When a boy is born, we proud Indians of the 21st century celebrate, and when
a girl is born, festivities are typically muted or nonexistent. Since the
beginning of time, we have been killing our daughters at birth or before birth
out of love for male children. If, happily, she is not slain, we find other
methods to treat her unfairly throughout her life. Although women are treated as
gods in our religions, we fail to see them as human beings first; instead, we
worship the goddesses while abusing young women. When it comes to how we treat
women, our culture has double standards; what we think and preach does not
always match what we do.
The gender gap persists in India despite the country's rapid economic growth and
several government initiatives to promote gender equality. Lack of gender
equality jeopardises the prospects for future generations' quality of life in
addition to restricting women's access to resources and opportunities. In this
article, an effort has been made to look into the issue of gender disparity in
India. Along the way, the essay not only examines the scope, root causes, and
effects of the issue, but also recommends legislative solutions to lessen gender
Gender inequality is the social phenomenon in which men and women are not
treated equally. The treatment may arise from distinctions regarding biology,
psychology, or cultural norms prevalent in the society. Some of these
distinctions are empirically grounded, while others appear to be social
constructs. While current policies around the world cause inequality among
individuals, it is women who are most affected. Gender inequality weakens women
in many areas such as health, education, and business life.
Studies show the different experiences of genders across many domains including
education, life expectancy, personality, interests, family life, careers, and
political affiliation. Gender inequality is experienced differently across
different cultures and also affects non-binary people.Natural distinctions
between the sexes are based on biological and anatomical variances, namely
varying reproductive responsibilities1 . Chromosomes and hormonal variations are
examples of biological differences.
There is a naturally occurring difference in the relative physical strengths (on
average) between the sexes, both in the upper and lower body. However, this does
not imply that any particular man is stronger than any particular woman. Men are
typically taller than women, which has both benefits and drawbacks.
Gender inequality or the gender gap continues to be an immense issue of concern
in India despite its achieving high rates of economic growth in recent years.
Traditional patriarchal customs and norms have relegated a lot in the society2
Despite experiencing strong rates of economic growth in recent years, gender
inequality or the gender gap remains a major cause for concern in India. Because
of long-standing patriarchal norms and conventions, women are treated as
second-class citizens and employees. India's poor performance on the 2014 Gender
Gap Index (GGI) of the World Economic Forum, which includes below-average
Definition and Concept of Gender InequalityGender is a socio-cultural term referring socially dened roles and behaviors
assigned to 'males' and 'females' in a given society; whereas, the term 'sex' is
a biological and physiological phenomenon which denes man and woman. In its
social, historical and cultural aspects, gender is a function of power
relationship between men and women where men are considered superior to women.
Therefore, gender may be understood as a man-made concept, while 'sex'is natural
or biological characteristics of human beings.
Gender Inequality, in simple words, may be dened as discrimination against women
based on their sex. Women are traditionally considered by the society as weaker
sex. She has been accorded a subordinate position to men. She is exploited,
degraded, violated and discriminated both in our homes and in outside world.
This peculiar type of discrimination against women is prevalent everywhere in
the world and more so in Indian society .
India's gender inequality: Its causes and effects
The patriarchal structure of Indian society is the primary contributor to gender
disparity. Patriarchy is "a system of social structure and practises in which
men rule, oppress, and exploit women," according to renowned sociologist Sylvia
Walby. The exploitation of women has always been a part of Indian culture.
Whether it is Hinduism, Islam, or another religion, the patriarchal system finds
support and legitimacy there.For example, according to Manu, an ancient Hindu
law creator, women should be in the custody of their father when they are young,
their spouse when they are married, and their son when they are elderly.
Different Types of InequalitiesIn paid labor participation
In comparison to males, women participate less in the formal, paid employment
sector of the economy globally. According to the International Labor
Organization (2009)3 , there is 40 percent of women in the world's paid
workforce overall, with rates generally lower (nearer to 35 percent) in less
developed nations and higher (nearer to 50 percent) in more industrialized
nations (closer to 45 percent in the OECD). For our purposes, the difference
between assuming a constant rate of 40 percent involvement and expecting some
variance won't be very noticeable.
The gender wage disparity has been extensively documented in the literature4 ,
primarily during the most 2 Jacobsen 2007, Chapters 10 and 12 3 World Bank,
2010: World Development Indicators recent years (1970–2010), but also for
earlier times. The gender pay gap appears everywhere and at all times. Based on
my own earlier surveys of gender wage gap studies5 , I benchmark the current
gender pay ratio in the calculations below at 60% in developing countries and
75% in developed countries (women's to men's earnings) and use calculations from
Goldin (1990) and other sources to estimate the pay ratio globally.
There are less systematic studies of the wage ratio dating back to 19006 ,
especially for nations other than the U.S. and the U.K.7 The gender wage gap is
generally attributed to forty to fifty percent of observable differences in
characteristics, according to studies from both developed and developing
This leaves up to fifty to sixty percent of the gender wage gap unexplained and
potentially attributable to discriminatory factors in the labour market. Of
course, these unobserved factors could also be non-discriminatory; for instance,
women may choose jobs with lower pay.
In educational attainment and training Even though there are still large gaps
between men and women's levels of education, a number of nations have recently
reached complete parity in primary education and have even advanced to the point
where women in younger cohorts appear to be receiving more secondary education
and now even more tertiary education than men (World Bank 2010).
As an illustration, the ratio of female to male primary enrollment in 2009 spans
from a low of 67 females per 100 boys in Afghanistan to a high of 108 females
per 100 males in Mauritania, with parity achieved in all of the high-income
nations (11 out of the 11). But in many nations, women fall far behind of men in
terms of literacy rates, enrollment rates, and degree completion rates.
SOCIAL ISSUES Costs of gender inequality from 1900 to 2022 The figures above
show the disparities between men and women in terms of household production,
educational attainment, and rates of paid work participation and earnings. To
complete the calculations required to determine the costs of gender inequality,
a few extra numbers are required. Let's start by estimating how much of the
gross domestic product-or, more accurately, gross domestic income-can be
attributed to labour as opposed to capital.
Where reliable data are available, Pakko (2004) finds that labour has
contributed around constant 70 percent of U.S. national revenue during the past
50 years. Costs associated with women's lower participation in paid work in
comparison to what it would be if they were given equal access to education,
training, and all occupations as are men, leaves out a number of additional
costs associated with gender inequality. They are lesser costs that, in contrast
to the systemic factors stated in the earlier section of the paper, can be
computed and added to the aforementioned figures
if desired. In addition to their smaller size, one reason I did not include them
in the main calculations above is that there has been less research on the
topics. Ways to correct Gender Inequality Gender equality in education enhances
growth by increasing the amount of human capital in a society and improving the
possibility of a more efficient allocation of human resources.
Gender inequality in education reduces the average amount of human capital in a
society and harms economic performance by restricting the pool of talent from
which to draw for education. Gender equality increases growth indirectly,
through increased health and education of the next generation. Several studies
show that better-educated women contribute to the welfare of the next generation
by reducing infant and child mortality, lowering fertility, and improving the
nutritional status of children.
Reducing gender inequalities in the labor market contributes to growth, pro-poor
growth in particular. As in the case of education, gender inequalities in the
labor market that result in sex-segregated labour markets lead to welfare losses
(reducing total output) arising from the misallocation of the labour force:
competent female workers are excluded from some of the more productive
activities. Growth as a result of higher gender equality in the labor market
'increases the size of the pie'.
Gender discrimination in the labor market can lead to significant efficiency
losses, and the economy suffers a loss that is primarily borne by women.
Research suggests that if barriers to female Labour force participation were
lifted, women's wages could increase significantly at practically little loss in
male wages, as a result of significant output gains.
Gender-based violence reduces growth through lower female earnings and increased
cost of health provision. Women who are victims of domestic violence earn much
less than their non-abused peers. Additionally, kids who see their mothers being
mistreated do poorly in school, which reduces their opportunities in the job
market in the future.
The significant increase in health care needs brought on by domestic violence.
There have been many different sorts of actions made to address
institutionalized sexism. People are starting to speak out or "talk back" in a
positive way to highlight gender injustice and underrepresentation in other
institutions as well as in politics. The phrase "undoing gender" was coined by
academics who studied systemic sexism in politics.
By promoting "social interactions that diminish gender difference," this phrase
focuses on education and a broad understanding of gender. Feminists contend that
"undoing gender" is difficult because it depends on the situation and could even
perpetuate gender. Researchers advise "doing gender differently" by removing
gender norms and expectations in politics because of this, but culture and level
of government can also play a role
Impacts Gender inequality and discrimination are argued to cause and perpetuate
poverty and vulnerability in society as a whole. Household and intra-household
knowledge and resources play a major role in determining an individual's
capacity to seize outside possibilities for livelihood or react effectively to
challenges. All home members are more productive and society as a whole is more
equitable when all members of the household have high levels of education and
World is dominated by men still r, which can provide numerous difficulties for
women who choose to work in politics. The gender of female candidates has a role
in both advantages and disadvantages in their campaign themes and advertising
strategies as the number of women participating in politics continues to rise
The main issue appears to be that, regardless of their activities, women are
unable to succeed in the political sphere because they are judged using
different criteria than their male counterparts. The manner female candidates
choose to dress and how their choice is regarded as evidence of the disparities
in attitudes between male and female candidates10.
Women are seen as "conspicuous" when they choose to dress more masculinely. They
are viewed as "deficient" when they choose to dress more femininely. Women in
politics, however, are typically expected to uphold the masculine ideal,
supporting the notion that gender is binary and that power is connected to
masculinity. The aforementioned factors show how these contradictory messages
put women in a "double-bind."
The research on gender attitudes shows that acceptance of women's participation
in the workforce is higher than acceptance of adjustments to the domestic work
division. We contend that this distinction exists because challenges to
inequality in the home pose a particular danger to men's interests and that
women's reliance on men influences how gender disparity is seen.
We investigate the link between family status and criticism of gender inequality
at home and at work to examine these assertions. Family ties deter criticism;
for women, married status is particularly important in anticipating criticism,
but for men, parental status is more important. We contend that perceptions of
gender disparity are mostly shaped by men's social power, women's reliance, and
men's and women's interests with regard to gender stratification.
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