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The Impact of Armed Conflicts on Maternal-Fetal Health: Legal Perspectives Prologue

The rise in miscarriages and premature births attributed to the impact of war is a concerning trend. Miscarriages, occurring before the 20th week of gestation, and premature births have seen an increase due to the challenging conditions brought about by conflict.

Maternal mortality, defined as the death of a woman during pregnancy or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, remains a significant issue in Afghanistan. Despite a decrease in maternal mortality rates, Afghanistan still lags behind many nations in this regard. Various factors contribute to this, including political instability, a struggling healthcare system, and widespread illiteracy and ignorance.

To address these challenges and improve maternal health outcomes, concerted efforts are required from the Afghan government and international organizations. Key strategies include enhancing basic healthcare facilities, constructing additional maternity clinics, providing comprehensive training for medical staff, and launching educational initiatives for citizens.

By prioritizing these measures, Afghanistan can make strides in mitigating the impact of war on maternal health and work towards improving overall healthcare outcomes for its population. Since World War Two, many people families have lost their children during the evacuation, including recent instances of Afghan refugee miscarriage where lost a 16-week-old child in the UK.[1]

Likewise, the Afghan asylum seeker who worked at the British Council as a trainer experienced miscarriages in Pakistan.[2] It is traumatic, and no woman would wish to give birth to a dead baby. Realistically, it is complicated to share the miscarriage with others. Generally, the praxis is that in addition to considering miscarriage as taboo, they also blame women without understanding the medical complications of pregnancy. War is not only the source of chaos, internal displacement, refugee crises, death, and destruction of the environment but also causes a traumatic miscarriage.

According to the UNFPA reports, Afghanistan has the highest maternal death in the region at 638 deaths per 100,000 live births. [3] The question of prenatal and postnatal care, pap smears or mammograms or the epidemic of polio, meals, malaria, and cholera for newborn babies in Afghanistan are forgotten areas of scholars. Negligence proceeding on child protection is a cataclysm. Paton states that "the child after extradition from the mother's body entitled to benefits, the child in the womb of mother does not have any rights."

Unplanned and unwanted pregnancies pose significant challenges for women, and the difficulties become even more pronounced in circumstances such as displacement and separation from family and support systems. In such situations, the emotional and psychological burden on women is heightened, amplifying the stress associated with these pregnancies.[4]

Forced Pregnancy in Armed Conflict Affected States

It is imperative to incorporate family planning as a fundamental component of emergency programs to address the issue of unwanted pregnancies effectively. However, dealing with victims of 'forced pregnancy' adds an additional layer of complexity. This disturbing strategy, observed in recent conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina, East Timor, Kosovo, Rwanda, and Sudan, involves forcibly impregnating women as part of ethnic cleansing campaigns.[5]

In these instances, tens of thousands of women endured the trauma of repeated sexual assaults and were intentionally impregnated by their assailants. The health and psychosocial needs of these women are intricately intertwined, necessitating particularly sensitive and comprehensive responses. Addressing the aftermath of such heinous acts requires not only medical attention but also psychological support, counseling, and efforts to reintegrate these women into their communities.[6]

Recognizing the severity of forced pregnancies as a tool of war and ethnic cleansing, the international community must collaborate to condemn and prevent such acts. Humanitarian organizations and governments should prioritize the provision of specialized care, mental health services, and legal assistance for these women to help them rebuild their lives and overcome the profound challenges imposed upon them by these traumatic experiences.

Ultimately, addressing the root causes and consequences of forced pregnancies requires a multifaceted and compassionate approach that combines medical, psychological, and societal interventions. Pregnancy and childbirth inherently entail risks for women, and in impoverished regions, the challenges escalate significantly. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are approximately 40 times higher than those in industrialized nations.

Afghanistan, in particular, has faced dire consequences for women's health due to years of poverty, the neglect of healthcare facilities, and restrictive policies hindering the movement of women. The lack of basic delivery and emergency obstetric services in Afghanistan has led to alarmingly high maternal mortality rates, ranking among the highest globally.

Women often face significant obstacles in accessing adequate medical care during pregnancy and childbirth, contributing to the severity of the issue. Conflict exacerbates these challenges further. The indirect consequences of conflict, beyond limiting access to medical care, can impact pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to trauma and violence during conflict situations may adversely affect pregnancies.[7]

For instance, in southern Sudan, a community experiencing a surge in miscarriages attributed the tragic phenomenon to the ongoing fighting. This highlights the complex interplay between conflict and maternal health, where not only the direct consequences of limited healthcare but also the psychological and physiological impact of violence can contribute to poor pregnancy outcomes.

Addressing these multifaceted challenges requires a comprehensive approach. Efforts should be directed towards improving healthcare infrastructure, ensuring access to essential maternal services, and mitigating the impact of conflict on the well-being of pregnant women.[8]

Additionally, initiatives should be implemented to address the psychological toll of violence on pregnant individuals, recognizing the interconnected nature of maternal health and the broader socio-political context. Collaborative efforts from local governments, international organizations, and communities are essential to create sustainable solutions and improve maternal health outcomes in regions affected by poverty and conflict.[9]

Conflict has far-reaching consequences on the social fabric, leading to a notable rise in female-headed or child-headed households. In the midst of turmoil, women and children find themselves disproportionately affected, often comprising the majority of those displaced in refugee camps and conflict zones.

A distressing pattern emerges as displaced men sometimes establish new households in urban areas, leaving behind their wives and families who are left to navigate the challenges in rural settings, exacerbating the vulnerability of women and children. The dynamics of conflict are further complicated by the ease with which weapons can be acquired, a stark reality that perpetuates violence.[10]

In many instances, the accessibility of weapons surpasses even basic necessities like a bag of maize. This dire situation intensifies the cycle of violence, with weapons becoming tools not just on the battlefield but also within communities. The consequence of this pervasive weapon availability is evident in the increased incidents of violence against women, both within the confines of their homes and on the streets.

Addressing the root causes of conflict

Addressing the root causes of conflict and its impact on gender dynamics requires a comprehensive approach. Efforts should focus on disarmament initiatives, ensuring that weapons are not easily accessible to individuals or groups. Additionally, the provision of support systems for displaced families, particularly women-headed households, is crucial to alleviate the burden they face.[11] By addressing the underlying issues of conflict and the proliferation of weapons, societies can work towards creating environments where women and children are not only protected but can also rebuild their lives in conditions of safety and security.

For women, the influx of more guns does not equate to enhanced security. Instead, it leads to an environment marked by fear, danger, and a heightened sense of vulnerability. The presence of weapons not only amplifies domestic violence but also contributes to a broader culture of fear and insecurity, particularly for women who often bear the brunt of such conflicts.

Internally Displaced Persons

The responsibility for addressing the complex challenges posed by the dramatic shift in the nature of displacement over the last decade and a half falls on a multitude of actors and entities, ranging from national governments to the international community. [12]

National Governments

Primarily, the governments of the affected countries bear a significant responsibility. They are tasked with ensuring the safety, well-being, and human rights of their citizens. This includes taking measures to prevent displacement, addressing the root causes of conflict, and establishing effective governance structures. Moreover, national governments must provide assistance and protection to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within their borders, even if access to international aid is limited.[13]

International Community

The global community, including international organizations, neighboring countries, and the United Nations, plays a crucial role. These entities should coordinate efforts to provide humanitarian aid, financial assistance, and expertise to support affected nations in managing the displacement crisis. Collaborative initiatives are needed to address the underlying causes of displacement, promote peacebuilding, and ensure that the needs of internally displaced persons are met. [14]

Humanitarian Organizations

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and humanitarian agencies have a vital role in providing immediate relief and assistance to internally displaced persons. They can deliver essential services, such as healthcare, food, and shelter, and advocate for the protection of human rights in conflict zones. Humanitarian organizations often bridge the gap when national governments are unable to address the needs of displaced populations adequately. [15]

International Legal Frameworks

The international legal community and bodies responsible for upholding human rights and humanitarian law play a critical role. Ensuring accountability for violations of international law and holding perpetrators accountable can deter future displacements caused by conflicts. Adherence to international conventions and treaties related to refugees and displaced persons is essential for protecting their rights.

Regional Actors:

Neighboring countries also have a role to play, especially when dealing with cross-border displacement. Cooperation between countries in the same region is essential for managing the influx of refugees and providing support to internally displaced persons.[16]

Addressing the crisis of displacement requires a comprehensive and collaborative approach. By combining efforts at the national, regional, and international levels, it is possible to not only provide immediate relief to those affected but also work towards long-term solutions that address the root causes of displacement and promote sustainable peace and development.

Violence against Women in Camps
Camps established for displaced people undoubtedly serve as lifelines in desperate situations, offering shelter, food, and essential services. However, the very environments created to provide refuge can, unfortunately, transform into perilous spaces for women, unveiling a host of challenges and safety concerns. A stark reality emerges from the narratives of women, both refugees and internally displaced, who express a pervasive sense of insecurity within these camps, coupled with limited access to basic necessities.[17]

One of the glaring issues is the insufficient presence of protection officers or female staff in most camps. This lack exacerbates vulnerabilities, leaving women without adequate safeguards. Domestic violence, a concern even in stable environments, tends to escalate within the confined quarters of camps, where stress, uncertainty, and overcrowding contribute to heightened tensions.

The absence of proper security measures further compounds the risks faced by women and girls, making them susceptible to various forms of violence, including sexual assault. Beyond physical safety, women in camps encounter discrimination in the distribution of essential items. From food to soap to plastic sheeting, disparities emerge, often rooted in gender-based biases.[18] This discrimination not only infringes upon their basic rights but also exacerbates existing gender inequalities, leaving women in precarious situations where even access to necessities becomes a challenge. [19]

Despite the existence of policies aimed at preventing violence against women in these settings, the stark reality is that implementation is often inadequate. The gap between policy formulation and effective execution leaves women exposed to the very dangers these policies seek to mitigate. The result is a profound discrepancy between the intended protection and the lived experiences of women in displacement camps.

Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted approach. Increasing the presence of protection officers and female staff within camps is crucial to ensuring the safety of women. Additionally, there must be a concerted effort to implement and enforce policies aimed at preventing violence and discrimination. Providing adequate resources and support for survivors of violence is equally essential, fostering an environment where women feel empowered to report incidents without fear of reprisal. Collaboration between humanitarian organizations, governments, and local communities is paramount.

By prioritizing the safety and well-being of women in displacement situations, it is possible to transform camps into spaces that not only provide immediate relief but also uphold the dignity and rights of all individuals, irrespective of their gender.

Female Refugees
Female refugees constitute a particularly vulnerable population, often having endured traumatic events that not only affect their mental well-being but also pose substantial risks to their health, especially during the critical period of pregnancy.[20] Pregnancy, however, offers a unique entry point into the healthcare system, providing an opportunity for health care professionals to build trust, establish connections with refugees, and optimize the health outcomes for both mother and child.

The provision and funding of healthcare services play a pivotal role in shaping the access and quality of care available to pregnant female refugees. Policies governing these aspects can significantly impact the overall well-being of this vulnerable group.[21]

Maternity care and pregnancy outcomes for refugees and asylum seekers are areas of heightened concern, as they face unique challenges that necessitate special attention and tailored services. One notable challenge is the often poor overall health status of refugee women, which may be compounded by underlying and possibly unrecognized medical conditions. Such conditions, if left unaddressed, can result in maternal deaths, with notable examples including congenital cardiac disease, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis.[22]

The complex interplay of physical and mental health concerns necessitates a comprehensive healthcare strategy that goes beyond routine maternity care. To address these challenges effectively, a multi-faceted approach is required. This involves not only implementing policies that prioritize the unique healthcare needs of pregnant refugee women but also ensuring the availability of resources and specialized services.

Culturally sensitive and linguistically appropriate care, mental health support, and screening for underlying medical conditions should be integral components of maternity services for refugees and asylum seekers.[23] Moreover, collaboration between healthcare professionals, policymakers, and humanitarian organizations is essential to create a supportive and inclusive healthcare environment.

By recognizing the specific challenges faced by pregnant female refugees and tailoring services to meet their unique needs, it is possible to improve maternal and child health outcomes and promote the overall well-being of this vulnerable population. Women, particularly those who have experienced violence or trafficking, find themselves overrepresented in high-risk groups, placing considerable strain not only on healthcare systems in general but also specifically on reproductive health services.

This heightened vulnerability is further exacerbated by unequal geographical distribution of births to refugees and migrants, creating challenges in healthcare delivery, especially in regions with high concentrations of displaced populations.[24] The health outcomes for pregnant refugee and migrant women are influenced by a myriad of factors including the host country, country of origin, and the socioeconomic status of the women involved.

Unfortunately, there is a noticeable trend towards worse pregnancy-related indicators among refugees and migrants, encompassing outcomes such as maternal death, severe maternal morbidity, mental health issues like postpartum depression, and perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, which include stillbirths, preterm births, and congenital abnormalities.

Pregnant Refugee
Pregnant refugee and migrant women often face suboptimal quality of care, a reality that is influenced by various challenges and barriers. Being a refugee or migrant is not just a risk factor for poorer maternal and newborn health outcomes; it can also serve as a proxy for other risk factors and potential explanations, such as socioeconomic status.

Socioeconomic status emerges as the overarching determinant for the health of pregnant refugee and migrant women and their newborns. Addressing socioeconomic factors at multiple levels becomes crucial in improving health outcomes. This involves not only enhancing economic opportunities but also addressing educational disparities and ensuring access to basic resources.[25]

In addition to socioeconomic factors, there are specific challenges and barriers that contribute to the poorer health outcomes experienced by pregnant refugee and migrant women and their newborns.

These encompass individual health statuses, the accessibility and quality of healthcare services, and the overall health policy and financing systems in place. Overcoming these challenges requires a comprehensive approach that addresses not only the immediate healthcare needs but also the broader social determinants that impact the well-being of pregnant refugee and migrant women.

Efforts should be directed towards creating inclusive and culturally sensitive healthcare services, removing barriers to access, and implementing policies that prioritize the unique needs of this population. Moreover, collaborations between healthcare providers, policymakers, and humanitarian organizations are essential to developing strategies that comprehensively address the multifaceted challenges faced by pregnant refugee and migrant women.

By adopting such an approach, there is potential to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes and enhance the overall well-being of these vulnerable populations. [26]Addressing the individual health status of pregnant refugee and migrant women involves a comprehensive and proactive approach:

Systematic Assessment and Addressing Risk Factors
Implement a thorough evaluation of each woman's situation during antenatal care, ensuring that health care providers identify and address associated risk factors. This includes an increased awareness among healthcare professionals regarding disease burdens in specific migrant groups and their potential impact on pregnancy outcomes. Screening should be incorporated where indicated, enabling early intervention.[27]

Socioeconomic Barriers
Address socioeconomic barriers such as poor living conditions, unemployment, and associated stress, which can contribute to negative pregnancy outcomes. Initiatives should focus on improving health literacy levels, engaging relevant stakeholders, and promoting awareness of the benefits of attending antenatal and postpartum care services. This includes providing information on potential pregnancy risks, such as consanguineous parenting, in plain language and socio-culturally appropriate formats.

Peer-Support Initiatives
Implement peer-support initiatives to help migrants develop social networks, particularly with other mothers from similar backgrounds. This not only provides emotional support but also facilitates the sharing of experiences and knowledge within the community. Regarding accessibility, the following measures can be implemented:

Easily Accessible Antenatal Care
Make antenatal care easily accessible for migrants, irrespective of legal status and financial resources. Promote information dissemination regarding when and where to consult antenatal care clinics, ensuring that pregnant refugee and migrant women are aware of available services.[28]

Awareness Among Healthcare Providers
Raise awareness among healthcare providers about the differences in legal status between refugees and applicants for international protection, ensuring that they are knowledgeable about the extension of legal rights for these individuals.[29]

Reducing Barriers
Reduce barriers related to cost and transportation by providing maternal and neonatal health services at community clinics, rather than exclusively at the hospital level. Develop tailored information materials in the languages of refugees and migrants, explaining warning signs of pregnancy complications and how to navigate the healthcare system.[30]

Professional Translation Services
Ensure the provision of professional translation services, including cultural mediators, to bridge language and cultural gaps and enhance communication between healthcare providers and pregnant refugee and migrant women.

Person-Centered Care Model
Adopt a person-centered care model in healthcare facilities that is diversity-sensitive, ensuring that refugee and migrant women receive the same quality of care as non-migrant women with respect to timeliness, diagnostics, management, and screening.[31]

Referral Following Risk Assessments:
Encourage the referral of refugee and migrant women to higher levels of care following risk assessments, particularly for screening for tuberculosis, pre-eclampsia, and small for gestational age fetus (a proxy for placenta problems). This ensures that potential complications are identified and managed promptly. Incorporating these strategies into healthcare systems can contribute to improving the overall health outcomes for pregnant refugee and migrant women, fostering an environment that is inclusive, accessible, and culturally sensitive.[32]

In conclusion, the legal status of the fetus during armed conflicts is a multifaceted issue with profound implications for maternal health, human rights, and the well-being of displaced populations. The rise in miscarriages and premature births in conflict zones, coupled with the challenges faced by pregnant women, underscores the urgent need for comprehensive and compassionate responses.

The Afghan context serves as a stark example of the intersectionality between conflict, maternal health, and legal frameworks. The alarming maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan highlight the inadequacies in healthcare infrastructure exacerbated by political instability and societal factors.

Moreover, the trauma of forced pregnancies as a tool of war emphasizes the importance of international collaboration to condemn and prevent such heinous acts, providing specialized care and support for the affected women. The consequences of conflict extend beyond maternal health, impacting the dynamics of households and communities.

The accessibility of weapons further complicates the situation, disproportionately affecting women who bear the brunt of violence both within their homes and in the broader community. Addressing the crisis of displacement requires concerted efforts from national governments, the international community, humanitarian organizations, and adherence to international legal frameworks.

The vulnerability of women, particularly in camps, necessitates a focused approach on protection officers, policies, and resource distribution to ensure their safety and dignity. Female refugees, often having endured traumatic events, face unique challenges during pregnancy. A comprehensive healthcare strategy, including culturally sensitive care and collaboration between stakeholders, is essential to improve maternal and child health outcomes for this vulnerable group.

Pregnant refugee and migrant women face suboptimal quality of care influenced by socioeconomic factors, health status, and accessibility issues. A proactive approach encompassing risk assessment, socioeconomic support, peer initiatives, and person-centered care models can significantly improve health outcomes.

Thus, the legal status of the fetus during armed conflicts requires a holistic and collaborative response. It involves addressing the root causes of conflict, improving healthcare infrastructure, protecting women in displacement situations, and ensuring that the unique needs of pregnant refugees and migrants are prioritized. Only through such comprehensive efforts can societies strive towards creating environments where maternal health is safeguarded, and the rights of women and their unborn children are respected and protected.

End Notes:
  1. Miriam Burrel, '"We Lost Our Baby": Afghan Refugee Suffers Miscarriage in Hotel While Waiting for Permanent Home | Evening Standard' (21 December 2022) accessed 1 January 2024.
  2. Nicola Kelly, 'Heavily Pregnant Afghan Women Eligible to Come to UK Stuck in Pakistan | Immigration and Asylum | The Guardian' (3 December 2023) accessed 1 January 2024.
  3. UNPFA, Afghanistan | Traumatized by Chaos and Miscarriage, Young Mother Finds a Lifeline in the Mobile Health Team' (Traumatized by chaos and miscarriage, young mother finds a lifeline in the mobile health team, 7 March 2022) accessed 4 January 2024.
  4. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Unintended Pregnancy, Sarah S Brown and Leon Eisenberg, 'Consequences of Unintended Pregnancy', The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families (National Academies Press (US) 1995) accessed 3 February 2024.
  5. Katherine Barton and others, 'Unplanned Pregnancy and Subsequent Psychological Distress in Partnered Women: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Role of Relationship Quality and Wider Social Support' (2017) 17 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 44.
  6. ibid.
  7. Mansureh YAZDKHASTI and others, 'Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article' (2015) 44 Iranian Journal of Public Health 12.
  8. Office of the Surgeon General (OSG), 'STRATEGIES AND ACTIONS: IMPROVING MATERNAL HEALTH AND REDUCING MATERNAL MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY', The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Improve Maternal Health [Internet] (US Department of Health and Human Services 2020) accessed 3 February 2024.
  9. John Seymour, 'The Legal Status of the Fetus' in John Seymour (ed), Childbirth and the Law (Oxford University Press 2000) accessed 4 January 2024.
  10. 'Complex Conflict Characteristics | Support Relationships in Armed Conflict' accessed 3 February 2024.
  11. Julie L Arostegui, 'Gender and the Security Sector: Towards a More Secure Future' (2015) 14 Connections 7.
  12. Pew Research Center, '3. Humanity Is at a Precipice; Its Future Is at Stake' (Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech, 28 October 2019) accessed 3 February 2024.
  13. 'Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement' (IDMC - Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre) accessed 3 February 2024.
  14. 'WFP Head Urges Business Leaders to Develop Smart Innovations in Fight against Hunger, Poverty, at Security Council Debate on Public-Private Partnerships | UN Press' accessed 3 February 2024.
  15. 'Human Rights Activism and the Role of NGOs - Manual for Human Rights Education with Young People' accessed 3 February 2024.
  16. 'Protection of Victims of Armed Conflict through Respect of International Humanitarian Law - ICRC' accessed 3 February 2024.
  17. 'Protection | IFRC' accessed 3 February 2024.
  18. 'Tackling Gender Inequality: Definitions, Trends, and Policy Designs in: IMF Working Papers Volume 2022 Issue 232 (2022)' accessed 3 February 2024.
  19. Cailin S Stamarski and Leanne S Son Hing, 'Gender Inequalities in the Workplace: The Effects of Organizational Structures, Processes, Practices, and Decision Makers' Sexism' (2015) 6 Frontiers in Psychology 1400.
  20. Laurence J Kirmayer and others, 'Common Mental Health Problems in Immigrants and Refugees: General Approach in Primary Care' (2011) 183 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal E959.
  21. Margaret E Kruk and others, 'High-Quality Health Systems in the Sustainable Development Goals Era: Time for a Revolution' (2018) 6 The Lancet. Global Health e1196.
  22. Eva Lathrop, Denise J Jamieson and Isabella Danel, 'HIV and Maternal Mortality' (2014) 127 International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 213.
  23. Olivia Magwood and others, 'Mental Health Screening Approaches for Resettling Refugees and Asylum Seekers: A Scoping Review' (2022) 19 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 3549.
  24. Wireko Andrew Awuah and others, 'The Unmet Surgical Needs of Global Refugee Populations: A Perspective Review' (2023) 11 SAGE Open Medicine 20503121231204492.
  25. Sukhjeet Bains and others, 'Challenges and Barriers to Optimal Maternity Care for Recently Migrated Women - a Mixed-Method Study in Norway' (2021) 21 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 686.
  26. Sarah Yeo and others, 'A Scoping Review of Maternal Health among Resettled Refugee Women in the United States' (2023) 11 Frontiers in Public Health 1157098.
  27. Jean Anthony Grand-Guillaume-Perrenoud, Paola Origlia and Eva Cignacco, 'Barriers and Facilitators of Maternal Healthcare Utilisation in the Perinatal Period among Women with Social Disadvantage: A Theory-Guided Systematic Review' (2022) 105 Midwifery 103237.
  28. Yeo and others (n 26).
  29. Allyn L Taylor, 'Global Health Law: International Law and Public Health Policy' [2017] International Encyclopedia of Public Health 268.
  30. Bains and others (n 25).
  31. Maha P. Iqbal and others, 'Improving Primary Health Care Quality for Refugees and Asylum Seekers: A Systematic Review of Interventional Approaches' (2022) 25 Health Expectations : An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy 2065.
  32. 'IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Fostering Collective Approaches in Supporting Perinatal Mental Healthcare Access for Migrant Women: A Participatory Health Research Study
Written By:
  • Gharsanai Asghari, Student of Institute of Legal and Policy Research (ILPR)
    Email: [email protected]
  • Sodaba Shahpesandi, Student of Institute of Legal and Policy Research (ILPR)
  • Beheshta Alizai, Student of Institute of Legal and Policy Research (ILPR)
  • Maryam Sarwari, Student of Institute of Legal and Policy Research (ILPR)
  • Zahra Sharifi, Student of Institute of Legal and Policy Research (ILPR)
  • Farhat Mohammadzai, Student of Institute of Legal and Policy Research (ILPR)
  • Roya Bina, Student of Institute of Legal and Policy Research (ILPR)

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