Under Muslim law will is known as Wasiyat. A person who will is called testator.
Will means strength of mind. Tyabi defines will as legal declaration of the
intention of a testator with respect to his property which he desires to be
carried after his death.
Capacity to make a will:
- Must be a Muslim.
- Must be a major who has attained 18 years of age.
- Must be person of unsound mind.
Forms of Will
Under Muslim law there is no particular form of a will. It need not be in
writing. It may be either orally or in writing. A written will is always being
treated as a complete will.
Limitations to dispose the property
A Muslim is allowed of will to dispose only 1/3rd of the net assets after
allowing for the debts and funeral expenses of the testator. Any will made in
favour of one of his heirs in voidable at the option of his remaining heirs.
Under Muslim law a man is not allowed to dispose of his whole property. His
power to dispose the property by will is limited in two ways.
- He cannot bequeath more than 1/3rd of the net assets.
- He cannot bequeath to his own heirs.
The testator who disposes of more than 1/3rd of the property can be legalized
after obtaining the consent of the remaining heirs. Such consent may be
expressed or implied. Under Muslim law a testator is not permitted to alter the
provisions of the will executed by him. The alteration in the will clearly
indicated that the testator has changed his intention and therefore, the will be
treated as revoked.
Indian Succession Act, 1925 - (Will)
Will means a legal declaration of the intention of a testator with respect to
his property, which he desires to be carried into effect after his death.
Will is a testamentary document. A will declares the person's intention to be
performed after his death. Hence it will take effect only from the date of the
testator. Section 2(h) defines will. A legal declaration of the intention of a
testator with respect to his property, which he desires to be carried into
effect after his death.
Essential characteristics of a will
- Legal declaration by the maker
- The declaration must relate to his property
- It must take effect only after the death of the maker.
- It must be revocable during the lifetime of the maker.
- A competent person must execute it.
Capacity of making will
According to Section 59 every person of sound mind not being a minor may dispose
of his property by will. Codicil means addition or supplement. It modifies a
will. Codicil is an instrument dame in relation will and explaining, altering or
adding to its dispositions. Sometimes the maker of a will may prefer to alter or
amend the will executed by him. Law permits the maker to make alterations to the
Types of legacies
- Specific legacy (Section 142)
- Redemption of legacy (Section 152)
- Demonstrative legacy. (Section 150)
Kinds of will
- Sham will
- Helograph will
- Nungupative will
- Conditional will
- Contigent will
- Privileged will
- Unprivileged will
Meaning of domicile is residence or place. Indian Succession Act defines
domicile. This is applicable to:
- European by birth
- Indian Christian
- Hindu by conversion
Kinds of domicile
Section 7 to 8 - by birth i.e., origin
Section 10 to 13 - domicile by choice
Section 14 to 18 - domicile by operation of law.
Probate And Grant Of Administration
Probate means the copy a will certified under the seal of a court of competent
jurisdiction with a grant of administration to estate of the testator.
(Section 2(f)) Administrator means a person appointed by competent authority to
administer the esgtagte of a deceased person when there is no executor.
(Section 2(a)) Executor means a person to whom the execution of last will of a
deceased person is, by the testator's appointment, confided.
(Section 2(c)) According to section 22 probates can be granted only to the
executor appointed, expressly or impliedly by the will. An application for
probate is made by a petitioner to the district judge within whose jurisdiction
the testator at the time of his death had a fixed place of abode or had left
some part of his property. According to section 223 probate cannot be granted to
any person who is a minor or of unsound mind or to any association of
individuals. According to section 227 probate of a will when granted establishes
the will from the death of the testator and renders valid all intermediate acts
of the executor as such. According to section 236 the letters of administration
cannot be granted to any person who is a minor or of unsound mind nor to any
association of individuals unless it is a company.
Succession certificate means a certificate granted by the court with respect to
any debts or securities to which person has become entitled as result of
succession to another. Security means any promissory note, debenture, stock, any
Section 371 the District Judge within whose jurisdiction the deceased ordinarily
resided or found at the time of his death, may grant a succession certificate. A
succession certificate can be granted in the following case.
- When probate or letters of administration is not
- When the deceased is an Indian Christian.
- When the deceased is a Mohammedan.
- When the decease is a Hindu and has left a will
- When the Hindu joint family property passes by
Where the law requires probate or letters of administration compulsorily, a
succession certificate cannot be granted. The certificate shall specify the
debts and securities and may empower the person to receive interest or dividends
or to negotiate or transfer or both to receive interest or dividends on and to
negotiate or transfer the securities any of them.
The meaning of Hiba is gift. Hiba is a transfer of property made immediately
without any exchange by one person to another and accepted by or on behalf of
The maker or founder of the gift.
One who receives the property or gift or he is beneficiary.
Gift to unborn person:
The gift made to unborn person or not in existence, the
that gift is not valid not yet in existence.
How gifts are made: Offer and acceptance
- Declaration of gift by the donors
- Acceptance of gift by the donee
- Delivery of possession immediately
- Registration (if the property is immovable
then registration is compulsory).
Kinds of Gift
- Conditional Gift
- Future Gift
- Contingent Gift
X is the donor gives the immovable property. Y is done he gave
conditions to enjoy the property during his life time, but no right to mortgage
or lease or to sell this. This gift is totally invalid.
X donor gave agriculture property to Y donee. Its act of god. Its
Contingent Gift: May or may not happen. On the happening of the specified event.
Illustration: i. If I die it's yours ii. If you die it's mine. If the gift is
like this then it's invalid.
Delivery of possession immediately is not necessary;
- Guardian (in case of minor)
- Where the donor and donee resides in the same house.
Meaning of Mushaa is undivided share. Schedule of property is not mentioned.
Classification of Hiba or Classification of Gift
- Hiba - bil - iwaz
- Hiba - ba - sharat - ul - iwaz
1. Sadaqa: Meaning of sadaqa is pious or charitable ( purposes ) Act. A gives B
Rs. 10,000 for purchasing books is called sadaqa. Hiba is secular one. But this
sadaqa is only for religious purposes.
2. Hiba - bil – iwaz: Hiba is a gift by donor to donee, iwaz - return gift by
donee to donor. Hiba - bil - iwaz means gift with return gift. Gift need not be
exact price. It may be small amount. So, it is not a sale.
3. Hiba - ba - sharat - ul – iwaz: Hiba - ba - sharat - ul - iwaz means gift
with stipulation (compelling ), covenant or contract.
4. Areeat: Areeat means temporary licence to enjoy the profit. This is revocable
at any time without any payment.
According to Section 122 of the Transfer of Property Act, Gift is the transfer
of certain existing movable or immovable property made voluntarily and without
consideration by one person called the donor, to another called the donee and
accepted by or on behalf of the done. Such acceptance must be made during the
life-time of the donor and while he is still capable of giving and if the donee
dies before acceptance, the gift is void.
But Section 129 of the same Act lays
Nothing in this chapter (on Gifts shall be deemed to affect any rule of
This clearly indicates that the definition of gift under the Mohammedan Law
considerably differs from that defined in Section 122 of the Transfer of
Property Act. This conflict between the definition of Gift under the two systems
of law arises when the term Hiba (term used in Mohammedan Law for Gift) is
qualified by adjuncts importing consideration, that is when Hiba is regarded
partly as a gift as defined above and partly as sale or exchange.
Who can make a gift?
Every Muslim of sound mind and not a minor may dispose of his property by gift.
For the purposes of ‘gift' the age of majority of the donor is determined by the
Indian Majority Act, 1875. According to this Act every minor who has attained
the age of 18 years becomes major unless the superintendence of his property has
been assumed by the Court of Wards, in which case a minor becomes a major on
completion of 21 years of age and not before.
Under the Muslim Law it is
immaterial whether the donor is a man or a married woman. Hence she has the same
right to make a gift as a man, and marriage does not impose any disabilities
provided that the subject- matter of the gift is one over which she possesses
absolute domination or right. Besides the donor being a major and of sound mind,
it is further essential that he (donor) should have ownership of the subject
matter of the disposition.
Ancestral and Self-acquired property
The Mohammedan Law does not make any distinction between ancestral or
self-acquired property or movable or immovable property. Anything over which
dominion or the right of property may be exercised, or anything which can be
reduced into possession or which exists as a specific entity or as an
enforceable right, may form the subject of a gift.
Thus, actionable claims and
incorporeal rights may form the subject of gifts equally with corporeal
property. A gift, as distinguished from a will, may be made of the whole of the
Essentials of a valid gift
Every Mohammedan of sound mind who has attained the age of puberty may make a
valid gift. A gift, as distinguished from a will, may be made of the whole of
the property, and it may be made even to an heir. It may be made orally or in
writing. Even registration is not necessary.
The provision of Section 123 of the
Transfer of Property Act, which provides that a gift of immovable property must
be effected by a registered instrument, signed by the donor and attested by at
least two witnesses, and that a gift of movable property may be effected either
by a registered instrument as aforesaid or by delivery do not apply.
The essentials of a valid gift are:
- That there must be a clear and unambiguous intention to make a gift by
the donor. Where there is no real bona fide intention to make a gift, the
gift will be void. In Qamar Uddin v. (Mst) Hassan Jan, (1934), 16 Lah. 629,
a gift of house was made by the donor to the donee without delivering the
title deeds; no mutation of name was effected and the donor continued to pay
the house tax, it was held that the gift could not be said to be complete
and valid as all the requirements of Muslim law had not been fulfilled.
- That there must be an acceptance of the gift express or implied, by or
on behalf of the donee.
- That there must be delivery of possession of the subject of the gift by
the donor to the donee.
Delivery of Possession
Under the Mohammedan Law it is absolutely essential for a valid gift that there
should be a delivery of such possession as the subject of the gift is
susceptible. The importance of delivery of possession has been stressed by their
Lordships of the
Privy Council in Mohammad v. Fakir Jahan
(1922) 49 I.A. 195,
where they observed. The taking of possession of the subject- matter of the gift
by the donee either actually or constructively is necessary to complete a
Registration of a deed of gift does not cure the want of delivery of possession.
A recital in the deed of gift that possession has been given to a minor nephew
without the intervention of a father or a guardian was, on the facts, held to be
insufficient to support a gift as against the heirs of the donor.
(1931) 129 I.C. The real test of delivery possession is to see whether
the donor, or the donee reaps the benefit; if the former is the case, possession
is not transferred and if latter, it is transferred, and the gift is complete as
the donee is permitted directly or indirectly to receive the benefit.
Alibhai Akuji v. Bai Asi,
(1933) 58 Bomb. 254. The conduct of the parties
concerned is the best guide to see whether a gift is fictitious or otherwise.
Thus where a donor makes a gift of the corpus of a property but reserves the
usufruct to himself and continues in physical possession of the property, the
payment by the donee of Government Revenue after date of gift in respect of the
property amounts to constructive possession of the property on the part of the
donee and the gift is completed by such possession.
But in Qamar Uddin v. (Mst).
Hassan Jan, (1934) 16 Lah. 629, a gift of a house was made by the donor to the
donee without delivery of the title deeds, no mutation of name was effected and
the donor continued to pay the house tax; it was held that the gift could not be
said to be complete and valid as all the requirements of Muslim Law had not been
In the following cases delivery of possession is not necessary: it is presumed
in favour of the donee.
- No delivery of possession is required in the case of a gift by father to
his minor child or by a guardian to his ward. All that is necessary is to
establish a bona fide intention to give. The guardian referred to above is
the guardian of the property of a minor.
Therefore, when father is the guardian of the property of his minor son, no
transfer of possession is necessary. Similarly no change of possession is
necessary in the case of a gift by grandfather to his minor grandson if the
father is dead. But if the father is alive and has not been deprived of his
rights and powers as guardian, there must be a delivery of possession by the
grandfather to the father as guardian of his minor sons, otherwise the gift
is not complete. As the mother is not the guardian of the property or her
minor son, there must be delivery of possession to the legal guardian of her
- No delivery of possession is required in the case of a gift by a husband
to the wife and vice versa, whether the property is used by them for their
joint residence, or is let out to tenants in this connection the observation
of Sir M. Sausee, C.J. in Amina Bibi v. Khatija Bibi, (1864), 1 BHCR 157 are very
pertinent. His Lordship said:
The relation of husband and his legal right to reside with her and to manage
her property rebut the inference which in the case of parties standing in a
different relation, would arise from continued residence in the house after
the making of gift.
In Ma Mi v. Kallender Ammal,
(1926) 54 I.A. 22, the gift was by husband to the wife and mutation of names was
effected. Their Lordships of the Judicial Committee said, It must, therefore,
be taken that mutation was effected by Moideen (husband) himself, and in the
case of a gift of immovable property by a Mohammedan husband to his wife, once
mutation of names has been proved, the natural presumption arising from the
relation of husband's and wife existing between them is that the husband's
subsequent acts with reference to the property were done on his wife's behalf
and not on his own. But no mutation of name is necessary, if the deed of gifts
declares that husband delivered possession to the wife, and the deed is handed
over to her and retained by her. (Mohammad Sadiq v. Fakhr Jahan Begum, 1932 A.L.J. 663).
- No delivery of possession is necessary where property gifted is
incapable of physical possession.
Modes of delivery of possession
- As regards movable property the gift is not complete unless the property
has been actually delivered.
- In the case of immovable property;
- Where the donor is in possession, a gift is not complete unless the
donor physically departs from the premises with all his goods and chattels
and the donee formally enters into possession.
- Where the property is in occupation of the tenants a request by the
donor to the tenants to attorney to the donee or by delivery of the title
deed or by mutation in Revenue Register.
- Where the donor and donee both reside in the property in such a case no
physical departure of formal entry is necessary. In this case the gift may be
completed by some overt act by the donor indicating a clear intention on his
part to transfer possession and to divert himself of all control over the
subject of the gift. (Shaik Ibrahim v. Shaik Suleman, (1884) 9 Bom. 146).
- In the case of gift of immovable property by husband to wife, it is not
necessary for the husband to depart even temporarily provided it can be
inferred from the surrounding circumstances that he had real and bona fide
intention to make a gift.
- In the case of gift by the father or other guardian to a minor or a
lunatic, the declaration of gift is sufficient to change the possession of
the father or other guardian on his own account into possession on the
- Where the subject-matter of a gift consists of shares in Zamindari villages
and parcels of land in the case of which physical possession is impossible the
gift may be completed by mutation of names and transfer of rents and incomes
arising out from the property. Actual possession is not necessary where the
property gifted is not capable of being possessed physically.
- In the case of incorporeal property and actionable claims, the gift may
be complete by an act on the part of the donor showing a clear intention on
his part to divert himself in property and to confer it upon the donee.
- Where the subject of gift is already in possession of the donee as bailee
the gift may be completed by declaration and acceptance without formal delivery
Gift in future
A gift cannot be made of any property to be performed in future nor can it be
made to take effect at any future period. The rule is based on the principle
that the object of the gift must be in existence at the time of the gift.
A gift made to make effect on the happening of a contingency is void.
Gifts with a condition
When a gift is made subject to a condition which destroys the effect of the
gift, the condition is void and the gift will take effect as if no conditions
were attached to it.
- A makes a gift of a house to B on condition that he shall not sell it,
or that he shall sell it to a particular individual, or that B shall give
some part of it in iwaz or exchange. The condition is void, and B takes an
absolute interest in the house.
- A makes a gift of certain property to B. It is provided by the deed of
gift that B shall not transfer the property. The restraint against
alienation is void, and B takes the property absolutely.
Gifts to unborn persons
A gift made to a person not in existence at the date of the gift is not valid.
Even when the gift to an unborn person is made through a trust the gift is not
valid. The only way in which a disposition may be made to an unborn person is
that by way of wake.
Gift of a life estate (Umra)
A umra or life grant is nothing but a gift with a condition. The donee gets an
absolute interest in the property and the condition is invalid.
Gift of an undivided share (Mushaa)
A mushaa is an undivided share in the property either movable or immovable. A
valid gift may make of an undivided share in property which is not capable of
division. A gift of an undivided share in the property which is capable of
division is irregular, but not void. The gift being irregular it may be
perfected and rendered valid by subsequent partition and delivery to the donee
of the share given to him.
Under the Shia Law gift of a Mushaa is valid even though the property is capable
of division. Mushaa - The word ‘mushaa' has been defined by Baillie as ‘an
undivided part' or share, a common building or land.
The general rule is laid down in the Hedaya: ‘A gift of a part of a thing which
is capable of division is not valid unless the said part is divided off and
separated from the property of donor; but a gift of an indivisible thing is
valid. Thus the property in which the donor has an undivided share, may be (a)
incapable of partition; or (b) capable of partition.
Incapable of Partition: When the property in which the donor has an undivided
share is capable of partition the gift is valid. For instance, A who owns a
house makes a gift to B of the house and of the right to use a staircase used by
him jointly with the owner of an adjoining house; the gift is valid since a
staircase is incapable of division.
Capable of Partition: When the property in which the donor has an undivided
share is capable of partition, the gift is irregular, but not void. Such a gift
may be perfected and rendered valid by subsequent partition and delivery to the
donee of the share given to him.
A gift of an undivided share (Mushaa), though it be a share in property capable
of division, is valid from the moment of gift, even if the share is not divided
off an delivered, in the following cases:
- Where the gift is made by the one co-heir to another;
- Where the gift is of a share in a Zamindari or Taluka
- Where the gift is of a share in freehold property in a large commercial
- Where the gift is of a share in a land company.
- Periodical payments in the nature of life grants.
The High Court of
Allahabad in Ahmedi Begum v. Abdul Aziz
(1927) 49 All.
503 threw upon a device to get over the doctrine of Mushaa, when it held that
though a valid gift could not be made of an undivided share in property which
was capable of division, the difficulty might be overcome by the donor selling
the undivided share at a fixed price to the person to whom the gift was intended
to be made, and then releasing that person from payment of the debt representing
Muhammad Mumtaz v. Zubaida Jan
, (1889) 16 I.A. 205 their Lordships
of the Privy Council remarked:
The doctrine relating to the invalidity of gift of Mushaa is wholly unadapted to
a progressive state of society and ought to be confined within the strictest
Shafei and Shia Laws:
Under Shafei and Shia Laws a gift of an undivided share in
property whether capable of division or not, is valid. The Shias only insist
that the portion of the property gifted must be indicated with definiteness and
Revocation of gift
A gift can be revoked before delivery of possession because before delivery of
possession a gift is not complete. There is a conflict of opinion between the
different schools of Muslim. Law as regards the power of donor to revoke as
Gift may be revoked by the donor at any time before delivery of possession. It
may be revoked after the delivery of possession if a decree of a civil court
cancelling the gift is obtained.
In the following cases a gift cannot be revoked
after the possession has been delivered to the donee:
- When the gift is made by a husband to his wife and vice versa.
- When the donee is related to the donor within the prohibited degrees.
- When the donee is dead, and the subject-matter of the gift has devolved on
the donee's heirs.
- When the subject of the gift;
- has passed out of the possession of the donee by gift, sale, or
- has been lost or destroyed;
- has increased in value, whatever be the cause of in-crease and the
increment is such as is inseparable from the subject itself;
- has been so changed that it cannot be identified for instance when wheat
is converted into flour by grinding.
- When the donor has received something in exchange (Iwaz), for instance a gift
by a lady in present with consideration that the maintenance expenses during her
life-time and her funeral expenses after death would be met by the donee.
Shafei and Maliki Laws
Under the Shafei and the Maliki Laws, in the absence of any coercion or want of
understanding, a gift is irrevocable, whether the delivery of possession has
taken place or not. Parents have the power to revoke a gift made in favour of
their children except in the following cases:
- When the subject of the gift has changed its original form or has
disappeared in toto or in part, or has been sold or ex-changed;
- When the donee's marriage has taken place in consideration of the thing
- When the donee is dead and the property has passed to his heirs.
The Shia Law differs from the Hanafi Law in the cases enumerated below:
- A gift to any blood relation, where within, the prohibited
degree or not, is irrevocable after the delivery of possession.
- A gift by a husband to his wife and vice versa is revocable;
- A gift may be revoked by mere declaration on the part of the
donor without any proceedings in Court.
Sadaquah is a gift made with the object of acquiring religious merit. Like Hiba,
it is not valid unless accompanied by delivery of possession; nor is it valid if
it consists of an undivided share in property capable of division. But unlike
Hiba Sadaquah once completed by delivery, is not revocable, nor is it invalid if
made to two or more persons all of whom are poor.
A Sadaquah can be distinguished from the waqf in the point that in case of a
Sadaquah, the corpus may be consumed; while in case of waqf, the income only
Gulam Ali v. Sultan Khan
, (1967) A.I.R. Ori. 55.
Hiba-bil-iwaz: It literally means a gift for next change. It is of two kinds,
The true hiba-bil-iwaz consists of two acts, namely (a)
hiba, and (b) iwaz not stipulated for at the time of the hiba. Thus, if A
without having stipulated for a return makes a gift of his house to B and B in
consideration of the house, without having promised it, subsequently makes a
gift of Rs.10,000 to A, saying that it is the iwaz or return for the gift of the
house, and delivers the said amount to A, the transaction is a true
hiba-bil-iwaz. and neither party can revoke it.
- Hiba-bil-iwaz as followed in India Hiba-bil-iwaz followed in India consists
of only one act, the iwaz or exchange being involved in the contract of gift as
its direct consideration. Thus if in the above illustration
A says to B that
he (A) has given his house, to him (B) in consideration of his
paying him (A). Rs.10,000 the transaction will be a hiba-bil-iwaz of India.
In fact, the hiba-bil-iwaz of India was introduced here by Muslim lawyers in India as a
device for effecting a gift of Mushaa in property capable of division. The
transaction is in reality a sale and has all the incidents and conditions of a
sale. So, possession is not essential to com-plete the transfer as it is in the
case of a hiba, and an undivided share (Mushaa) in property capable of division
may be lawfully transferred by it.
There are two conditions necessary for the validity of the transaction, namely
- Actual payment of consideration on the part of the donee and
- A bona fide intention on the part of the donor to divest
himself in praesenti
of the property and to confer it upon the donee.
Hiba-ba-shart-ul-iwaz: It is a gift made with a stipulation for a return. To
make the gift valid, it is essential that it should be accompanied by deliveryof
possession. Like hiba, the gift is also revocable under certain circumstances.
But the gift becomes irrevocable on delivery by the donee of the iwaz (return)
to the donor.
Areeat: The grant of a licence resumable at the grantor's option to take and
enjoy the usufruct of a thing is called the ‘Areeat'. It is a temporary licence
to enjoy the profits so long as the grantor pleases and is not a transfer of
ownership as in the case of hiba.
The most accepted definition of Marz-ul-maut or death-illness is
that it is one which, it is highly probable, will end fatally. (Baillie). Sir
D.F. Mulla defines it an illness which includes apprehension of death in the
near future, in the person concerned and which actually results in his death. An
illness constitutes marz-ul-mau, if there is:
- the proximate danger to death, so that there is a pre-ponderance of
apprehension of death;
- some degree of subjective apprehension of death in the mind of the sick
- some external indicia, chief among which would be inability to attend to
Wakf means detention or stoppage. A is a muslim having some property, suppose A
dies the property goes to son, grandson, great grandson and their legal heirs,
without an extinction of family it is given to the poor people. Immediately
dedicated to God that is to poor, orphans, widows. Wakif, the maker of the wakf
owner of the property.
Registration: Immovable property worth more than Rs. 100, then registration then
its known as ‘wakfnama'. The transfer must be between two living persons (i.e. intervivos). There is no unending period. Wakif has no right to cancel or to
modify or revoke the wakf.
Illegal Wakf To delay or defeat creditors.
If the wakif is having debt on his property. Musalman wakf validating Act, 1913
explain this Abdul Fata Mohammed v. Russomoy Two muslim brothers makes wakf deed
when there is total extinction of the family then only the property goes to the
people. Privy council held that the deed charity begins at home. Muslims
agitate this decision. If a Muslim makes a wakf deed for his family that is a
valid wakf. That wakf is called wakf - alal - aulad which means family wakf.
Manager or Superindent of the Wakf property. He is not the owner of the
property. He is only the servent of the God.
Powers To protect and administer the Wakf property: He is not having power to
sell, lease or mortgage the Wakf property. Wakif himself may a mutawalli, a non-
Muslim may also be appointed as mutawalli. Wakif issues may also be called as
Remove of Mutawali: Once mutawalli is appointed, Wakif has no power to remove
him from office. He may be removed by court on the proof of misconduct. He has
no power to transfer the office to another. He may appoint agents.
Remuneration: Remuneration is fixed by the founder (i.e., discretion of the
founder). Suppose he didn't fix the court will fix the amount not exceeding 1/10 th of the property.
Meaning of Takia is resting place or Tombor burial ground.
Means religious institution founded by Holyman. He had some disciples.
- He is the head of the Kanka.
- Divide the words in to two Sajjada and nashin.
Sajjada means carpet used by Mohammedan for prayer Nashin is sitting. Meaning is
one who sits in prayer mat.
- He is a religious teacher.
- A female cannot be a Sajjadanashin.
- The court may remove him for misconduct.
- A minor cannot be Sajjadanashin.
Mujawar meant servant of Muslim mosque.
Duty of Mujawar is sweeping the floor and keeping the Dharga clean. A female may
be a Mujawar.
Kazi Meaning of Kazi is Judge. S.92 of C.P.C. defines what's their work, powers,
discretions and procedures to be followed.
Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr.Mohd Aqib Aslam
Authentication No: SP26211584989-18-920