum System (CEAS). The European Union launched the Aeneas and
MEDA Program in morocco in the year 2018 its main aim is to provide
financial and technical aid to the third country in the area of migration
and asylum and fight against illegal migration to Europe.
Whether or not Spain will accept refugees from sub-Saharan countries? The majority of migrant people who come from Morocco, Algeria, Guinea,
Gambia, and Syria are mainly from sub-Saharan African countries arriving
through either from Western Mediterranean sea route or the morocco border.
They all have different reasons to leave their country and come to European
countries. Every year The Spanish commission for refugee aid (CEAR) funded
by the Spanish government published a report critically analyzing the
condition of sub-Sahara Migrants and refugees in Spain.
The Regulatory Act 12/2009 on the Right of Asylum and Subsidiary Protection
in Spain define that Spain granted refugee status to only those Applicant
who has been persecuted in his or their country on the ground of race,
religion, nationality, sexual orientation, and gender. Subsidiary protection
is granted to that migrant applicant who is suffering serious harm such as
threats to their lives, the death penalty, torture, and degrading human
treatment because of the war in their respective country.
Spain has strict laws regarding granting status to their country. Spain had
only approved one in twenty asylum applications; the majority of the
applicants are mainly from Syria and Palestine on the ground that they faced
war situations and have a threat to their life in their respective countries
but sub-African migrants come only in the search of better job opportunities
they do not have violation and threat to their life.
Spain has a very low number of approved asylum applications in comparison to
other European countries; the average recognition rate is 33%. It is greater
than Spain. The Spanish government issued a transit visa requirement for the
victims of the persecution of migrants from the state of Syria Yemen and
Spain gave recognition of refuge to the migrant who are come from Syria
Yemen and Palestine on the ground that in their respective country they are
facing war their have threat to their life and women are sexually abused by
enemy soldiers and Spain has a safe place to live them, therefore, Spain
grant the refugees status to migrant from Syria Yemen and Palestine but
Spain did not maintain meager recognition for the victim of persecution by a
morocco security guard for the countries of sub-Sahara Africa. Spain denied
granting them either a visa or the status of refugee in sub-Saharan Africa
on the ground that they are using violence against Morocco and Melilla
security guards to throw acid on their faces while voluntarily crossing the
In the last few years, the Spanish government approached a reliable refugee
policy and welcomed more immigrants, and granted refugee status to various
sub-Saharan African migrants as well as immigrants from Syria, Yemen, and
Palestine in comparison to European union member countries. Morocco guards
the Melilla border because they have advanced status partnerships with
Europe which gives them an economic and political advantage in trade and
The European Union accounts for more than half of Morocco's international
trade and the Eu also provides Morocco with millions of euros in aid for
security and development. The morocco police sent refugees far from the
Melilla border when they attempted to cross into the Melilla. They treated
them badly, used weapons on them and brutally beat them, and burned their
shelter. Morocco has partnered with European union member countries to stop
immigrants from crossing the Melilla border and sometimes they are even
approaching other countries prompting an outcry from human rights groups.
Many migrants come from either the sub-Saharan region or Syria in Spain. The
world had faced many global issues such as terrorism climate change poverty and
refuge violation of human rights. A large number of people leave their country
from persecution, violence, and discrimination against them on the grounds of
gender racial religion, and origin. They faced a civil war in their respective
Nowadays the refugee problem in the world become a contemporary issue for every
country to deal with and secures the cooperation of all member countries of the
UN in seeking a solution to the problem. Spain is to make a committee that is
responsible for safeguarding migrant rights and protecting them from violence by
security guards. It is necessary for the international community to enhance the
existing refugee law safeguarding refugees from violence by security guards and
suggesting that countries implement new laws which help to make close links
between refugees and humans.
Spain should make a friendly and effective policy to grant migrants refugees in
their country they should also expand their applicant criteria who will apply
for refuge not only limited to that migrants who are persecuted in the civil war
in their respective countries. Many refugees in morocco faced a problem securing
food shelter and cloth and thus In the international human right law mention if
any person denies basic livelihood it is the responsibility of the host country
to provide them with the basic right of shelter cloth and food.
There is much international organization who is working for refugees and
providing aid to uplift their condition. Since the refugee problem is a
worldwide problem many international organizations such as UNHCR, human rights
groups, Governments, and U.N. human rights agencies should be made accountable
and responsible for the protection of the rights of refugees and makes
coordinated efforts for the elimination of human rights abuses by the security