Human beings are beings who need essential rights to live a life of dignity.
To understand the evolution of human rights, we must first understand the
history of human rights around the world. In this way, the evolution of
human rights can be traced back. As such, this assignment includes all topics
and events that have contributed to the development of human rights in today's
world., sexual orientation and gender identity, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion,
language or other status, are all entitled equally without discrimination as
essential to a life of dignity.
To understand the development of human rights, trace all the significant events
and places that contributed to the development of human rights around the
world. To that end, let's begin with the earliest evidence of human rights in
ancient history such as Lagash, Akkad, and Babylon.
The origin and history of human rights is very complex, and although the
exact starting point for the concept of human rights is unknown, the extent to
which it is known to begin in 3260 BC is the first recorded It is widely
welcomed as an example. Government reform aimed at achieving greater freedom and
equality. She limited the power of the priesthood and squire, and took measures
against usurers and burdens.
Widows and orphans were no longer at the mercy of those in power." Here the
word "freedom" appears for the first time. Then around 2300 BC. The ruler of Akkad
around 300 BC was Sargon, who conquered all of southern Mesopotamia and is said
to be one of the earliest builders of the world's great empires.
The Akkadian empire was the first political entity to make extensive and
efficient use of its extensivebureaucracy and administration, setting the
standard for future rulers and kingdoms. Sargon and Moses give ownership of
all the land to the assembly of gods. Administrative powers to protect land
from abuse to the monarch and land use rights to women are delegated to
elite men or exercised independently.
Also around 1750 BC. In 300 BC, Hamrubi of Babylon created the Code of Hammurabi.
It is a collection of 282 rules that set standards for commerce and set fines
and penalties to meet the demands of justice. Hammurabi's Codex was inscribed on
a giant finger-shaped black stone stele looted by invaders and rediscovered in
Around 539 BC when Cyrus the Great's army conquered Babylon. Cyrus freed
the slaves, proclaimed that every man had the right to choose his religion, and
established racial equality, among other things. The
provisions of this cylinder influenced the first four articles of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights.
Not only that, but the Unani civilization has similar conceptsof human
rights as other civilizations such as equal legal liberty which is isogonia, equality
before law known as isomonia, jussuraj which is suffrage and jushonorm which
is the right to vote. I have. to any official. Even our country, India, was not
far behind in the concept of human rights, as seen in the concept of dharma in
the Vedic period of India. The roots of concern for human rights in Vedic times
can be traced back to people's religious feelings.
Humans were created in the image of God. They were endowed with intrinsic worth
and dignity. The philosophers and jurists of the time believed that human
rights were based on humanity's growing desire for a life in which the inherent
dignity of every human being deserved to be respected and protected by society
and its inhabitants. rice field. The main meaning of human rights lies in
the great Indian legacy of Vashdai Vaktumbakam,which means that we are all one
giant human family. Rig-Veda stands for three civil rights:
- Thana (body)
- Skridi (housing)
- Jivasi (life)
Panini, 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian. explained that dharma is an act of
religious custom, practice and merit. Dharma is always first. Dharma is
spiritual, moral, ethical and secular law in the broadest sense.
Each individual, whether ruler or ruled, is governed by his own dharma. The
rights and duties of rulers, pastors, priests, and people are governed by the
concept of dharma.
Manu formulated the rules for the king's leadership. It was his duty to obey the
law, and he was subject to the law like everyone else. The king not
only enforced the sacred laws of the scriptures, but also the customary laws
of the land concerning the rights and entitlements of his subjects.
Kautilyas Arthasastra refers to the rights and duties of rulers, ministers,
priests, soldiers, people, etc. The king's duties in the internal management of
the country are the protection of the state from triple rakshas
or external attacks, the maintenance of law and order within the country. Landes
State and Yogakshama, or ensuring the welfare of the people.
To understand the essential evolution of human rights, we move from ancient
to medieval history to make sense of the events that shaped human rights in
today's world. Major historical events thatcontributed to the development of
human rights include the Magna Carta of 1215, the Bill of Rights of 1688,
the United States Declaration of Independence of 1776, and Human and
Civil Rights in Franceof 1789.
Magna Carta (1215):
'Magna Carta' is the Charter of Rights issued by King John of England in 1215
under pressure from the barons. This is the first written document relating to
the Fundamental Rights of citizens. Part III of the Constitution is described as
the Magna Carta of India. It contains a very long and comprehensive list of
'justiciable' fundamental rights. In fact, the Fundamental Rights in our
constitution are more elaborate than those found in the Constitution of any
other country in the world, including the USA.
There are strong influences from the Magna Carta in the American Bill of Rights,
written in 1791. Indian Constitution has Fundamental Rights that were inspired
by American Bill of Rights. Even more recently, the basic principles of the
Magna Carta are seen very clearly in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Petition Of Right(1628):
The next recorded milestone in the development of human rights was the Petition
of Right, produced in 1628 by the English Parliament and sent to Charles I as a
statement of civil liberties. Refusal by Parliament to finance the king's
unpopular foreign policy had caused his government to exact forced loans and to
quarter troops in subjects' houses as an economy measure.
Arbitrary arrest and imprisonment for opposing these policies had produced in
Parliament a violent hostility to Charles and to George Villiers, the Duke of
Buckingham. The Petition of Right, initiated by Sir Edward Coke, was based upon
earlier statutes and charters and asserted four principles: (1) No taxes may be
levied without consent of Parliament, (2) No subject may be imprisoned without
cause shown (reaffirmation of the right of habeas corpus), (3) No soldiers may
be quartered upon the citizenry, and (4) Martial law may not be used in time of
English Bill Of Rights,(1689):
Bill of Rights, formally An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the
Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown (1689), one of the basic
instruments of the British constitution, the result of the long 17th-century
struggle between the Stuart kings and the English people and Parliament. It
incorporated the provisions of the Declaration of Rights, acceptance of which
had been the condition upon which the throne, held to have been vacated by James
II, was offered to the prince and princess of Orange, afterward William
III and Mary II.
With the Toleration Act (1689), granting religious toleration to
all Protestants, the Triennial Act (1694), ordering general elections to be held
every three years, and the Act of Settlement (1701), providing for the
Hanoverian succession, the Bill of Rights provided the foundation on which the
government rested after the Glorious Revolution (1688–89). It purported to
introduce no new principles but merely to declare explicitly the existing law.
The revolution settlement, however, made monarchy clearly conditional on the
will of Parliament and provided a freedom from arbitrary government of which
most Englishmen were notably proud during the 18th century.
The main purpose of the act was unequivocally to declare illegal various
practices of James II. Among such practices proscribed were the
royal prerogative of dispensing with the law in certain cases, the complete
suspension of laws without the consent of Parliament, and the levying of taxes
and the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime without specific
A number of clauses sought to eliminate royal interference in parliamentary
matters, stressing that elections must be free and that members must have
complete freedom of speech. Certain forms of interference in the course
of justice were also proscribed. The act also dealt with the proximate
succession to the throne, settling it on Mary's heirs, then on those of her
sister, afterward Queen Anne, and then on those of William, provided they were
Virginia Declaration (1776):
Virginia Declaration of Rights, in U.S. constitutional history, declaration of
rights of the citizen adopted June 12, 1776, by the constitutional convention of
the colony of Virginia. It was a model for the Bill of Rights added to the U.S.
Constitution 15 years later.
The Virginia declaration, largely the work of George Mason, was widely read by
political leaders on both sides of the Atlantic. It declared that "all men are
by nature equally free and independent and have certain inherent rights" of
which they cannot deprive themselves or their posterity. These rights were "the
enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing
property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety."
Specific civil liberties enumerated included freedom of the press, the free
exercise of religion, and the injunction that no man be deprived of his liberty
except by the law of the land or by the judgment of his peers.
As a member of the Constitutional Convention, Mason strenuously opposed the
compromise permitting the continuation of the slave trade until 1808. Although
he was a Southerner, Mason castigated the trade as "disgraceful to mankind"; he
favoured manumission and education for bondsmen and supported a system of free
Because he also objected to the large and indefinite powers vested in the new
government, he joined several other Virginians in opposing adoption of the new
document. A Jeffersonian Republican, he believed that local government should be
kept strong and central government weak. His criticism helped bring about the
adoption of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution.
United Stated Declaration Of Independence (1776):
On July 4, 1776, the United States Congress approved the Declaration of
Independence. Its primary author, Thomas Jefferson, wrote the Declaration as a
formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence
from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American
Revolutionary War, and as a statement announcing that the thirteen American
Colonies were no longer a part of the British Empire. Congress issued the
Declaration of Independence in several forms. It was initially published as a
printed broadsheet that was widely distributed and read to the public.
Philosophically, the Declaration stressed two themes: individual rights and the
right of revolution. These ideas became widely held by Americans and spread
internationally as well, influencing in particular the French Revolution.
The Constitution Of United Stated Of America (1787) & Bill Of Rights (1791):
Written during the summer of 1787 in Philadelphia, the Constitution of the
United States of America is the fundamental law of the US federal system of
government and the landmark document of the Western world. It is the oldest
written national constitution in use and defines the principal organs of
government and their jurisdictions and the basic rights of citizens.
The first ten amendments to the Constitution-the Bill of Rights-came into effect
on December 15, 1791, limiting the powers of the federal government of the
United States and protecting the rights of all citizens, residents and visitors
in American territory.
The Bill of Rights protects freedom of speech, freedom of religion, the right to
keep and bear arms, the freedom of assembly and the freedom to petition. It also
prohibits unreasonable search and seizure, cruel and unusual punishment and
compelled self-incrimination. Among the legal protections it affords, the Bill
of Rights prohibits Congress from making any law respecting establishment of
religion and prohibits the federal government from depriving any person of life,
liberty or property without due process of law. In federal criminal cases it
requires indictment by a grand jury for any capital offense, or infamous crime,
guarantees a speedy public trial with an impartial jury in the district in which
the crime occurred, and prohibits double jeopardy.
Declaration Of The Rights Of Man And Of The Citizen(1789):
In 1789 the people of France brought about the abolishment of the absolute
monarchy and set the stage for the establishment of the first French Republic.
Just six weeks after the storming of the Bastille, and barely three weeks after
the abolition of feudalism, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the
Citizen (French: La Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen) was adopted
by the National Constituent Assembly as the first step toward writing a
constitution for the Republic of France.
The Declaration proclaims that all citizens are to be guaranteed the rights of
"liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression." It argues that the
need for law derives from the fact that "...the exercise of the natural rights
of each man has only those borders which assure other members of the society the
enjoyment of these same rights." Thus, the Declaration sees law as an
"expression of the general will," intended to promote this equality of rights
and to forbid "only actions harmful to the society."
The First Geneva Convention(1864):
In 1864, sixteen European countries and several American states attended a
conference in Geneva, at the invitation of the Swiss Federal Council, on the
initiative of the Geneva Committee. The diplomatic conference was held for the
purpose of adopting a convention for the treatment of wounded soldiers in
The main principles laid down in the Convention and maintained by the later
Geneva Conventions provided for the obligation to extend care without
discrimination to wounded and sick military personnel and respect for and
marking of medical personnel transports and equipment with the distinctive sign
of the red cross on a white background.
The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (1948):
By 1948, the United Nations' new Human Rights Commission had captured the
world's attention. Under the dynamic chairmanship of Eleanor Roosevelt-President
Franklin Roosevelt's widow, a human rights champion in her own right and the
United States delegate to the UN-the Commission set out to draft the document
that became the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Roosevelt, credited with
its inspiration, referred to the Declaration as the international Magna Carta
for all mankind. It was adopted by the United Nations on December 10, 1948.
In its preamble and in Article 1, the Declaration unequivocally proclaims the
inherent rights of all human beings: "Disregard and contempt for human rights
have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind,
and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech
and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest
aspiration of the common people… All human beings are born free and equal in
dignity and rights."
The Member States of the United Nations pledged to work together to promote the
thirty Articles of human rights that, for the first time in history, had been
assembled and codified into a single document. In consequence, many of these
rights, in various forms, are today part of the constitutional laws of
Human rights advocacy continued into the early 21st century, with a focal point
on achieving extra financial and political freedom. In July 2022, the United
international locations wellknown meeting passed a decision spotting that
everybody on this planet has the proper to a wholesome environment. He called on
nations to step up their efforts to make certain that their residents have get
admission to to a "easy, wholesome and sustainable environment."