The main bodies of the United Nations are there to maintain international peace
and security. One of these main bodies, The United Nations Security Council, has
a total of 15 member states. The body is made up of five permanent seats held by
the United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom. Not only do
they have a permanent spot but also the power to veto resolutions. The other ten
members get elected for two-year terms.
When there's a global conflict or threat to peace this group is called on for
help. They can carry out actions to bring things back into balance like imposing
sanctions, authorizing peacekeeping missions and even in extreme cases let loose
use of force to ensure stability. It's important for the body to have stability
since each one of the five permanent members can block any resolution with their
Global diplomacy would not run as smoothly without this council. Their decisions
play a huge role in relations with other countries and resolving conflicts that
otherwise might've grown into something worse.
The Security Council of the United Nations (UNSC) is made up of five main
members these include China, France, Russia, the UK, and the US. Each of these
countries has veto power, that's a powerful say. In addition, there are ten
temporary members who stay for just two years. They're chosen by the General
Assembly. Right now, the temporary members and when their term ends are: Albania
(2023), Brazil (2023), Ecuador (2024), Gabon (2023), Ghana (2023), Japan (2024),
Malta (2024), Mozambique (2024), Switzerland (2024), and the United Arab
Peace and Security
By far, main responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and
security is entrusted to the Security Council. There are 15 members, with each
member being entitled to one vote. To the charter of the United Nations, each
and every member state has legal obligation to respect ruling of Security
The Security Council determines whether there is a threat to the peace or an act
of aggression. It invites for dispute settlement through peaceful means and
suggests adjustment measures or terms of settlement. Some instances could
involve sanctions or authorization of force by the Security Council on
maintaining or restoring international peace and security.
Chapter VII, on the other hand, provides for action by the Security Council with
respect to threats to peace, breaches of peace, or acts of aggression even when
it is not yet so determined. Acting under Chapter VII, the Security Council
adopts measures and sanctions in particular pursuant to Article 41, which covers
a wide range of enforcement options that do not involve the use of armed force.
From 1966 onwards, the Security Council has set 31 sanctions schemes.
were done in areas like Southern Rhodesia, South Africa, the Former Yugoslavia
(2), Haiti (2), Angola, Liberia (3), Eritrea/Ethiopia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone,
C�te d'Ivoire, Iran, Somalia/Eritrea, ISIL (Da'esh) and Al-Qaida, Iraq (2),
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Lebanon, Democratic People's Republic
of Korea, Libya (2), the Taliban, Guinea-Bissau, Central African Republic,
Yemen, South Sudan and Mali.
Over time sanction measures taken by the Security Council have been a plurality
with varying objectives. However, the measures have involved blanket economic
and trade sanctions, as well as the more targeted measures, like arms embargo,
travel restrictions, asset freezes, or commodity limitations. The UN Security
Council works for promotion of peace, discouraging unconstitutional regime
change, countering terrorism, protecting human rights, and non-proliferation.
Sanctions on their own don't bring about changes. Their effectiveness
increases when combined with peace-making, peacekeeping, and peace-building.
Rather than viewing sanctions as penalties, they can aid governments in
transition aiming for peace. This method is visible in the Libyan and
There are fifteen running sanction regimes for political settlement of conflict,
nuclear non-proliferation and terror mitigation. There are separate sanction
committees chaired by a non-permanent member of the security council, who
oversee each regime. Thirteen out of fifteen sanctions committees have eleven
groups, teams, and panels that support their work.
The Council enforces penalties. This is done with an increasing understanding of
the rights of the people or groups that are targeted. The General Assembly, in
its 2005 World Summit declaration, called upon the Security Council, supported
by the Secretary-General, to ensure that fair and clear procedures exist for the
imposition and lifting of sanctions measures. This approach in practice may be
illustrated by the establishment of a focal point on de-listing, as well as the
Office of the Ombudsperson to the ISIL (Da'esh) & Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee.
The Process to Becoming a Permanent Member of the UN Security Council
Since World War II ended, five countries have been permanent members of the
United Nations Security Council, namely, United States, Russia, China, France
and the United Kingdom. They get this status due to historical reasons. To get
permanent member status a country has to make changes to the UN Charter which
needs approval from all current permanent members. It's challenging because it's
The process of becoming a permanent member of the United Nations Security
Council is complex and tricky. A country would first need international
recognition and support for its bid. After that, they'd have to propose
amendments to the United Nations Charter and secure approval from a two-thirds
majority in the UN General Assembly, including the support of every existing
To successfully become a permanent member, you would have to negotiate and
diplomatically persuade the current P5 members that adding another one is in the
best interest for peace and security across the world. With the current process,
making any changes to the Security Council is highly political. Those who are
already permanent members never really want to increase their ranks. But if the
proposed adjustments do get enough support and approval from the P5, it then
needs to be ratified by the UN General Assembly. This would eventually lead to
formal approval of a new permanent member status. But this will be an uphill
battle that's politically sensitive. The existing permanent members hold a lot
of power when making decisions like these.
Powers and Functions of the UN Security Council
The United Nation Security Council (UNSC) is a very powerful institution of the
UN with many functions on the issues of peace and security in the world. It has
the authority to take measures that may involve use of military power,
establishment of commercial barriers, as well as deployment of peacekeeping
operations in order for it to tackle and prevent disputes. UNSC is involved in
mediation, diplomacy and pre-empting threats to international peace
respectively. Despite this ability to influence global actions and national
behaviours within its member countries, its performance is greatly affected by
the politics between the P5 nations, all of whom are permanent members with a
veto right apiece.
Besides handling urgent security issues, the UNSC is also authorized to work on
the maintenance of international peace and security. It has the capacity of
recommending new member state's admission into the United Nations. The roles
undertaken by the UNSC involve various activities such as conflict prevention,
response, and peacekeeping that form the core of UN's objective towards peaceful
Limitations of the UN Security Council
UNSC suffers a lot of limitations which affect its ability to ensure
international peace and security. Some of the major restrictions include the
veto authority enjoyed by the five permanent members (P5), which consist of the
United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom. Such a veto power
may end up crippling the council in that any P5 member could halt resolutions
even with a global agreement towards urgent steps. Thus, the P5's political
interests and conflicts in their own backyards usually overlook the need for
immediate assistance to strife zones.
The other limitation is on the basis of geographical representation of the
United Nations Security Council. However, the present composition does not
adequately represent the balance of power in today's global community. For a
long time, many countries have voiced the opinion that the composition of the
Security Council should include more permanent members representing different
parts of the globe. Further, the UNSC has limited means of enforcing resolutions
and for resources it relies largely on voluntary and often late contributions
from its member States with resultant constraints.
It is also challenging for the United Nations Security Council to handle present
security problems efficiently. Terrorists, who do not belong to any sovereign
state, now hold the greatest sway over international security, yet such
institutions are mainly geared towards addressing state conflicts. Such a
disparity makes it challenging for the council to respond to new security
threats that differ from conventional patterns of state-based conflicts. This
often translates into the constrained capacity for the UNSC to respond to
complex situations that involve the humanitarian aspect.
Impediments in India becoming a permanent member of the UN Security Council
There have been substantial hurdles to India's aspiration to join the UNSC as
its permanent member. For instance, the P5 countries including China are
reluctant to expand the number of permanent seats and provide a veto right to
additional member-states. Its opposition to India's bid stemmed from China's
longstanding political and territorial disputes with India which effectively
impeded UNSC reform.
Firstly, there is high levels of complexity involved in the process of UNSC
reforms. Making compromises, especially determining the number of new permanent
members, the regional representation, and the allocation of veto power, proves
to be a complex diplomatic undertaking. The negotiations towards reform are
further complicated by the divergent interests and priorities of UN member
countries; geopolitical struggles among those countries; and alliances between
Finally, there are oppositions against India's bid by some states. Also, other
regional dynamics pose hindrances. Regional rivalries coupled with complicated
international politics also act to complicate the positions of countries in such
a way that India would require even broader base of support than before if
desired to assume the global leadership via being elected as a permanent seat
holder at the UNSC. Consequently, in spite of constant attempts, India's way to
UNSC still faces uncertainty and controversy.
Getting a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) isn't
simple. Several issues stand in the way, particularly problems from some
everlasting members, like China. They're not supportive of India's efforts owing
to the fear that India might get a little too controlling if they gained a
permanent UNSC position. Pakistan, friend to China, feels the same line of
Additionally, India owning nuclear weapons and even increasing their pile
is a big bone of contention. Countries including the hard-hitting P5 aren't keen
to back India's seat without tamping down on its nuclear streak. However,
France, for one, has shown support for India's dream, but the gridlock remains.
So, it seems India's permanent spot in the UNSC isn't coming anytime soon, at
least as of late 2023.
India, Brazil, South Africa, Germany, and Japan stand as potent hopefuls to gain
permanent seats in the UNSC.
How China got a permanent seat in UN Security Council?
China got a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) back in
1945 when the UN started. The UNSC kicked-off with five permanent members,
known as the P5. These members also have veto power. They got this power
because of their big role in World War II. A permanent seat went to China. The
Republic of China (ROC) under Chiang Kai-shek spoke for China then.
However, in 1949, after the Chinese Civil War, the Communist team, led by Mao
Zedong, won. They started the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the new
government in mainland China. The ROC moved to Taiwan. The PRC, now with the
Chinese Communist Party in charge, said they were the only real representative
of China. Therefore, the PRC took over the ROC's permanent seat on the UNSC,
and also had veto power.
China earned a permanent seat on the Security Council due to its global
influence and help in winning World War II. We should remember that the group
in power in China was the Republic of China (ROC), steered by the Nationalist
Party. Things changed in 1971. The People's Republic of China (PRC), led by
the Chinese Communist Party, took the ROC's place at the United Nations. Most
UN member states considered the PRC as the real Chinese government. This
shift happened because of shifting political landscapes.
The most significant thing about India-UN relationship is that India is one of
the world's largest financial contributors to the United Nations. India gives
the UN over 40 million US dollars every year which helps support the UN's
various activities, including peacekeeping operations, humanitarian assistance,
and the promotion of human rights. However, India's aspirations for a permanent
seat in the UN Security Council are yet to be fulfilled.