Media is the fourth pillar of every democracy in the world. It is not gives
voice to voiceless but power to powerless. In a democratic country like India,
media plays a cardinal role in uplifting the concerns of general public, asking
critical questions from the government, fixing transparency and accountability
and so on.
News pertaining to the critical issues like employment, women safety, economy,
education, health constitutes the content which every citizen of this country
should consume for the smooth running of the democracy. Sometimes government
tries to hide their mishandling or malfunctioning of the crises from the
citizens, it is the media which bring everything in front of the general public
through their unbiased reporting.
Now a days due to the exuberant increase in the crime rate and several critical
news goes unnoticed by the general public and media through its unbiased
reporting brings that news in the mainstream. But sometimes media tends forgets
its responsibilities and resort to malpractices. To create sensationalism, they
start spreading misinformation (fake news) and astray the public. They are often
found doing biased reporting, (showing the arguments of one side).
They connive with the powerful people and political parties and advocate their
propaganda to befool the public. They also hide several important issues from
the public by engaging the public in nonsense debates and raising absurd
questions. The research paper attempts to scrutinize the quality of news
disseminated to the general public, Freedom of free speech and expression, press
freedom, manipulation of news and how it affects the working of a democracy.
This paper attempts to give a holistic view of quality of news before and after
rise of misinformation.
Publication of genuine facts is the quality content which every individual
should consume. It can be done through various forms such as print (oldest
form), television, radio, and the internet(newest form) Evolution of media finds
its origin back in the ancient times where the imperial powers or kings use to
dominate and oppress the poor people. The French Revolution witnessed the rise
of newspapers because of the economic, social and financial crises through which
the poor people were suffering.
The newspapers depicted the day to day events of France which proved to be an
important step in enlightening the masses. Dissent, equality and fraternity were
the popular ideas which were widely published during that time. During the
British Raj, where there were no radio and television, it became imperative for
the wise people to disseminate information to the general public through
Many newspapers were started by the influential people and freedom fighters to
report the oppression of Britishers upon the poor people of India. In 1881,
Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, one of the prominent freedom fighter of our
country started a Marathi newspaper called Kesari, to inform about the freedom
movements and to gain support from the masses.
In 1780, James Augustus Hicky started a two-sheet newspaper called The Bengal
Gazette, which depicted the private lives of officials of the company. Other
prominent newspapers which were stated during the struggle of the independence
were Sambad Kaumudi founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1821, Bhahiskrit Bharat
founded by B.R Ambetkar in 1927, National Herald started by Jawaharlal Nehru in
1938 and so on. 
This research paper aims to find out cardinal and conducive news dissemination
by media houses which nurtured the Indian democracy, how media gets involves in
propagating misinformation ,the emergence of misinformation, how media gets
involved , misinformation in India, legal provisions for curbing misinformation
and news dissemination v news manipulation. It focusses upon the critical
questions like news manipulation, irresponsibleness shown by the media and media
becoming a medium for spreading propaganda and hate speech.
This paper is of comparative nature and the research is based on secondary
sources. The scholar shall be comparing the situation of news prior to the
emergence of misinformation and aftermath. Secondary sources of information like
newspapers, cases, and websites are used for the research.
Review of literature
After the oppressive British Raj, the founding fathers of our constitution
imparted us six guarantees in the form of fundamental rights. One of which is
Freedom of free speech and expression enshrined in Article 19 (1) (A) in the
constitution of India. This fundamental right guarantees us free speech and
expression which includes right to know, right to hold demonstration/ strikes,
right to reply, press freedom etc.
Press freedom is not categorically mentioned in the constitution of India but it
flows from article 19 (1) (a) and that's why we don't have any separate right/
article for freedom of press. This was the contention of Dr. B.R Ambetkar during
the constituent assembly debates. This was adopted from the first amendment of
the US constitution. 
In Express Newspaper V UOI  it was held by the apex court that, the freedom
of press is hidden within the horizon of article 19 (1) (A) of the Indian
constitution. In the case of Bennett Coleman v UOI, the cardinal role of
media in nurturing the Indian democracy and its living constitution was
depicted. The petitioners were involved in the publishing the newspapers.
They challenged the validity of two governmental orders encompasses in the
Newsprint Policy of 1972-73 namely, Import Control Order of 1955 which imposed
restrictions upon the import of the newspapers and Newsprint Order of 1962 which
limits the number of pages in a newspaper. Key questions were raised before the
Supreme Court was that, whether these governmental orders infringes Article 19
(1) (A) of the Indian constitution?
The court admitted that the contentions raised by the petitioners that these
orders of the Newsprint Policy of 1972-73 will have significant effect on free
speech and expression The court in this case said that the suggested
restrictions imposed upon the import, regulation and acquisition of newsprints
are not feasible and the page cap will decline the earnings of the newspaper
which will lead to an increase in the price of the newspaper, and owing to this
accumulation in price, people will cease to buy the newspapers which will also
result in reduced circulation of newspapers.
Therefore the court declared the Newsprint Policy of 1972-73 as ultra vires to
the constitution. In 1960, Central government passed an act called Daily
Newspaper (price and page) Order, which empowered the Central government to
control the number of pages in the newspaper in accordance to the price paid.
This government act was challenged in the case of Sakal paper Pvt Ltd v UOI
. Court declared this act as null and void because it not only violated
Article 19 (1) (A) of the constitution of India but also Article 19 (2).
After independence media has evolved in its own way. Over the time it became a
watchdog for the government and a link between the general public and the
administration. It started exposing corruption, mishandling and malfunctioning
of the government and also raised critical issues which concerns the general
public. Through there unbiased reporting and meaningful news, they enlightened
the masses and shaped public opinion. After Additional Sessions Judge of Delhi
trial court acquitted all nine accused in Jessica Lal murder case owing to the
ballistic report and hostile witnesses, it triggered public furor.
Widespread protest were held in the capital city and people demanded justice for
Jessica Lal. Then the strong and gutsy media came into action. Loopholes of the
trial was exposed by the famous news magazine called Tehelka. Many string
operations were conducted upon those who turned hostile during the court
proceeding owing to bribery and upon those people to whom threats of dreadful
outcomes were given. Voice recording of the main accused was leaked who demanded
alcohol from Jessica Lal and upon refusal in fit of rage, he short her dead.
Amidst this, public pressure also build up and a SMS campaign was launched,
demanding justice for Jessica Lal. As a result of this, police filed an appeal
before the High Court of Delhi. The horrific Nirbhaya Rape case which took
place in 16 December 2012, shocked the entire nation and triggered widespread
public protest in the capital city. People were protesting in front of India
Gate and were demanding justice for Nirbhaya. This case soon became the focus of
the media coverage.
This was extensively covered by print, electronic and social media. After the
intensive public outcry, media started to build pressure upon the administration
and demanded the delivery of justice. This horrific incident changed the
mindsets of the people. People in India will no longer willingly accept rape and
molestation as 'normal' and demanded changes in the criminal law. The media
advocated the voice of the public.
Prominent newspapers like, The Times of India, The Hindu, Hindustan Times, The
Indian Express and others constantly published and supported protest movement
among the masses through print and electronic version. Social media was utilized
to gain support for the protest movement. People started expressing their
frustration on the administration through Facebook, Twitter and other social
media platforms, owing to which huge crowds of protestors taking to the streets
gave an explicit indication that they extend their support to the victim and
demand justice for her. 
In the above two examples, the news coverage was not only revealing and
conclusive but also it shaped public opinion. On one hand the media through its
braveness exposed the loopholes of the trial, and on the other hand, it demanded
justice for the victim and convinced the Indian society to change the perception
of not accepting rape and molestation as 'normal' and demand amendments in the
criminal law. In both the cases news presented by the media was legitimate, fact
based, revealing, and conclusive. They neither crossed any of their limits
showing irresponsibleness nor did they try to create sensationalism. Whatever
they did were in accordance to the ethics of journalism.
Emergence of fakeness
The emergence of fakeness of news can be traced from the inception of the
printing press. Nazi Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, launched its
propaganda to defame the Jews. The propaganda often spread misleading
information about the Jews. His ministry was so skilled that they effectively
gained support from the masses and made Jews as Germany's enemy. German
propagandist persuaded German soldiers to believe that Jews are the threat to
their homeland that they will one day take over their country. This feeling
accelerated their anger towards Jews and wanted their total annihilation.
Legitimate and conclusive news always been a part of Indian media, but a trend
of spreading misinformation has emerged in past few years. To create
sensationalism and to increase TRP, media houses often disseminate
misinformation to the general public, make baseless scurrilous allegations upon
rival politicians, celebrities, and businessman etc. Sometimes in order to win
elections, media houses disseminate misinformation against their rival
candidates and make hate speeches to communalize the election atmosphere. Media
houses are also found reporting prejudicially, helping the ruling government to
advocate its propaganda, brainwash the innocent public and target minority
groups. These all activities gave rise to misinformation popularly known as
How Media gets involved?
Media became a medium for the propagation of misinformation in a country there
here is a strong parliament, president, prime minster/chancellor, such
situations are bound to be happened. The first step of taking off a country is
to bring media under control and give them the orders of only praising the
The supreme leader became almost unlimited in a country with weak or without
opposition, where elections are conducted on the regular basis but they are not
free and fair, where media is reporting but reporting biasness, where politician
of the opposition party are targeted or is booked in bogus cases etc. such
countries are highly susceptible by the attack of misinformation. Let's fathom
this with an example of Russia.
The constitution of Russia declares Russia as a democratic state with a
republican form of government where president is the head of the state. The
Russian president Vladimir Putin had amended the Russian constitution in such a
way that he will remain in power for next fourteen years .i.e., till 2036. He is
all set break the record of Joseph Stalin who was the longest serving president
of Russia. Ideally, Putin would have been barred by the previous 1993
constitution if this amendment would have not taken place. 
The health of democracy in Russia is deteriorating, Democracy is breathing with
much difficulties. It was alleged by the leader of the opposition Alexei Navalny
that Russian government poisoned him with a deadly chemical because he expressed
his displeasure over Putin coming to power. However the government refused such
allegations. Most of the media channels are directly or indirectly controlled by
the government, in fact the two biggest Russian news agencies are under the
Now the news channels are showing the 'macho man 'image of the president,
showing his martial skills, his love for animals and labelling every success or
failure of the government as a masterstroke.  Few media houses are left who
work independently in digital media but they are also under attack. Sometimes
bogus terrorism charges are levelled or sometimes it is sedition. Heavy
crackdown on dissent with the help of police which results in police
brutality. Strict laws are enacted to control people in internet.
Such a law was enacted in 2014.  Human rights group called it a 'draconian
law'. NHO's, were also targeted. In 2005 it started. Every NGO was required
to submit their project details before the government registration office and
because of the ambiguity in the law office will tell the NGO's which project is
in the interest of the nation and which not. Even the judiciary was not spared.
In every drowning democracy judiciary is the last hope of the citizens but this
organ was also compromised in Russia. The situation of the country is sending
strong signals of electoral autocracy to the entire world. Everyone was targeted
by the government. If media had raised critical questions from the very
beginning then this situation would have been avoided. The citizenry is
brainwashed by the puppet media and the misinformation spread in all directions.
The media all times shows Russians that how president is working so hard for the
welfare of its citizens while managing the hostility from USA and its allies.
Every week a program is aired off which act as a guide and constructs a world in
which the government wants the people to live in.  Maybe these are the
causes that how gradually all the constitutional institutions were compromised
and the citizens forgot to ask critical questions from the government. But how
could they do this, they were living in a utopian world!
Misinformation in India
Misinformation is not new to India. It emerged long ago before becoming rampant
somewhere post 2014. In 2004, information was spread about the now Congress
president Sonia Gandhi that she was a bar dancer before entering the Indian
politics. However at multiple occasions it was cleared that she worked at bars
not as a bar dancer but was doing a part time job. The facts were distorted in
such a way as to portray Sonia Gandhi as a bar dancer.  So many photographs
of Sonia Gandhi are photo shopped to make her appear as a bar dancer.  Even
on her birthday derogatory hashtags are made to lower her dignity. 
Basically, a character assassination is done. These types of activities not only
reveals the misogynistic mindset of politicians but also has the potential of
destroying a person's life and dignity. In 2016, we have seen the same in the
form of Nano GPS Chip (NGC) attached to new notes at the time of demonetization,
but became a trend post 2019.  Dissemination of manipulated media became a
new normal in new India. Whatever news comes to the general public they accept
it on the face of it without thinking critically or rationally.
Brainwashed people are more vulnerable to this new trend of misinformation and
manipulated media because they have completely lost their sense of rationality
and are now the blind followers of a political party, political leader,
celebrity etc. In India social media platforms like WhatsApp, Twitter and
Facebook have emerged as a medium for spreading misinformation, hate speech and
WhatsApp, mockingly known as WhatsApp University is a platform most susceptible
to misinformation and people who are consuming the content of WhatsApp forwards
are more likely to get brainwashed. Misinformation spread through these
platforms is a concerning threat to our society. This builds up an atmosphere of
terror, hatred and violence which causes riots and lynching in every nook and
corner of this country. Defamatory comments targeted to one religion, sect, and
religious practice often ends up with hatred and violence.
There are age old fault lines between Hindus and Muslims. Propagators of
misinformation widens these fault lines to create communal tensions between the
two communities which creates an atmosphere of hate. Propagators of
misinformation also keep the general public way from the foundational issues of
their concern like of fuel prices, woman safety, education, health etc. and
convince the masses that everything is under control. It is often seen that the
ruling government does this through their IT cell to hide their malfunctioning
and mishandling of the issues.
It is also seen that government does so to save its reputation , to show to the
general public that they are also the ' victim' of that crises or tries to
falsely link a person /religion to the cries by unrelated old stories.
Misinformation is also propagated to increase the fan following. Film stars,
businessperson, political parties and political leaders often use these tactics
by publishing manipulated Media and false surveys. During election season,
misinformation and manipulated media are at its zenith.
Scurrilous comments are made by the contesting candidate against his / her rival
candidate, bigotry comments and slogans are raised against a religion to create
communal tensions between communities and so on. We have witnesses this in the
recent Bihar and West Bengal assembly elections, were social media was flooded
with misinformation and manipulated media by the contesting and rival
In 2013, a fake video was circulated in the town of Muzzafarnagar, where in two
youths belonging to the majority community(Hindu) were brutally killed after
they reportedly killed a youth belonging to the minority community (Muslim).
This video fueled communal tensions between Hindus and Muslims, resulting in
riots in the town of Muzzafarnagar, UP. Police said that this video is most
likely to be short in Pakistan which is available in the internet for last two
years. Approximately fifty people died in these deadly riots which erupted on
7th September 2013. 
A religious congregation was organized amidst the pandemic by a Muslim sect
known as Tablighi Jammat in Delhi's Nizamuddin area which was attended by at
least 16,500 people who were found to be infected by corona virus. This
congregation became the focal point for the media coverage. 
Various misleading, unrelated and manipulative information was spread to
dishonor the congregation and the Muslim community. Conspiracy theories and
misreporting were at apostle. Social media was flooded with the misleading
information and manipulative media that only talked about the Jammatis and hold
them responsible for the spread of corona virus. The people associated with this
congregation were called as 'super spreaders' and were blatantly censured for
the super spread of the corona virus.
Highly intolerant words like 'Corona Jihad' and 'Tablighi Virus' were used by
the media houses to dishonor the congregation and the Muslim community.
Newspapers like Amar Ujala, reported a false claim that the Jamaatis asked for
Upon refusal, they threw way the food and defecated in open at the quarantine
center in UP's Saharanpur. An old video was aired by India TV, a news channel
that claims that the Maulana is advocating to spit on people to infect them with
corona virus. A footage was played in a highly disrespectful manner with
obnoxious music. Pakistan was also dragged into this. 
A news channel called News18 India, claimed that, it was Pakistan's conspiracy
to spread corona virus in India. The channel said that the information was
supplied to them by the 'intelligence sources' that the congregation was
organized at the behest of Pakistan. Amidst this, several old video clips were
widely circulated through WhatsApp to defame the Muslim community.
An old video clip claiming that a fruit vendor in the state of Madhya Pradesh is
licking his fingers while handling the fruit went viral, an old video was shared
claiming that Muslim owned restaurants are spitting in food. Another video which
went viral on social media where the Muslim men in Hazrat Nizamuddin mosque in
Delhi were deliberately sneezing in open to spread the virus and so on.
These misleading information not only crated hatred towards the Muslim community
but also tainted India's reputation in the world. A video of parliamentary
proceeding in Pakistan was shared by news channels like Times Now and India TV
and other social media handles, where they falsely claimed that the
parliamentarians are sloganeering 'Modi Modi'.
This misleading information was deliberately spread through masses to increase
the fan following of Narendra Modi, and to tell the country the influence of
Narendra Modi and that even the Pakistani parliamentarians wants a leader like
In June 2020, the terrible news of the death of a pregnant elephant in Kerala,
also fell into the trap of misinformation. Several media outlets like, Times
Now, Hindustan Times, Financial Express, ANI, Republic, NDTV, India Today and
DNA reportedly changed the place of incident from Palakkad to Malappuram (a
Muslim dominated district in the state of Kerala) and reported that, in
Malappuram, the pregnant elephant was deliberately fed with a pineapple laden
with explosives to communalize the issue.
Consequently, social media was flooded with bigoted comments and targeted the
Muslim community.  The farmers' protest and the Lakhimpur Kheri incident and
the associated misinformation are some of the recent examples that are still
fresh in our memories. In farmer's protest, the participating farmers' are
labelled as "Khalistani" and "tuke tuke gang" where as in Lakhimpur Kheri
incident they are accused of stone pelting.
Cost of Fakeness
There are countless repercussions of propagating misinformation or fake news. An
individual will cease to think rationally and sensibly after the consumption of
misinformation. People will accept everything on its face value and will stop
thinking critically. They can be easily brainwashed and can be made fool at any
time by anyone. This behavior won't shape public opinion. People will state
giving illogical arguments to every legitimate and concerning issue.
Recently a local BJP leader was asked about the skyrocketing fuel prices. The
leader said that it's good that people will now use cycles and will stay fit.
This shows that even the local leaders are brainwashed and are not having
concrete answer to the question. The escalating intolerance and communal
tensions owing to misinformation or fake news is of serious concern.
We witnessed the same in Tabligi Jamaat issue. As the news of this congregation
broke out, everyone started slamming the Jammatis and were targeting the Muslim
community. Propagators targeted the community by using highly bigoted terms.
Social media was flooded with manipulative media and hateful comments.
This shows that we are highly intolerant against the minority Muslim community.
This behavior of ours send a signal to the entire international community about
the growing intolerance in India, thanks to our media. Building false narratives
against Muslim community is one of the causes of Islamophobia in India. 
These misinformation keeps an individual away from the ground realities.
Recently the PM Modi visited the Unites States and after his return, a tweet
went viral that the New York Times has published a giant photograph of PM Modi
on its front page saying him the last good hope on earth. Certainly, this was
not the reality. Propagating misinformation not only tarnishes country's image
but the image of an individual as well. Take the tragic suicide case of Sushant
Singh Rajput. He and his girlfriend Rhea Chakravati were targeted by the media
and countless misinformation were propagated.
Images of Sushant's dead body were released by the media. Various scurrilous
comments were made against his girlfriend. It is quite evident that there are
various implications of propagating misinformation whose cost the nation is
bearing. The entire international community is watching the circus going on in
our country and that is why various MNC's are reluctant to invest in India.
Spreading misinformation extensively not only creates a rift between
communities, but is also tarnishing India's image globally.
International media houses are taking cognizance about the rising intolerance
in the country
Which makes it worse for investment by MNC's or for setting up a unit in India.
India's position has begun to slip in various International indices, be it press
freedom report, democracy index or the latest hunger index report in which India
slipped to 101st position and the situation of hunger in India is termed as
'alarming'.  These are some of the serious concerns upon which India should
Curbing Misinformation in India
As of now, we don't have any specific legislation against misinformation in
India. Press freedom flows from Article 19 (1) (A) of the Constitution of India
guarantees freedom of speech and expression. Therefore the menace of
misinformation or fake news can be curb through indirect means which are as
- Press Council of India, a regulatory body, which can admonish, censure
or warn the news agency, newspaper, the journalist or the editor or can
disapprove the conduct of the journalist or the editor if it finds that the
new agency or the newspaper has violated journalistic ethics.
- News Broadcasters Association (NBA) represents the private television
news and current affairs broadcasters. The self-regulatory body probes
complaints against electronic media.
- Indian Broadcast Foundation (IBF) also looks into the complaints against
contents presented by news channels.
- Broadcasting Content Complaint Council (BCCC) accepts complaints against
Television broadcasters for objectionable Television content and
- Indian Penal Code (IPC) has certain sections which can be invoked to
curb this menace of misinformation: Sections 153 (wantonly giving
provocation with intent to cause riot) and 295 (Injuring or defiling place
of worship with intent to insult the religion of any class) can be cited to
guard against misinformation.
- Civil or Criminal Case for Defamation is another resort against
misinformation for individuals and groups hurt by the misinformation. IPC
Section 499 (defamation) and 500
- Information Technology Act, 2000- Section 66 of IT act says, if any
person, dishonestly or fraudulently, does any act referred to in section 43
(damage to computer, computer system), he shall be punishable with
imprisonment for a term, which may extend to three years or with fine, which
may extend to five lakh rupees or with both. 
News dissemination v news manipulation
News dissemination is defined as the process where the information is collected,
selected, is transformed into meaningful news and then it is spread to the
audience. Here the news which is spread is genuine, fact-checked, legitimate and
pertinent to the common citizenry. News manipulation is defined as an artistic
way of twisting the facts in order to manipulate the common citizenry. News
manipulation is a new type of news dissemination which is very prevalent in
These days this way of news dissemination not only disseminates the
misinformation and manipulated media, but also the hidden agenda of manipulating
the common citizenry is fulfilled. The sad part is that, both of them go side by
side and therefore it becomes very difficult to detect misinformation and
Misinformation or manipulated news or fake news is not new to us, in fact it all
started from the inception of the printing press. But at those times there use
to be kings/queens/dictators who were having absolute powers and therefore they
do things according to their whims and fancies. But today were more than half of
the countries are democracies,  media should be made independent and
responsible. There are countless damages that can be caused owing to the
propagation of misinformation or manipulated media and this should be curbed to
improve the tranquility in the society.
Few small things can give us a relief from the misinformation by using credible
sources of information like wire, scroll and the print, fact checking websites
like alt news can be used. Before believing in any news, verify the news through
multiple sources, verify the publisher and think wisely before you believe and
share. Don't trust blinding upon the WhatsApp forwards as almost every
information spread is either manipulated or fake .enlighten your friends and
family members to stop consuming the news from the mainstream media also
popularly known as Godi media.
These steps can be taken from an individual's side. Steps which government can
take is making media accountable for every biased reporting made by them. People
should be discouraged from posting news and media whose authenticity is unknown,
political parties and leaders should not make any scurrilous remark against
anybody without any concrete evidences, any person who violates the social media
guidelines must be prosecuted , malicious prosecution should not be initiated
against journalist and concerned citizens who raises critical questions and
media house should not publish or air any news content which not fact checked
and religiously sensitive. Social media through its reach can start a campaign
of making people aware about fake news.
Celebrities can be employed for the same. With their charisma they can influence
the masses. Long story short, the menace of misinformation in the country must
be solved by hook or by crook, otherwise this menace will one day eat up the
After discussing so much about misinformation in this paper, one thing is
crystal clear that the problem of misinformation is deep rooted and we as
society have to cut this root as soon as possible. This problem can be reduced
if people were aware. But in the quest of curbing misinformation we should not
forget to respect an individual's freedom of speech and expression. We cannot
put every person/journalist/media organization behind the bars upon the
suspicion that these people are propagating misinformation.
Right to free speech and expression is most abused in recent times, be it the
case of CAA protest, issue in JNU and Jamia Milia Islamia, tragic suicide of
actor Sushant Singh Rajput, the Tabligi Jammat incident, farmers' protest etc.
everywhere news channels, social media was replete with misinformation and the
government's reaction in these cases shows us that, even the government does not
want to stop the spread of misinformation, because it provides edge to them.
Today people have lost their rationality and their thinking ability because of
the fact that they are so engrossed with misinformation and manipulative media
that they have forgotten to question the government regarding critical issues.
Many people are highly brainwashed that they can't abide a single word against
the person to whom they admire the most and the religion which they follow.
Youngsters too are misled by spread of misinformation, that they can be easily
brainwashed and manipulated to wage a war against those who are the foes of
their motherland or religion. The Hijab controversy is a very good bad example
to this The bitter truth of today is that, the people who are the propagators of
misinformation, manipulative media and hate speeches are the either religious
leaders, political leaders or the elected government.
The sad part is that the administration itself wants the citizenry to sink in
the ocean of fakeness, so that they can fulfill their agendas. Agendas like
creating a rift between religiously sensitive communities, winning elections,
building false narrative against the targeted person, instigating people to
commit violence against minorities etc.
It has now became imperative for the government and our policy-makers to fathom
the potential damages caused by the violent spread of misinformation which is
not only creating a situation of raucous in our country , is promoting hate
amongst people but is also pulling off our country from making progress.
People are so engrossed in this nonsense that they don't demand a school, a
college, a hospital and women's safety. What they demand is temple, total
annihilation of Muslims, declaring the citizens of the country as terrorists and
so on. Everyone is responsible for curbing misinformation in India ranging from
an ordinary man to the government of India.
Then only we can actually curb his menace and can shape public opinion. Along
with this, the need of the hour is a good and strong legislation to stop the
menace of misinformation and to punish the violators.
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