More than 370 million people in more than 70 countries are called "Indigenous
and tribal peoples." Indigenous and tribal peoples are frequently referred to
by national labels such as native peoples, aboriginal peoples, first nations,
Adivasi, janajati, hunter-gatherers, or hill tribes. ILO Convention refers to
both "indigenous and tribal peoples" and accords the same rights to them. For
instance, several afro-descendent cultures in Latin America have been referred
to as "tribal."
Indigenous and tribal peoples are not universally defined.
However, ILO Convention No. 169 adopts a pragmatic stance and offers objective
and subjective criteria for recognizing the people in question. In the case
of the Indigenous Group of People, A person who identifies as a member of an
indigenous group is the subjective criterion.
In contrast, in an objective
standard, a person's lineage returns to the people who lived there at the time
of the state's founding, colonization, or conquest. In addition, despite their
legal position, they continue to have their own social, economic, cultural, and
Whereas in the case of tribal people, in the subjective
criterion, a person who identifies oneself as a member of a tribe and on the
other hand, in the objective criteria, Compared to other groups within the
national society, they have unique social, cultural, and economic
circumstances. They have their conventions, traditions, specific laws, and
regulations that either entirely or partially govern their status. 
During the cold war, each nation was categorized as belonging to a specific sort
of which under the following headings; The term "First World" was used to refer
to states that supported NATO and capitalism, "Second World" to represent those
that backed communism and the Soviet Union, and "Third World" to indicate
countries that were not actively supporting either side.
included the destitute former colonies of Europe and every country in Asia,
Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa. Later, the phrase "Fourth World" was
coined when the Third World developed to represent regions and people with
meager per capita incomes and sparse natural resources.
During the 1970s, Mbuto
Milando (Diplomat and the first Secretary of Tanzania High Commission) in Canada
and George Manuel, Chief of the National Indian Brotherhood, are credited with
coining the phrase "Fourth World" for the first time in Canada (now the Assembly
of First Nations).
The Fourth World will exist when indigenous peoples "come
into their own cultures and traditions," according to Milando. The citizens
of the countries in the Fourth World were marginalized groups. As an
illustration, though completely self-sufficient, Aboriginal tribes in South
America or Australia do not engage in the global economy. From a global
perspective, these tribes were regarded as Fourth World states despite being
able to function without any outside support.
The Fourth World is "comprising those native peoples whose lands and cultures
have been engulfed by the nations of the First, Second and Third Worlds. The
term 'IV World is coming into general academic use. However, unlike its
precursor, the III World, it has not yet reached a level of public understanding
in either North America or Europe.
The emergence of the concept of the IV World has arisen from:
- A need for social scientists to generalize about the processes and
characteristics of a particular socio-political category of people and
- From the growing worldwide consciousness among the leaders of the very
peoples to whom the term applies who, like members of the III World, wish to
form cross-national alliances and to demarcate themselves by a term which encapsultes
their unique predicaments.
Fourth-World problems are still not
discussed in great detail regarding the discipline's philosophical
underpinnings. Among the many meanings which have so far been attached to
the IV World, the features of minority status and relative powerlessness are
standard. In addition, for the term to be precise enough to be helpful, (the
term III World is now so misused as to be relatively useless for social
We shall add, as do the IV World peoples themselves, the
features: indigenous peoples who still bear a unique, often spiritual,
relationship to their traditional lands, from which they have not been (far)
removed; an emically perceived "ethnie" difference between the minority group
and the majority of the nation; and, a special socio-economic relationship to
the modem nation in which they are a part.
The Fourth World has existed for as long as the first, second, and third worlds,
but it has never found a place in popular or conventional literature. It was a
discovery rather than the creation of a brand-new world. The Fourth World is For
all of the world's underprivileged and successful groups; literature instills
new hope. It is a protest against a long-standing, deeply ingrained social
attitude toward the needy of the Fourth World rather than a challenge to the
third or first world.
The Fourth World includes Muslims, Dalits, American Indians, Australian
Aborigines, and others. The ongoing efforts of indigenous representatives have
led to the development of the Fourth World consciousness. Therefore, The Fourth
World aids in comprehending subjectivity structures about thinking and feeling,
enabling more profound and more in-depth excavations crucial to the analysis of
In the context of global formations as they pertain to Latin America, the United
States has inherited a privileged position as a new custodian of intellectual
production, particularly the legacy of the protectorate of particular economic
and cultural structures that are not always consistent with the formative
experiences that shape the coalesced modernities that are lived.
- Who are the indigenous and tribal peoples?, (2016), http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/indigenous-tribal/WCMS_503321/lang--en/index.htm
(last visited Nov 10, 2022).
- Momaday, N. Scott. House Made of Dawn. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
- The Way to Rainy Mountain. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press,
- Alexie, Sherman. Indian Killer. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2016.
- Allen, Chadwick. Blood Narrative: Indigenous Identity in American Indian
and Maori Literary and Activist Texts. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.
- The Bears Folk Tale in When the Legends Die and House Made of Dawn.
Western American Literature 12 (2019): 275-87. Print.
- Anthony J. Hall & Tony Hall, The American Empire and the Fourth World
- Id. at 240.
- Brotherston, Gordon. Book of the Fourth World: Reading the Native
Americas through Their Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press,
- Warrior, Robert Allen.Tribal Secrets: Recovering American Indian
Intellectual Traditions. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.
- Manuel, George and Michael Posluns.The Fourth World: An Indian Reality.
Don Mills: Collier-Macmillan, 1974. Print.
- Barry, Nora Baker. "Review of Ancestral Voice: Conversations with N.
Scott Momaday." MELUS 16 (December 22, 2019): 115-117. Print.
- Weaver, Jace, Craig S. Womack and Robert Warrior.American Indian
Literary Nationalism. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
- Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural
Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015. Print.
- Basso, Keith H. "'To Give Up Words: Silence in Western Apache Culture."
Language and Social Context.Ed. Paolo Giglioli.Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2017.
- Bataille, Gretchen, ed. Native American Women: A Biographical
Dictionary. New York: Garland, 2019. Print.
Written By: Sayed Qudrat Hashimy
Email: [email protected]