Of IRAN .........................................................................
The former monarchy and the Constitution of 1906 were abolished by
the revolution of February 1979. The 1979 Constitution dates 24
Oct 1979 and is in force since 3 Dec 1979. Significant amendments
were adopted on 28 July 1989.
1. The 270-member Majlis (Islamic Consultative Assembly)
can initiate laws (cf.Art. 71), but is subject to a number of
restrictions (Art. 72) and needs the support of at least fifteen
members (Art. 74). The Majlis can hinder the President's policy,
veto cabinet appointments, and even impeach ministers. Its speaker
is powerful due to his seat on all of the main councils of state.
2. The Preamble is very long, containing a history of the
revolution, a description of the new state, and quotes of Koranic
verses. The Preamble states that Economy is a Means, Not an End.
It also asserts that the home centered role of Women in Islam is
actually a liberation, assigning women special rights. Iran places
no belief in Government Control.
3. Iran has an official religion, some recognized religious
minorities, and acknowledges rights of non-Muslims. Iran grants a
right to work, extensive welfare rights, and a right to fruits of
business. The Constitution requires that the taking of foreign aid
be approved by the Parliament. Concessions for foreign businesses
are forbidden. The Constitution acknowledges committee legislation
and features a religious leader as well as a Head of Judiciary.
Public officials are subject to an asset control.
History and News
23 May 1997: Surprisingly, presidential elections are won
by Mohammad Khatami, favored by the intellectual left. After 11
years in office, he was disposed of his position as minister of
culture and Islamic guidance in 1992 by President Ali Akbar
Rafsanjani. Rafsanjani was barred by the Constitution from seeking
a third consecutive term and did not get his favorite successor,
the conservative cleric and speaker of parliament Ali Akbar
10 May 1997: Earthquake near the Afghan border kills at
least 1,600 people and makes 50,000 homeless.
8 March 1996: Elections for the 270-seat Majlis, the
1990: With the Soviet's retreat from Afghanistan, refugees
were sent back to their home country.
1979: With the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Of The Constitution:
The Constituent Assembly which had been elected for
undivided India and held its first sitting on 9th
Dec.1946, re-assembled on the 14th August 1947...
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to
constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens...
Fundamental Rights, are more elaborate than those of
any other existing written Constitutions of the World...
A countervailing factor has been introduced by the 42nd
amendment Act of 1976, known as the Fundamental Duties...
These Principles are in the nature of instruments of
instruction to the govt...
The Parliament of India consist of The President and two
houses....first function of The Parliament is that of
providing the Cabinet and holding them responsible...
General elections in May 1996 made the Bharatiya Janata
Party (BJP) the biggest party capturing 161 seats along
A Complete Summary Review:
A complete review of the entire Constitution Has been
given article wise...
Article 21 Of The Constitution:
Indian democracy wedded to rule of law aims not only to
protect fundamental rights of its citizens but also to,...
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka:
was created in 1972 after the adoption of a new
Constitution. The Supreme Court is the highest and final
superior court of record and is empowered to exercise its
powers, subject to the provisions of the Constitution...
The Supreme Court of England:
was established to achieve a complete separation between
the United Kingdom’s senior Judges and the Upper House of
Parliament, emphasising the independence of the Law Lords
and increasing the transparency between Parliament and the
The Supreme People's Court (SPC)
is the highest judicial organ in China and is responsible
to the NPC and its Standing Committee....
The Supreme Court of Canada
came into existence more than a century after the first
courts appeared in what is now Canada. Its role has
evolved considerably since its creation in 1875, as it
stands today as the final court of appeal in the Canadian
judicial system, a status that it did not originally
Supreme Court of Bangladesh:
The territorial area of Bangladesh originally being a part
and parcel of the then Indian Sub-continent, the history
of its legal system may be traced back from the year of
1726,when King George-I issued a Charter changing the
judicial administration of the Presidency towns of
Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, through which the Civil and
Criminal Courts, as established, started deriving their
authority from the King....
The International Court of Justice
is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Its
seat is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). It
began work in 1946, when it replaced the Permanent Court
of International Justice which had functioned in the Peace
Palace since 1922. It operates under a Statute largely
similar to that of its predecessor, which is an integral
part of the Charter of the United Nations....