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The Fourth World: A Cursory Glance on

More than 370 million people in more than 70 countries are called "Indigenous and tribal peoples."[1] Indigenous and tribal peoples are frequently referred to by national labels such as native peoples, aboriginal peoples, first nations, Adivasi, janajati, hunter-gatherers, or hill tribes. ILO Convention refers to both "indigenous and tribal peoples" and accords the same rights to them.[2] For instance, several afro-descendent cultures in Latin America have been referred to as "tribal."

Indigenous and tribal peoples are not universally defined. However, ILO Convention No. 169 adopts a pragmatic stance and offers objective and subjective criteria for recognizing the people in question.[3] In the case of the Indigenous Group of People, A person who identifies as a member of an indigenous group is the subjective criterion.[4]

In contrast, in an objective standard, a person's lineage returns to the people who lived there at the time of the state's founding, colonization, or conquest. In addition, despite their legal position, they continue to have their own social, economic, cultural, and political institutions.

Whereas in the case of tribal people, in the subjective criterion, a person who identifies oneself as a member of a tribe and on the other hand, in the objective criteria, Compared to other groups within the national society, they have unique social, cultural, and economic circumstances.[5] They have their conventions, traditions, specific laws, and regulations that either entirely or partially govern their status. [6]

Contextual Background
During the cold war, each nation was categorized as belonging to a specific sort of which under the following headings; The term "First World" was used to refer to states that supported NATO and capitalism, "Second World" to represent those that backed communism and the Soviet Union, and "Third World" to indicate countries that were not actively supporting either side.[7]

These nations included the destitute former colonies of Europe and every country in Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa. Later, the phrase "Fourth World" was coined when the Third World developed to represent regions and people with meager per capita incomes and sparse natural resources.

During the 1970s, Mbuto Milando (Diplomat and the first Secretary of Tanzania High Commission) in Canada and George Manuel, Chief of the National Indian Brotherhood, are credited with coining the phrase "Fourth World" for the first time in Canada (now the Assembly of First Nations).[8]

The Fourth World will exist when indigenous peoples "come into their own cultures and traditions," according to Milando.[9] The citizens of the countries in the Fourth World were marginalized groups. As an illustration, though completely self-sufficient, Aboriginal tribes in South America or Australia do not engage in the global economy.[10] From a global perspective, these tribes were regarded as Fourth World states despite being able to function without any outside support.[11]

Main Discourse
The Fourth World is "comprising those native peoples whose lands and cultures have been engulfed by the nations of the First, Second and Third Worlds.[12] The term 'IV World is coming into general academic use. However, unlike its precursor, the III World, it has not yet reached a level of public understanding in either North America or Europe.[13]

The emergence of the concept of the IV World has arisen from:
  1. A need for social scientists to generalize about the processes and characteristics of a particular socio-political category of people and
  2. From the growing worldwide consciousness among the leaders of the very peoples to whom the term applies who, like members of the III World, wish to form cross-national alliances and to demarcate themselves by a term which encapsultes their unique predicaments.[14]

Fourth-World problems are still not discussed in great detail regarding the discipline's philosophical underpinnings.[15] Among the many meanings which have so far been attached to the IV World, the features of minority status and relative powerlessness are standard. In addition, for the term to be precise enough to be helpful, (the term III World is now so misused as to be relatively useless for social scientists. [16]

We shall add, as do the IV World peoples themselves, the features: indigenous peoples who still bear a unique, often spiritual, relationship to their traditional lands, from which they have not been (far) removed; an emically perceived "ethnie" difference between the minority group and the majority of the nation; and, a special socio-economic relationship to the modem nation in which they are a part.[17]

The Fourth World has existed for as long as the first, second, and third worlds, but it has never found a place in popular or conventional literature. It was a discovery rather than the creation of a brand-new world. The Fourth World is For all of the world's underprivileged and successful groups; literature instills new hope. It is a protest against a long-standing, deeply ingrained social attitude toward the needy of the Fourth World rather than a challenge to the third or first world.

The Fourth World includes Muslims, Dalits, American Indians, Australian Aborigines, and others. The ongoing efforts of indigenous representatives have led to the development of the Fourth World consciousness. Therefore, The Fourth World aids in comprehending subjectivity structures about thinking and feeling, enabling more profound and more in-depth excavations crucial to the analysis of postcolonial studies.

In the context of global formations as they pertain to Latin America, the United States has inherited a privileged position as a new custodian of intellectual production, particularly the legacy of the protectorate of particular economic and cultural structures that are not always consistent with the formative experiences that shape the coalesced modernities that are lived.

  1. Who are the indigenous and tribal peoples?, (2016), (last visited Nov 10, 2022).
  2. Momaday, N. Scott. House Made of Dawn. New York: Harper & Row, 1968. Print.
  3. Id.
  4. The Way to Rainy Mountain. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2010. Print.
  5. Alexie, Sherman. Indian Killer. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2016. Print.
  6. Allen, Chadwick. Blood Narrative: Indigenous Identity in American Indian and Maori Literary and Activist Texts. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002. Print
  7. The Bears Folk Tale in When the Legends Die and House Made of Dawn. Western American Literature 12 (2019): 275-87. Print.
  8. Anthony J. Hall & Tony Hall, The American Empire and the Fourth World 239 (2003).
  9. Id. at 240.
  10. Brotherston, Gordon. Book of the Fourth World: Reading the Native Americas through Their Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Print.
  11. Warrior, Robert Allen.Tribal Secrets: Recovering American Indian Intellectual Traditions. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015. Print.
  12. Manuel, George and Michael Posluns.The Fourth World: An Indian Reality. Don Mills: Collier-Macmillan, 1974. Print.
  13. Barry, Nora Baker. "Review of Ancestral Voice: Conversations with N. Scott Momaday." MELUS 16 (December 22, 2019): 115-117. Print.
  14. Weaver, Jace, Craig S. Womack and Robert Warrior.American Indian Literary Nationalism. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006. Print.
  15. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015. Print.
  16. Basso, Keith H. "'To Give Up Words: Silence in Western Apache Culture." Language and Social Context.Ed. Paolo Giglioli.Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2017. 67-86. Print.
  17. Bataille, Gretchen, ed. Native American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland, 2019. Print.

Written By: Sayed Qudrat Hashimy

Email: [email protected]

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