What is Occupational health?
Working conditions and the nature of employment tend to have major repercussions
on the health of a workman. The concept of ‘Occupational health’ has evolved
from work-related ailments. Occupational health broadly means any injury,
impairment or disease affecting a worker or employee during his course of
Further, it not only deals with work-related disorders but also encompasses all
factors that affect community health within it. The inadequate surveillance of
employees is the most important reason for increased prevalence of work related
and other non-communicable life style diseases at work place1.
Since seventy-five percent of the global workforce lives in the third world
countries, more than 125 million workers are victims of occupational accidents
and diseases every year2. With the changing job patterns, working relationships,
the rise in self-employment, outsourcing of work, etc. there has been a problem
in the management of occupational safety and health risks. Nevertheless
particular attention needs to be paid to the health and safety of workers in
‘hazardous occupations’ and especially the migrant workers and other vulnerable
persons. Work related hazards and occupational diseases in small-scale
industries and agriculture are likely to increase as the occupational safety and
health services are out of reach in these occupations. However, with increasing
Public Interest Litigations (PILs), Proactive legislations and continual
struggle by environmental activists, the awareness with respect to occupational
health concerns are gaining more ground.
The Constitutional aspects of Employees’ right to health:
Article 21 of the Indian Constitution guarantees the protection of life and
personal liberty of a person. Various Supreme Court judgments have, under this
"right to life" upheld the right to employees’ health. For instance, in the case
of Consumer Education Research Center Vs. Union Of India3 the Supreme Court has
held that, "Occupational accidents and diseases remain the
most appalling human tragedy of modern industry and one of its most serious
forms of economic waste." Further the judgment says,
"Therefore, we hold that right to health, medical aid to
protect the health and vigor to a worker while in service or post retirement is
a fundamental right under Article21, read with Articles 39(e), 41, 43, 48A and
all related Articles and fundamental human rights to make the life of the
workman meaningful and purposeful with dignity of person."
The Indian Constitution has shown notable concern to workmen in factories and
industries as envisaged in its Preamble and the Directive Principles of State
Policy. The Directive Principles of State Policy provide:
a) For securing the health and strength of workers, men and women,
b) That the tender age of children is not abused,
c) That citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations
unsuited to their age or strength,
d) Just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief are provided
e) That the Government shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in
any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of
undertakings, establishments or other organizations engaged in any industry.
Hence, the Government, Central or State, while drafting policies for the safety
and health of workers must keep in mind the Directive Principles in accordance
with the nature of employment and must be in consultation with workers' welfare
organisations, environmental activists, etc.
Occupational health Laws:
The Factories Act, 1948, the Mines Act, 1952,The Dock Workers (Safety, Health &
Welfare) Act, 1986 are some of the laws, which contain provisions regulating the
health of workers in an establishment. Whereas the Employees State Insurance
Act, 1948 and the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 are compensatory in nature.
Health Provisions under the Factories Act, 1948:
The Factories Act, 1948 was enacted with the object of protecting workers from
subjecting to unduly long hours of bodily strain or manual labour. It lays down
that employees should work in healthy and sanitary conditions so far as the
manufacturing will allow and that precautions should be taken for their safety
and for the prevention of accidents.
The Act defines a ‘worker’ as any person employed
directly or through any agency (including a contractor), whether for
remuneration or not in any manufacturing process or in any work incidental to or
connected with the manufacturing process. It is required that work performed
should be connected with the product which is produced in the manufacturing
Section 10 of the Act lays down that a State
Government may appoint qualified medical practitioners as ‘certifying surgeons’
to discharge the following duties:
a) Examination and certification of young persons and examination of persons
engaged in ‘hazardous occupation’.
b) Exercising medical supervision where the substances used or new manufacturing
processes adopted may result in a likelihood of injury to the workers.
c) Exercising medical supervision in case of young persons to be employed in
work likely to cause injury.
Chapter IX of the Act lays down in detail the provisions relating to the health,
safety and welfare measures, namely, cleanliness, level of ventilation,
diversion of dust and fumes, provision of artificial humidification, sanitation,
fencing of machinery, among others. There are also provisions that prohibit
women n\and children from working in certain occupations.
27 processes and operations have been identified as dangerous in The
Maharashtra Factories Rules, 1963. These Rules lay down detailed
instructions regarding preventive measures, protective devices, cautionary
notices as well as medical examination of workers. The State Governments have
adopted these rules depending on their local needs. The Act lists 29
occupational diseases and obliges the manager of a factory and medical
practitioners to notify the Chief Inspector of Factories if any worker contracts
any of the diseases. The Rules are very comprehensive in laying down special
provisions with respect to health, safety and welfare of workers including
medical examinations, setting up of Occupational Health Centers, etc. The only
lapse has been its ineffective implementation since most of the discretionary
powers lie in the hands of the Inspectors and occupiers. Although very few cases
of occupational diseases are reported in factories, the working conditions in
most of the factories handling hazardous chemicals have higher risk potential.
The Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) Act, 1948:
It is a social security legislation enacted with the object of ameliorating
various risks and contingencies sustained by workers while serving in a factory
It is designed to provide cash benefit in the case of sickness, maternity and
employment injury, payment in the form of pension to the dependents of workers
who died of employment injury and medical benefit to workers. It recognizes the
contributory principle against such contingencies, provides protection against
sickness, replaces lumpsum payments by pension in the case of dependents benefit
and places the liability for claims on a statutory organization4.
The Act does not cover ‘seasonal employments’. It defines ‘employment injury’ as
personal injury to employees, caused by accident or occupational diseases, in an
The Act lays down provisions to set up an ESI Corporation, to promote measures
to improve health and welfare of insured persons and a Medical Benefit Council
to advise the Corporation on medical benefits, certification, etc. The Medical
Boards have to ascertain the percentage of disability of injured workers before
submitting their report to the Corporation in order to grant compensation to the
workers. An injured worker has to wait for months before the Medical Board calls
him for a check-up5.
The main source of revenue for the ESI Fund is the Contribution paid by the
employers and the employees. The purposes for which the Fund is to be used are
numerous. It includes payment of benefits, provision of medical treatment to
insured families, meet charges in connection with medical treatment, maintenance
of hospitals, dispensaries, etc. In existing conditions there is gross misuse of
The discretionary powers with respect to using the Fund amount
lie solely with the Corporation along with the State
Governments. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Center,
Mumbai, the Corporation has only 4 occupational disease centers for workers.
Section 39 of the Act makes the employer primarily liable for the payment
of contribution on behalf of himself and his employees towards the ESI Fund. In
case of misuse of the contribution by employer, the employee can sue the
employer in the Employees’ State Insurance Court set up by the respective State
Where an employee makes a claim on the grounds of sickness, disablement or
maternity, it has to be made against the ESI Corporation and not against the
employer. The process involved to obtain the compensation, is tedious. Such a
lapse renders the very object of the Act to provide for quick claims as unreal.
Under the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923, there exists a legal obligation on
the employer to pay compensation to workmen involved in accidents arising during
the course of their employment. The prerequisites for payment of compensation to
such workmen are as follows:
* Personal injury must be caused.
* There must be temporary, total or partial disablement due to an accident,
which also includes occupational diseases.
The State Government is to appoint a Commissioner to decide the liability of an
employer to pay compensation, the amount and duration of compensation, among
other issues. An appeal may lie to the High Court in case the applicant is
grieved with the Commissioner’s orders.
Compensation is decided on the nature of injury caused. Where the injury from an
accident results in the death of the workman, the minimum compensation payable
is around Rs.50, 000 and the maximum may extend to Rs. 3 lacs. In case of
permanent total disablement and permanent partial disablement, compensation may
extend to Rs.60, 000, depending on its nature. Further the amount of
compensation is calculated on the wage-group to which the workman belongs and
the time-period for which he has worked.
There is no comprehensive law on occupational health, though the Central
Government has in its various policies stressed the need to effectively
implement the existing laws.
A broad insight into the existing occupational health laws in India explicably
brings out the verity of non-implementation of such laws, considering the
present scenario with respect to the workmen’s health conditions. The workmen in
dangerous employments are exposed to substances like asbestos, chromium and
silica dust and are vulnerable to respiratory diseases and cancer. There is need
to preserve the good health of workmen by ensuring safe and healthy working
conditions and provide prompt compensation on account of injury or occupational
1. Kulkarni GK. "Occupational health service - Need for competency development".
Indian J Occup. Environ Med 2005; 9:5-6.
2. Kanhere, Vijay; "Occupational Health, Safety and Laws"; Combat Law, Nov.-Dec.
2005, Pgs. 84-87.
3. Consumer Education Research Center Vs. Union of India, AIR 1995 SC 922.
4. Pillai, KM; "Labour and Industrial Law".
5. Kanhere, Vijay; "ESIS- A fraud on Workers"; From the Lawyers Collective, May
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