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Tragic Legacy Of Violence Against Women In Armed Conflict: A History Of Silence

This study delves into the profound violence inflicted upon women in armed conflict, tracing its roots in societal discrimination and oppression during peacetime. It emphasizes the often-overlooked contributions of women in conflict zones, urging the integration of women's rights into legal frameworks and systematic support from international agencies.

Recognizing women's roles in peace-building is deemed crucial for sustainable peace. The study exposes harrowing realities, detailing atrocities like puncturing wombs with guns. It highlights women's active engagement in conflict dynamics and the interplay between HIV/AIDS and armed conflict, emphasizing the need for comprehensive support and international collaboration.

Addressing the conundrum against violence, the article proposes targeted sanctions, truth commissions, and integrating gender perspectives into peace operations. It calls for a holistic humanitarian effort addressing women's specific challenges during conflicts. The study reveals the normalization of violence against women as conflicts escalate, focusing on the intersection with human trafficking and advocating for targeted interventions.

Confronting domestic violence, the study proposes international commissions and targeted sanctions against trafficking, urging comprehensive support for survivors. The impact on women's health, especially reproductive health challenges, is examined, emphasizing the need for a holistic approach to dismantle systemic barriers. The study urges a critical reevaluation of societal responses to violence against women in armed conflicts, prompting concerted efforts for positive change.

The profound and disturbing violence inflicted upon women during times of conflict is not an isolated phenomenon stemming solely from the conditions of war; rather, it is intricately connected to the pervasive violence embedded in the fabric of women's lives during peacetime. [1]Globally, women grapple with violence simply because of their gender, navigating a landscape where their rights and autonomy are often subjugated beneath the weight of discrimination and oppression.

The spectre of gender-based persecution looms large, casting a dark shadow that encompasses sexual violence and slavery, perpetuating a cycle of suffering. The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women aptly defines this pervasive violence as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women." [2]

The breadth of this definition encompasses not only the overt acts of violence but also the insidious threats, coercion, and arbitrary deprivation of liberty that women endure, whether in the public eye or within the supposed sanctuary of their private lives. Despite the crucial roles women play in sustaining their families and communities, there exist regions where archaic societal norms prevail, preventing women from inheriting property or owning land for cultivation.

Their invaluable contributions often go unnoticed, as international programs neglect to systematically support their needs and work.[3] The absence of political rights and authority leaves them with scant recourse against the injustices they face, perpetuating a cycle of inequality that must be dismantled. To address this pervasive issue, a paradigm shift is imperative.

The rights of women must be enshrined in constitutions and protected by legislation, providing a solid legal foundation for their empowerment. International agencies must reevaluate their programs, ensuring that the needs and work of women are systematically supported and recognized.[4] The United Nations and other global bodies should actively champion initiatives that uplift women, acknowledging their resilience and contributions even in the face of adversity.

Furthermore, as nations emerge from the throes of conflict, it is essential to recognize and support the crucial role played by women in peace-building and reconstruction efforts. Beyond being a matter of moral imperative, it is a pragmatic necessity, as the strength of a nation after conflict often hinges on the resilience and capabilities of its women.

Throughout the darkest periods of conflict, women have been the bedrock, holding families and communities together even while fleeing from the onslaught of armies. Their ability to maintain a semblance of stability during times of chaos and displacement underscores the pivotal role they play in fostering sustainable peace.[5]

Complexity of Gender-Based Violence

As peace accords are negotiated and countries undergo the challenging process of rebuilding, the invaluable contributions of women must be duly acknowledged and incorporated into the fabric of the emerging society. [6]This recognition is not just a symbolic gesture; it is a fundamental step towards creating societies that are more equitable, just, and resilient in the face of both conflict and peace.

In the harrowing landscape of conflict, violence against women transcends the bounds of human decency, plunging into the depths of unimaginable brutality. The grotesque manifestations of this brutality include the horrifying act of puncturing wombs with guns, an indelible mark of the grotesque violation of women's bodies.

The heinous scenes unfold with women enduring unspeakable torment, their dignity obliterated as they face rape and torture in the presence of their husbands and children. The shocking reality extends to the unspeakable violation of bodily integrity, with rifles forced into their very core. The horror further intensifies as pregnant women bear the brunt of violence, subjected to merciless beatings in a callous attempt to induce miscarriages.

The brutality reaches its nadir when foetuses are ruthlessly ripped from the sanctity of wombs, a heart-wrenching spectacle of inhumanity. As women navigate the perils of conflict, they find themselves kidnapped, blindfolded, and mercilessly beaten on their way to work or school, facing the constant threat of violence that shatters the semblance of normalcy.

In the crucible of conflict, women emerge as victims of unspeakable atrocities and injustices, their experiences marred by the stark disparities in resources, political rights, and control over their environment.[7] The pervasive gender-based violence that ensnares women in this continuum of violence reaches epidemic proportions. Civilians, once considered bystanders, now bear the brunt of terror wielded as a weapon of war.[8]

While men and boys also fall prey to this targeting, women, in particular, become the focal point of gender-based violence. Their bodies metamorphose into battlegrounds where opposing forces vie for dominance. Rape is employed as a vile tool to humiliate not just women but also the men they are connected to, who are often forced to bear witness to these heinous acts.

The insidious nature of this violence extends to the deliberate targeting of women from specific ethnic groups, as they are raped and coerced into bearing children to serve the sinister agenda of their assailants. Pregnant women face the horror of forced miscarriages through violent attacks, adding an agonizing layer to an already unbearable reality.

Kidnapped women are reduced to sexual slavery, forced to cater to the needs of armed groups, cooking for them and carrying their burdens from one camp to another. In a macabre twist, women are intentionally infected with HIV/AIDS, a slow, painful method of murder that accentuates the malicious intent behind these acts.[9] Yet, amidst the darkness, a nuanced reality emerges. Women, far from being passive victims, actively strive to improve their circumstances and support various sides in the conflict.

Driven by the underlying socio-economic inequalities that often spark these conflicts, women take sides to protect themselves and their families, becoming combatants, providing medical aid, and feeding armed groups. However, their active involvement also exposes them to heightened risks if captured by the opposing side, adding another layer of complexity to the already multifaceted picture of violence against women in conflict.

Silent Suffering on HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Challenges

The deadly spread of HIV/AIDS, adding another layer of complexity to their reproductive health concerns.[10] A critical aspect often overlooked is the need for menstrual hygiene management among refugee and displaced women, particularly those aged 10 to 50.[11] The stark reality of women's experiences during armed conflict is further complicated by the deadly interplay between HIV/AIDS and the dynamics of war, relief, and reconstruction.[12]

This ominous nexus thrives on the economies of war, where the allocation of resources in emergencies, development, peace-building, and reconstruction often neglects the specific needs of women. Their pleas for education and healthcare echo unanswered, underscoring the urgent need for more resources at all levels, from grassroots initiatives to international support, to bolster women's organizations that play a vital role in advocating for their rights.

The haunting aftermath of war reveals a spectrum of emotions among women, ranging from fear and anger to a stoic silence that often follows the catastrophic upheaval of conflict. Having endured profound losses, women share their experiences in the hope that their voices will be a catalyst for positive change, bringing stability, safety, shelter, and sustenance to their lives.

These women aspire for their triumphs to be celebrated, emphasizing the imperative need for women to be recognized as full citizens with a stake in determining their own futures � a message they yearn for the world to heed. While statistical records may indicate more male casualties in war, women bear a distinct and often overlooked burden of violence, forced pregnancies, abductions, sexual abuse, and slavery.

Their bodies, intentionally infected with HIV/AIDS or carrying children conceived through rape, become tragic messengers in the theater of war. The pervasive harm, silence, and shame that women endure during conflict are compounded by a lack of redress, highlighting the systemic neglect of their plight.[13]

Contemporary conflicts, fueled by economic interests and the exploitation of natural resources, give rise to what is termed 'economies of war.'[14] In these perilous landscapes, armed groups and power brokers thrive on the instability of conflict to gain control over valuable resources and land.

The deepening violence experienced by women during war extends its tendrils into the post-conflict period, creating a lasting culture of violence that renders women especially vulnerable. The threat persists as women, now facing the constant danger of attacks from family members, rogue elements, ex-combatants, and criminals, navigate their daily lives in search of water, food, and firewood.

Their responsibilities extend to caring for children, the sick, the elderly, and their extended families, illustrating the profound challenges women confront in the aftermath of conflict. This study takes a nuanced stance, steering clear of oversimplified notions such as universal innocence or inherent peacefulness in women, as well as the assumption that men are inherently more warlike.

Instead, it delves into a thoughtful exploration of gender dynamics, scrutinizing the distinct roles assigned to men and women in the realms of war and peace. The acknowledgment of the fluidity of gender roles during conflict is crucial. It recognizes that, in the face of upheaval, women may experience changes in their traditional roles, gaining increased mobility, access to resources, and opportunities for leadership.

However, this transformation does not necessarily alleviate the demands of their conventional responsibilities. The temporary space in which women take on non-traditional roles, often assuming greater responsibilities in both household and public spheres, does not automatically translate into progress towards gender equality. The article sheds light on the glaring gaps in women's protection, underscoring the systemic failures within the humanitarian community to adequately address the specific needs of women.

While women may have benefited from humanitarian assistance in a general sense, their unique needs, particularly in terms of physical and psychosocial care, economic security, and challenges related to HIV/AIDS and displacement, remain largely neglected. In examining the multifaceted impact of conflict on gender dynamics, the article encourages a more comprehensive understanding of the complexities involved.

It advocates for a holistic approach to humanitarian efforts that addresses the specific vulnerabilities and challenges faced by women, acknowledging that a one-size-fits-all strategy may not be effective. By acknowledging the dynamic nature of gender roles during conflict and the shortcomings in humanitarian response, the article prompts a deeper reflection on the ways in which society can better support women in times of crisis.

Violence against Refugee and IPD Women

The impact of armed conflict, political violence, and civil unrest leads to the forced displacement of hundreds of thousands annually, creating a crisis of displacement. Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs),[15] who lack access to international aid due to border closings, face particular challenges. Addressing the surge in internal displacement requires urgent attention to prevent a worsening humanitarian crisis. [16]

Sexual violence during conflicts has devastating health consequences, including injuries, unwanted pregnancies, sexual dysfunction, and HIV/AIDS.[17] While global attention has focused on sexual violence as a war strategy and human rights issue, immediate and direct support for survivors is lacking. The physical and mental health effects demand prompt treatment, including medical care for injuries and psychological support for mental health conditions.

Conundrum against Violence

The challenges faced by women in war zones are intricate and far-reaching, affecting every facet of their lives beyond the immediate conflict.[18] The pervasive violence endured by women before, during, and after conflicts demands urgent attention to address the gaps in protection.

Dedicated resources and operational capacity are crucial to mitigate neglect and prevent further harm. Integrating a gender perspective into peace operations, with active community involvement, is vital. Zero tolerance for peacekeeper violations, coupled with robust investigative mechanisms, is necessary.

Addressing impunity for crimes against women in war is paramount, requiring accountability and gender considerations in justice systems. Media's influence on public perception, especially post-conflict, underscores the importance of women's involvement in truthful reporting. Post-conflict reconstruction must recognize and address women's specific needs, guaranteeing resources, education, and safe access to land and jobs.

The lack of information about women in conflict hampers preventive actions; thus, gathering and analyzing data on women's experiences is crucial. Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programs must explicitly include female combatants and dependents to break the cycle of violence. A comprehensive and inclusive approach is essential to empower women and establish a more just and equitable society in conflict zones. The silence surrounding violence against women in conflict must be broken through concerted efforts for positive change.

Fuels of Violence Durin the Armed Conflict

The problem of increasing violence against women is a deeply entrenched and alarming issue, particularly in conflict zones where persecution often goes unpunished. This normalization of violence becomes a disturbing norm during conflicts, escalating even further as militarization and the influx of weapons legitimize heightened brutality and impunity.

Domestic violence and sexual abuse surge during these periods of heightened violence, perpetuating a cycle that extends into the post-conflict era, where chaos compounds the unresolved frustrations of war.[19] In the midst of conflict, no woman is exempt from the pervasive threat of violence and exploitation.

Women and girls, beyond being targeted by armed groups, face violence from various sources. The dire circumstances often force them into becoming sex workers or exchanging sex for basic necessities such as food, shelter, or safe passage. Their bodies become commodities in a distressing barter system, where government officials, aid workers, civilian authorities, and even their own families contribute to the exploitation.[20] The issue expands into the realms of trafficking, sexual slavery, and exploitation, which are intricately linked to conflict dynamics.

Women are trafficked across borders, subjected to forced labor, including prostitution. Some are coerced into marriages with members of opposing groups as a means of protection. Armed groups abduct women, forcing them into servitude, where they are compelled to provide everything from food to sexual services.

Shockingly, sexual slaves are also coerced into hazardous activities like demining contested areas, risking their lives to secure territories for soldiers. The intersection between armed conflict and the trafficking of women is becoming increasingly evident as criminal networks involved in arms and drug trades expand to include human trafficking.

Women who are trafficked might end up working in illegal factories or as virtual slaves for wealthy families in the countries to which they are transported. This harrowing reality underscores the urgent need for comprehensive and targeted interventions to address the root causes of violence against women in conflict, dismantling the systemic factors that perpetuate this cycle of abuse and exploitation.

Domestic Violence vs. War violence

Domestic violence, a pervasive issue even during times of peace, is often exacerbated during and after conflicts, a reality that has been historically overlooked. Various factors contribute to this increase, including the availability of weapons, the experiences of violence among male family members, and the scarcity of jobs, shelter, and basic services.

Recognizing the need for comprehensive action, an international Truth and Reconciliation Commission on violence against women in armed conflict is proposed, aiming to fill historical gaps and address these crimes.[21]

Additionally, targeted sanctions against trafficking of women and girls are crucial, holding those complicit accountable and applying international laws on trafficking in conflict situations. The systematic and widespread nature of domestic violence during and after conflicts must be acknowledged and integrated into humanitarian, legal, and security responses. Training programs during emergencies and post-conflict reconstruction should address this issue comprehensively.

To provide holistic support, the UN, donors, and governments are urged to offer long-term financial assistance for women survivors of violence, covering legal, economic, psychosocial,[22] and reproductive health services as essential components of emergency assistance and post-conflict reconstruction. Health systems must be equipped to provide such treatments, emphasizing the importance of sensitivity and training for medical staff dealing with survivors of sexual violence.

It is imperative to bridge the gap between awareness and effective support for the women who have suffered, ensuring their immediate needs are met with compassion and expertise. The harrowing experiences of Bosnian and Kosovar women who faced sexual violence during conflicts reveal the profound and agonizing choices they were forced to make.[23]

For Bosnian women intentionally made pregnant through such brutality, the options were bleak. Some, if fortunate enough to access services early on, chose abortion, grappling with the emotional and physical toll of such a decision.[24] Others, overwhelmed by the trauma, continued their pregnancies only to abandon their newborns at birth, never setting eyes on them.[25]

The few who chose to keep their babies often encountered family rejection and social isolation, further compounding the anguish they endured. In Kosovo, the stigma attached to rape drove many women to choose abortion in order to shield themselves from the judgment and shame imposed by their own families.[26]

The prevailing silence between men and women created a distressing charade, where men never inquired about the horrors faced by the women, and the women,[27] burdened by societal expectations, never offered to share their traumatic experiences. Sierra Leone presents another distressing scenario, where women faced sexual violence from armed groups terrorizing communities. Some were even coerced into prostitution to sustain themselves and their families.

The juxtaposition of legal restrictions, economic hardships, and the pervasive consequences of sexual violence paints a grim picture of the challenges faced by women in conflict zones, underscoring the urgent need for comprehensive support, legal reforms, and societal empathy to alleviate their plight.

Women and Health Issues in Armed Conflicts

Gender-specific challenges of displacement often go unnoticed, necessitating the international community's responsibility to protect women forced to flee their homes.[28] Support for rebuilding lives, protecting women and children, and preventing violence and exploitation associated with displacement is imperative. Basic healthcare deficiencies in conflict situations, particularly reproductive health, underscore the need to institutionalize emergency responses. Involving women in planning, with sufficient resources and political will, can yield positive outcomes.

The heightened threat of HIV/AIDS in conflict zones, where women are more susceptible, underscores the importance of education, protection, and access to treatment.[29] Women, essential contributors to peace efforts, are often excluded from official processes; supporting their activism and acknowledging their political demands are crucial for sustainable peace.

Women's reproductive health faces a myriad of challenges during conflicts, encompassing issues from the lack of sanitary supplies for menstruation to life-threatening pregnancy-related conditions, limited access to birth control, and the devastating effects of sexual violence.[30] Strangely, it is only in recent years that humanitarian agencies have started including sanitary supplies in the relief items provided during emergencies.[31]

The absence of such supplies forces girls to stay home from school, inhibits mothers from taking their children to health facilities, and hinders women from participating in work or training.[32] Offering clean cotton rags or modern sanitary products is crucial as it allows women the freedom to move about during menstruation, breaking the cycle of isolation within their homes or tents.[33]

Addressing women's reproductive health needs during conflicts is not just a matter of improving access to essential supplies; it involves dismantling systemic barriers that impede comprehensive care.[34] From ensuring the availability of menstrual hygiene products to providing adequate prenatal and postnatal care, access to contraception, and protection from sexual violence, a holistic approach is necessary.[35]

Humanitarian agencies must not only prioritize reproductive health in emergency responses but also ensure that on-the-ground implementation aligns with established directives, ensuring that women in conflict zones receive the comprehensive care they urgently need.

In conclusion, the study on the tragic legacy of violence against women in armed conflict unveils a deeply disturbing and pervasive issue that extends far beyond the immediate horrors of war. The roots of this violence trace back to societal discrimination and oppression during peacetime, highlighting the need for a paradigm shift in recognizing and protecting women's rights.

The study underscores the often-overlooked contributions of women in conflict zones and calls for the integration of women's rights into legal frameworks, systematic support from international agencies, and acknowledgment of their roles in peace-building for sustainable peace. The complexities of gender-based violence during armed conflicts are explored in detail, exposing the horrifying manifestations of brutality, including the intentional puncturing of wombs and the use of rape as a tool of war.

The study emphasizes the active engagement of women in conflict dynamics, shedding light on their dual roles as both victims and contributors to the conflict. Violence against refugee and internally displaced women is a critical concern, with the study urging immediate attention to prevent a worsening humanitarian crisis.

The conundrum against violence is addressed through proposed measures such as targeted sanctions, truth commissions, and the integration of gender perspectives into peace operations. The study delves into the fuels of violence during armed conflicts, exposing the normalization of violence against women as conflicts escalate.

The intersection with human trafficking is emphasized, urging comprehensive and targeted interventions to dismantle systemic factors contributing to the cycle of abuse and exploitation. Domestic violence is explored as a pervasive issue exacerbated during and after conflicts, with the study proposing international Truth and Reconciliation Commissions and targeted sanctions against trafficking to address historical gaps and crimes.

The importance of comprehensive support for survivors is emphasized, covering legal, economic, psychosocial, and reproductive health services.


  1. Pravda Parakkal, 'Women's Voices Must Be Heard in Conflict and Post-Conflict Zones' (The Strategist, 2 November 2023) accessed 3 February 2024.
  2. 'Statement on International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women � CEHRD' accessed 3 February 2024.
  3. 'Women's Land Rights in India and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)' (24 October 2017) accessed 3 February 2024.
  4. 'Tackling Legal Impediments to Women's Economic Empowerment in: IMF Working Papers Volume 2022 Issue 037 (2022)' accessed 3 February 2024.
  5. '(PDF) Impact of Wars and Conflicts on Women and Children in Middle East: Health, Psychological, Educational and Social Crisis' accessed 3 February 2024.
  6. 'Women's Participation in Peace Processes' accessed 3 February 2024.
  7. Marco Bronckers and Keith E Maskus, 'China�Raw Materials : A Controversial Step towards Evenhanded Exploitation of Natural Resources' (2014) 13 World Trade Review 393.
  8. 'VIOLENT STATES AND CREATIVE STATES (VOLUME 2) : Human Violence and Creative. 9781785925658, 1785925652' ( accessed 3 February 2024.
  9. Nelsensius Klau Fauk and others, 'Psychological and Social Impact of HIV on Women Living with HIV and Their Families in Low- and Middle-Income Asian Countries: A Systematic Search and Critical Review' (2022) 19 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6668.
  10. Rakhi Jain and others, 'Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Menstruation and HIV/AIDS among Schoolgoing Adolescent Girls' (2017) 6 Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 47.
  11. 'Menstrual Leave Dissent and Stigma Labelling: A Comparative Legal Discourse' (International Journal of Law Management & Humanities) accessed 3 February 2024.
  12. Jain and others (n 10).
  13. Supervie Virginie, Halima Yasmin and Blower Sally, 'Assessing the Impact of Mass Rape on the Incidence of HIV in Conflict-Affected Countries' (2010) 24 AIDS (London, England) 2841.
  14. Bronckers and Maskus (n 7).
  15. 'About Internally Displaced Persons' (OHCHR) accessed 3 February 2024.
  16. Tual Sawn Khai, 'Vulnerability to Health and Well-Being of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Myanmar Post-Military Coup and COVID-19' (2023) 81 Archives of Public Health 185.
  17. Lebeza Alemu Tenaw and others, 'Medical and Psychological Consequences of Rape among Survivors during Armed Conflicts in Northeast Ethiopia' (2022) 17 PLOS ONE e0278859.
  18. Eran Bendavid and others, 'The Effects of Armed Conflict on the Health of Women and Children' (2021) 397 Lancet (London, England) 522.
  19. Samantha K Brooks, Sonny S Patel and Neil Greenberg, 'Struggling, Forgotten, and Under Pressure: A Scoping Review of Experiences of Sex Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic' (2023) 52 Archives of Sexual Behavior 1969.
  20. ibid.
  21. Cheryl Warden, 'The Implications of GS Media v. Sanoma Media Netherlands' "New Public" on Digital Distance Learning'.
  22. Fauk and others (n 9).
  23. 'Seeking Justice for Wartime Sexual Violence in Kosovo: Voices and Silence of Women - Anna Di Lellio, 2016' accessed 3 February 2024.
  24. 'Syria: Repatriations Lag for Foreigners with Alleged ISIS Ties | Human Rights Watch' (15 December 2022) accessed 3 February 2024.
  25. Susana T Fried, 'Violence against Women' (2003) 6 Health and Human Rights 88.
  26. Padma Bhate-Deosthali and Sangeeta Rege, 'Denial of Safe Abortion to Survivors of Rape in India' (2019) 21 Health and Human Rights 189.
  27. Tenaw and others (n 17).
  28. 'Statement on International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women � CEHRD' (n 2).
  29. Matthew Jukes, Stephanie Simmons and Donald Bundy, 'Education and Vulnerability: The Role of Schools in Protecting Young Women and Girls from HIV in Southern Africa' (2008) 22 Suppl 4 AIDS (London, England) S41.
  30. ibid.
  31. Rachel E Soeiro and others, 'Period Poverty: Menstrual Health Hygiene Issues among Adolescent and Young Venezuelan Migrant Women at the Northwestern Border of Brazil' (2021) 18 Reproductive Health 238.
  32. 'Statement on International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women � CEHRD' (n 2).
  33. Soeiro and others (n 31).
  34. ibid.
  35. 'Hamas, Islamic Jihad: Holding Hostages Is a War Crime | Human Rights Watch' (19 October 2023) accessed 3 February 2024.

Written By:
  • Saba Firdose, Student of LLM (Constitutional Law), University of Mysore
  • Qadria Hashimi, a student at the Institute of Legal and Policy Research
  • Bibi Aisha, a student at the Institute of Legal and Policy Research
  • Menezha Nematy, a student at the Institute of Legal and Policy Research
  • Bahara Kaihan, a student at the Institute of Legal and Policy Research

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