The COVID-19 pandemic unbridled an unexpected economic crumble and
humanitarian cataclysm in India. The emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic has
exhibited a country with public health and economic challenges. The ongoing
pandemic has already left an unexpected and critical impact on the healthcare
system. It can result in the most destructive effects of government policy
responses are not taken into consideration. The most stringent county lockdown
has already affected the economy and forced millions into hunger and poverty,
but it did not stop the transmission.
The authors will research the pandemic's impact on various sectors as well as
how those spheres now are and have been affected, Additionally, the author will
attempt to anticipate how these practices may be improved as well as the
Science and technology have revolutionized our everyday lives and the
environment, transforming contemporary society; any rational society would
profit from these innovations to process; science whirling around democratic
decision-making has grown enormously in recent years.
The nation is experiencing an unexpected period, a pandemic that has created
problems for every economy. The legal industry is in jeopardy as a result of the
issue. The right to a speedy trial is a fundamental intrinsic right that
includes the conviction of a criminal person and the acquittal of an innocent
person. Delayed justice is the most severe type of denial of justice. Justice
cannot be perceived to be served if a speedy trial is not in place. The concepts
of 'Life' and 'Liberty' contained in Article 21 of the Constitution have a broad
scope. It is not only about the existence but also about the right to a fair and
Individuals must be given a reasonable and fair trial to end miscarriages of
justice and ensure dispensation. An affordable and fair trial entails a rapid
and speedy conclusion. Justice should not only be done, but it should appear
to be done, and litigants must have faith in the justice system, which is shaken
when courts spend an excessive amount of time to deliver the verdict.
Martin Luther King rightly states:
"Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.
" The Indian
judicial system has the most unresolved cases. Covid impedes the delivery of
justice and adds to the backlog by 19%, crossing 4.4 crores. When there is a
need for justice and not supplied appropriately, it is the greatest injustice
done to the person. Due to Covid-19 and the shutting of courts, followed by
virtual hearings, the backlog of cases has expanded, resulting in individual
'Justice delayed is justice denied is a legal adage that states that if
equitable redress is offered to an aggrieved party but not provided in a timely
way, it loses its effectiveness, just as having no remedy at all does. Based on
the factors outlined, access to justice falls under the purview of Article 14 of
the Constitution. Anita Kushwaha v Pushap Sudan notes that the state must
establish an effective and timely adjudicatory procedure accessibly.
Furthermore, the adjudication procedure must be expedited.
Because of the epidemic, the three-tiered judicial delivery system has gone
virtual. Every project is vulnerable to criticism, and this one has been
attacked by attorneys and advocates, resulting in a delayed migration to virtual
courts. It should be underlined that it is the only path out of the epidemic to
bring justice. The use of virtual courts will minimise the number of cases that
are pending. Adoption of changing and new technology necessitates careful
planning to guarantee that justice is administered in accordance with the legal
Engineers should design software compatible with the local court system, and
advocates and judges should get training. Several flaws were discovered during
the virtual delivery system, including defective network and connectivity
issues. The critical point that needs direct human connection should not be
addressed virtually. Delivering justice is a human endeavour comprised of
ethics, morality, compassion, wisdom, and loss.
The pendency of the cases has increased over the years, where 87% are in the
subordinate courts. Even Supreme Court has over 65,000 pending cases as of
January 2021. Further, there are 45,12,800 pending cases in the High Courts,
out of which 85% have been pending since the last year. Over 2,89,96000 cases
are pending in various subordinate courts of the country; the latest official
data shows that 80% have been pending since the last year.
The cause for the cases' pending status is the delay in filling judicial officer
vacancies. In the lower courts, around 6,000 judicial officer positions are
vacant. Appeals from lower courts fueled the supreme Court's increasing
activity. There has been a rise in the number of Central and state laws for
underfunding of the courts.
The Supreme Court works 188 days every year, while the highest court works a
minimum of 2 25 days. A pivotal point to make here is that people have grown
more conscious of their rights and the states' responsibility to citizens, which
is why they have begun to contact the courts in the event of a breach.
Covid-19 arose when the country had already exceeded the threshold due to a
large number of outstanding cases. Covid-19 was introduced in India at a time
when courts were already considering digitising and expediting E-courts.
E-courts were initially considered part of the National e-government strategy in
2006 when e-courts were deployed in district courts. Before the outbreak, the
Supreme Court app was already available, and it was used to interpret judgements
into nine regional languages.
Physical hearings and court appearances were avoided owing to the risk of
illness transfer caused by the epidemic. An e-court service app was also
established, which provides information about cases filed in District or High
E-courts are fairly widespread in nations such as the United States, Singapore,
and others. In these nations, e-court is an endeavour to reduce excessive
crowding in physical courts and the suspension of proceedings. The judiciary was
under pressure and had a responsibility to reconcile the individual right to
obtain justice with the right to public health. Due to the epidemic, all courts
began to work on a limited basis.
The parliamentary group concluded that while virtual courts have significant
drawbacks, they would eventually replace regular courts. One problem that has
come before the courts is that virtual courts need tech-savvy lawyers and
advocates. Furthermore, attorneys and advocates would be better equipped to
deliver their arguments in physical courts since gestures and emotions are
Health Care: Repercussions Of Pandemic On Indian Healthcare System
The individual's "right to life" is recognised as an intrinsic right under
Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. India has the world's lowest healthcare
spending. This point may be expanded upon by referencing data from the WHO
Expenditure database 2016, which indicates that India ranks 170th out of 188
countries in terms of domestic general government spending on healthcare as a
percentage of GDP.
The 2017 National Health Policy's objective was to "transform the country's
healthcare system by coordinated policy intervention across all sectors and to
broaden prevention, promotional, remedial, alleviating, and rehabilitative aids
offered by the public health sector with a concentration on standard.
However, the scheme's stated goal is universal health care following the
recommendations of NHP-2017.
It continues to fall short of covering the whole population and all health
costs. Numerous states have been registered under PMJAY, including Gujarat,
Rajasthan, and Chhattisgarh, but the irony is that private hospital admissions
continue to outnumber public hospital admissions. Government finances are being
used to subsidise the private healthcare market, where funds are multiplied or
Even though, during the COVID-19 pandemic, 41,000 Ayushman Bharat Centres have
been created, offering health services to 8.8 crore people. Ayushman Bharat
beneficiaries, on the other hand, opted for private hospitals for COVID-19 care
due to a lack of trust in government-run health facilities.
"The safest defence against any disease is a robust healthcare system." The
onset of the pandemic has had a negative effect on India's healthcare system.
Over the last few decades, there have been major reforms and developments in
India's healthcare system. It has also become one of the major industries in
terms of income and jobs. The Indian healthcare sector has failed because of the
pandemic, with inadequate hospital beds, ventilators, and air supplies, drug
shortages, and a rise in mortality rates.
If little is done, the situation is expected to deteriorate. The private
healthcare industry accounts for 60% of patient care and has also faced
difficulties related to regulatory reforms, cost increases in human capital, and
other requirements for providing healthcare services.
Given the current situation, emphasis should be put on prevention measures that
rely primarily on laboratory services, patient support, and public hygiene. The
effect on healthcare facilities is the primary concern of this pandemic. The
problem should be resolved by announcing aid programs for underdeveloped areas.
Only a healthy and educated populace allows for the establishment of a peaceful
and prosperous society. It has already instilled dread and served as explosive
fuel to a roaring fire; dissatisfied patients and their relatives, hungry media
are the usual precursors to violence against doctors. The majority of doctors
are now unwilling to encourage their children to pursue this once-revered
To enable doctors to perform fearlessly, it is critical to instill trust and
devotion in them. Furthermore, violence against healthcare workers has
escalated. A study was done across India over time, and the results indicate
that 49 incidents of violence occurred, with the most occurring in New Delhi,
followed by Karnataka. Additionally, 43 of 49 instances were recorded in urban
areas, whereas only 12% were recorded in rural regions.
The majority of cases were recorded in places where healthcare staff conducted
surveys and screenings. The violence also targeted ASHA employees. The majority
of violence was verbal, accounting for 60% of it, while the remainder was
physical. The perpetrators were either members of a crowd, individuals, or
Food Security: Implementation Hurdles Of Covid-19 On Food Security
As for the population, most of the people live in rural areas. Due to the large
percentage of the country's labour force being non-formal and earning
below-average salaries, an individual's ability to fulfil their basic needs is
significantly diminished in India. Widespread job loss due to a pandemic and low
wages before Coventry nineteen, agricultural wages, and joblessness worsened the
worldwide pandemic, and the lockdown has escalated the nation's chaos.
Additionally, starvation and hunger conditions are highly variable, even in
The Covid-19 pandemic is threatening India's food supply. It has affected all
four facets of food supply, availability, stability, and consumption. Covid-19
has had a long-term effect on people's food intake, especially children,
resulting in malnutrition and posing a danger to achieving the Sustainable
There is no official data on the state of deprivation in the region. Still, a
study commissioned by the Centre for Sustainable Jobs at Azim Premji University
reported that 77 per cent of the households consumed lesser food than they did
previously, and 66 per cent lost work. Additionally, all of those who said
that they had never gone without food said they had reduced their intake and
were only consuming one meal a day.
Inadequate diet and malnutrition were still prevalent in pre-covid-19 India. The
cessation of several public programmes, including such anganwadis and mid-day
meal schemes, that aided in people's access to food, nutrition, and health care,
has also exposed many people, particularly women and children, to malnutrition.
One such effective government social welfare programme is the Midday Meal
Scheme, initiated in 1925 for deprived children in the Madras Municipal
Corporation. State governments took the initiative to implement midday meals in
primary schools, with Tamil Nadu being one example. K Kamraj, the then Chief
Minister of Tamil Nadu, was the first to implement it in 1962 in Chennai.
A programme that began in late August 1995 intending to boost primary education
by growing the school's overall enrolment and attendance rates, this programme
was expanded to include upper primary classes in 2008-09. Recently, a survey
conducted by the HRD Ministry confirmed the popularity of the mid-day meal
programme, stating that 92 per cent of children enrolled in government schools'
profit from the programme, while 80 per cent of parents surveyed accepted that
the programme increased attendance
While the Supreme Court decided that children receive mid-day meals in schools
and supplemental nutrients from the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS),
pregnant women must continue to receive cash transfers or home deliveries during
the lockdown. With food spending accounting for a sizable portion of the poor's
overall expenditure, low wages have also impacted food intake.
Another crucial intervention currently is MGNREGA. In areas where a significant
number of migrant labourers have returned to rural areas, and there is a labour
shortage, MGNREGA will play a critical role in creating jobs and stimulating
rural demand by placing wages in people's hands. Numerous steps must be taken to
address the issue of post-covid food security. There is a need to ensure that
poor populations who are now experiencing food scarcity are involved in food
distribution policies. With the displacement of migrant labourers, there is a
possibility of creating new hotspots for food and nutrition survival.
Food security in India post-COVID-19 would have a major effect on the country's
development in various ways. Reiterating this today with necessary and
deliberate ingenuity would determine how India moves forward in the future and
will need continued focus.
Domestic Violence: Rethinking A Chronic Problem
The pandemic has created difficulties in terms of economy and health and terms
of human rights. Human rights, especially women's and children's rights. Before
Covid-19, one in every three women worldwide had experienced domestic abuse at
least once in their lifetime. Domestic abuse has been raised, but the government
has taken no significant action.
The Indian Constitution promises freedom to all people and affirmative action in
favour of women and children. Due to the lockdown's lack of checks and
balances, women are stuck at home and subjected to physical violence. Throughout
the pandemic, the home has been identified as the safest place.
The National Commission on Women registered a continuous rise of approximately
94% in domestic abuse incidents from 23 March 2020 to 16 April 2020. Women
are put in a position where external assistance is difficult to obtain. Locked
inside their houses, with abusers confined to confined spaces with restricted
movement and privacy, they face a threat to their welfare. Abusers are using
isolation and abusing their putative powers. This preventive action taken to
ward off the virus is, however, posing a threat to women.
To envision a society free of gender-based abuse against women, it is critical
to place a lockout on the imagination that hammers away at gender-stereotypical
sexism and permanently quarantines and isolates patriarchy. Both misogynistic
views must be eradicated from society, and women must be guaranteed the
fundamental Human Rights enshrined in the constitution. Heed should be paid
on the given report, which shows the top 5 states reporting domestic violence
complaints in 2020.
Pandemic To Poverty: Risk And Uncertainty
How are rural Indians defined? The one with an informal workforce is, by
reference, impoverished. These individuals have been working in irregular jobs
for over a year. The Indian economy was still suffering the slowest growth rate
in decades, and the pandemic hit during this period of economic stagnation. The
slowing economy has had a significant effect on rural areas, which are home to
most Indians. High unemployment, stagnant public investment in infrastructure
are both indicators of an economy's health.
India has recently emerged as the country with the fastest rate of poverty
reduction. According to the 2019 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index, India
lifted 271 million people out of poverty between 2006 and 2016.Comparing
this to the situation in 2020: India saw the most significant growth in global
poverty. According to a report undertaken by the Pew Research Centre, a US-based
think tank, the first phase of the coronavirus pandemic could have doubled
In January 2020, India recorded its first coronavirus case. Since then,
confirmed issues have escalated exponentially. In anticipation of this, the
Indian government declared a national lockout in 24-3-2020. Millions of people
in metropolitan areas saw their jobs suddenly cease, and many workers who moved
to these towns found themselves jobless.
After April 2020, the pandemic resulted in the loss of millions of workers in
India's organised economy. However, this will only escalate indefinitely through
the latest pandemic and into the unforeseeable future. India is a developing
country with a sizable informal sector in which workers neglect even the most
common forms of social security, such as sick pay. Wealth has been reduced, and
long-term unemployment has occurred as a result of the pandemic.
Also, youth people face a job loss, who make up the lion's share of the informal
economy. It would also have a long-term effect on their futures, mental health,
job development, and neighbourhood well-being.
Covid-19 exacerbated social disparities in urban and rural areas,
disproportionately affecting low-income groups. While both the central and state
governments recognise the livelihood problem, their recovery packages often stop
short of the spending necessary to resolve it.
Transparency In Policies Is Fundamental At Stages Of Pandemic
The nation's legislative depiction includes two main existing fortifications
nominated to seek accountability from the executive branch of government. The
government and the judiciary are the two entities in question. The legislature
has the dual purpose of making laws and challenging transparency from the
Council of Ministers, which serves as the governmental executive.
Over the entire period of covid, the government's implementations must be
transparent Transparency encourages accountability and informs people of what
their government is doing.
The government must gather data and exchange and analyse it for citizens to be
able to back up administrative decisions. Citizens' roles are essential, and
they go beyond just lighting candles. It is critical to provide accurate
information to people since they are the most positioned to contribute to the
fight against pandemics by being informed, keeping the government responsible,
and consistently pressuring it to implement public-oriented, scientific, and
Information is an essential tool for policy development, as well as public
engagement and decision making. Due to the nationwide lockdown and termination
of routine legislative operations, lawmakers have been prevented from carrying
out their task of questioning the government's efficiency and preparedness in
response to the pandemic.
As a result, the need for structural guarantees to compel the government to be
open, prepared, and accountable is more pressing than ever. Proceeding in light
of this, an effective and vigilant government, as well as flexibility, is
Moreover, CoWin, which opened enrolment to those aged 18 to 44, has come under
fire for allegedly excluding those from the other side of the digital divide.
According to the Indian Telecom Services Performance Indicator Study, 34.60 per
cent of the rural population has internet access. Due to a lack of internet
access and a lack of knowledge about how portals operate, the bulk of India's
rural population is discriminated against by CoWin, dependent on digital
literacy. There is no privacy statement on the CoWin website, even though India
lacks a data security statute.
Prisoner's Rights During The Pandemic
The Supreme Court of India took note of the overcrowding in Indian jails during
the country's COVID-19 outbreak on its initiative. It directed state governments
and union territories to investigate the possibility of granting four- to
six-week release to convicts charged with minor offences to decongest prisons.
While isolation wards have grown up in jails around the country, significant
attempts toward prison decongestion have begun in various Indian states,
including Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and others, in the form of
emergency paroles and interim bails to under trials. Furthermore, numerous state
governments have restricted jail visits from family, friends, and others for an
indeterminate amount of time.
The right to health is not specified in the Indian Constitution to be a
fundamental right. However, the right to healthcare services is an integral
component of the right to life under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution,
according to the Supreme Court of India's ruling in Paschim Bangal Khet
Mazdoor Samity & Others v. State of West Bengal & Others
The Covid-19 pandemic has a lot to teach us about government policy and
healthcare. It draws policymakers' attention to the importance of investing in
the right sector. Finally, the handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has
involved all levels of government, presents an incentive to promote the cause of
health in all policies. Only time will say how much the governments and public
health community benefit from and use the COVID-19 to create a resilient public
sector for health care provision.
Following the pandemic, strategies have undergone significant shifts because of
the crisis. The pandemic-induced health crisis poses a significant danger to the
Indian economy. There is an urgent need for administrative protections to ensure
that the government is still responsible, prepared, and transparent. As a
result, an effective and observant legislature and the judiciary are needed,
necessitating both agential preparation and methodological agility.
The future should be envisioned as treatment becomes the standard and patients
are no longer restricted by geography in their access to care. In the future,
hospitals will be well-equipped to provide correct diagnosis and care to
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4th year Student at Guru Gobind Singh
Indraprastha University, Delhi (Mail: [email protected]