Mohd. Iqbal who was born in Sialkot in 1873 (British India) proposed the concept
of Pan-Islamism, an Islamic Internationalism.
He says, when I realise that the conception of nationalism based on the
differences of race and country was beginning to overshadow the world of Islam
also and the Muslims were in danger of giving up universality of their ideal in
favour of narrow patriotism and false nationalism.
According to him, the Muslims all over the world were brothers and as
such form into an international State transcending the territorial nationalism.
If Muslims go on developing territorial affiliations, they shall never be in a
position to develop the concept of Islamic fraternity, and bonds of Muslims
brotherhood shall be considerably weakened.
However, Pan-Islam as a concept never pleaded for a political centre for
all Muslims of the world. It was only a humanitarian ideal, according to Iqbal.
It did not recognise nationalistic barriers and geographic frontiers.
It was only in such a State, without any distinction between man and man,
that there could be justice, love and feeling of brotherhood. His views of
Pan-Islamism seem to imply religious politics.
Iqbal proposed the concept of a theocratic State since the Shariat is the
expression of the sovereignty of God that governs all the aspects and phases of
human life and Quran considers it necessary to unite religion and State, ethics
and politics in a single revelation.
Iqbal believed that in a society fraught with materialism, the spiritual
development of man was possible only when religion was linked with politics. For
him, secularism was a matter for the individual and it was the responsibility of
the State and government to uplift man spiritually and morally.
The aim or the end of the State must be the regulation of spiritual
perfection and development of religious and moral life of the society. According
to Iqbal, both nationalism and atheistic socialism are against the spirituality.