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    Law Articles

    Family Law

    Women and Violence: Violence affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, in all socio-economic and educational classes. It cuts across cultural and religious barriers, impeding the right of women to participate fully in society - Shikha Jhirwal

    Sources of Islamic law
    Prenuptial agreements
    Nullification of Marriage An Annulled Marriage
    Surrogate Advertisements
    Family Courts in India
    Till Divorce do us Apart
    Extramarital Relations and its Impact on children
    Law, Women And Advertisements
    Misuse of Anti Dowry laws
    Irretrievable break down of marriage
    Muslim women's right for dissolution of marriage
    Medical termination of Pregnancy
    Legalize Abortion In India
    Violence against woman Issue of Honor killing

    Concept of Marriage in Muslim Law: Marriage acts as an outlet for sexual needs & regulates it so one doesn’t become slave to his/her desires. It is a social need because through marriage, families are established.

    Sources of Islamic Law: Various sources of Islamic law are used by Islamic jurisprudence to elucidate the Sharia, the body of Islamic law. The primary sources, accepted universally by all Muslims, are the Qur'an and Sunnah

    Muslim Marriage: This article deals with the nature of Muslim marriages. definition, types, obligations and rights of spouses, divorce, iddat and maintenance under Muslim marriages are covered here.

    Divorce under Muslim Law: Firm union of the husband and wife is a necessary condition for a happy family life. Islam therefore, insists upon the subsistence of a marriage and prescribes that breach of marriage contract should be avoided

    Recognition of Equality Marriage: Each individual's journey through life is unique. Some will make this journey alone, others in loving relationships – may be in marriage or other forms of commitment. - Suvigya Saxena

    Adultery: The dying voices analyzing and criticizing every aspect of the law have risen again. The insistence of the National commission for women and the report of the Madhav Menon committee - Paresh Bihari Lal

    Custody Laws: This article is a comprehensive study of custody under the family law of different religions in India. - Mohit Agrawal & Romit Agrawal

    Guardianship: This article deals with the concept of Guardianship under various family codes in India. - Romit Agrawal & Gorang Vashistha

    Nullification of Marriage - An Annulled Marriage: An annulment is a legal procedure which cancels a marriage between a man and a woman. Annulling a marriage is as though it is completely erased – legally, it declares that the marriage never technically existed and was never valid. - Adv.Shubhneet Kaur

    Privilege In Matrimonial Communication and the Abuse of Its Sanctity:
    Privileged communications exist because society values the privacy or purpose of certain relationships. The established privileged communications are those between wife and husband, clergy and communicant, psychotherapist and patient, physician and patient, and attorney and client. - - Yamini Patel & Ritu Sharma

    Extra-marital Relations and its Impact on children: Marriage is the unique bond between two people that links them together emotionally, spiritually and sexually - Added Date: 13 Apr 2008

    Right of Foreign Homosexuals to Have a Surrrogate Child In India: This article highlights the loop holes in the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2008 as how it is legal for a foreign homosexual couple to get a surrogate child in India and still homosexuality being a crime under Section 377 of IPC - Jyotsna Sharma - Added Date: 5 Dec 2008

    Pre-nuptial agreements: wherein if couples entered into pre-nuptial agreements what will be its consequences, requisites of valid prenuptial agreements, why it does not hold good in the eyes of Indian laws - Jaita Chatterjee

    Psychological Effects of Poverty In Children: Poverty is a disease for developing countries. on a careful analysis, it can be found that poverty causes far more problems than anticipated. An extended version of which could be even terrorism, that can be verified in recent times - Dhivya Manivannan

    Family Courts in India: Influenced by jurisdictions of countries like China, USA and England; the Family Courts in India were set up with the view of amicably resolving the family disputes in India - Archi Agnihotri & Medha

    Misuse of Anti Dowry Laws: Dowry is one of the biggest social evils facing our country, and no civilized society should tolerate this, and every effort should be made to eradicate this evil, people giving and demanding dowry - Bharat Chugh

    e law of agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a set of contractual, quasi-contractual and non-contractual relationships that involve a person, called the agent, that is authorized to act on behalf of another (called the principal) to create a legal relationship with a third party. Sunita Saran

    Privy Council: If we overview the history of Indian Legal System, it clearly reveals that the Indian Legal System is more or less based on the English Legal System. By priya s. dhanoka

    Till Divorce Do Us Apart: Legal separation can sometimes be harder than getting married. Here's a look at the procedure involved in getting a divorce, and on life beyond it.- - C.V.L .Narsimha Rao

    Irretrievable breakdown of marriage: Irretrievable breakdown of marriage can be defined as such failure in the matrimonial relationship or such circumstances adverse to that relationship that no reasonable probability remains of the spouses - - pooja murarka

    Divorce under Muslim Law: Firm union of the husband and wife is a necessary condition for a happy family life. Islam therefore, insists upon the subsistence of a marriage and prescribes that breach of marriage contract should be avoided - - Setu Gupta

    Media Laws

    Sting Operation laws in India: Sting Operations are undertook with a view to look into the working of the govt. or to see whether the acts of any individual is against the public order. on the basis of the purpose Sting Operations can be classified as positive and negative. Positive Sting Operation is one which results in the interest of the society, which pierces the veils of the working of the government. - - Yogendra Aldak

    Freedom of Press
    Trial By Media
    Fourth Estate

    Media and Child Protection:
    With the increasing competition among the different newspapers and news channels at times rights of children are infringed. Recently the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights - - Namita Anne Minj

    Sting Operation
    The article deals with the justification of Sting Operations and also point out why it should not be allowed. - - Yogendra Aldak

    Scope and Limitations of Sting Operations: With great power comes with great responsibility and therefore it is very essential to identify the manner in which it is to be used so that it does not create any nuisance to the other members of the society. For this one should identify one’s limits over others rights like privacy, which is mainly dealt in such kind of operations - Shishir Shrivastava

    Freedom of Press vis-a-vis Responsible Journalism: Television channels have started a series of investigative attempts with hidden cameras and other espionage devices. The advent of miniaturized audio and video technology, specially the pinhole camera technology, enables one to clandestinely make a video/audio recording of a conversation and actions of individuals. - Prabhsahay Kaur

    Freedom of Press In India: The Indian Press has a long history right from the times of British rule in the country. The British Government enacted a number of legislations to control the press, like the Indian Press Act, 1910, then in 1931-32 the Indian Press (Emergency) Act - Mayukh Gupta

    Land mark Judgment on Sting operation - Anirrudh Bahal v State of Delhi

    Courts And Justice System

    Inherent Power of the Court to Grant Restitution
    In law the term ‘restitution’ is used in three senses: (i) return or restoration of some specific thing to its rightful owner or status; (ii) compensation for benefits derived from a wrong done to another; (iii) compensation or reparation - - Bhupendra Verma

    International Criminal Court and Universal jurisdiction
    Should Judge be a Hermit
    Foreign law Firms In India
    Basic Principles on the Role of lawyers
    legal Aid In India
    An Open letter to the Bar Council of India
    Prison Reforms In Indian Prison System
    Justice Without Power Is Inefficient
    Status of Jails In Punjab

    Power of Indian courts to issue Garnishee Order
    The word Garnish is derived from an old French word ‘garnir’ which means to warn or to prepare . It is to serve an heir with notice i.e. to warn of certain debts that must be paid before the person is entitled to receive property as an heir - - Varsha Rajora

    Hostile Witnesses
    The Article attempts to highlight the problem of hostile witness that is creating hurdles in the proper administration oj justice and the whole story built upon by the prosecution crumbles down as a house of cards by this lacunae. the author attempts to bring about the present situation, in the light of some relevant cases and also wjat are the steps being taken to curb it as the witness protection programmes. - - Prateek Shanker Srivastava

    Prevention of Corruption Act:
    Corruption is considered to be one of the greatest impediments on the way towards progress for developing country like India. The economic, social and cultural structure of our country is very strong - - Deboshree Banerji

    Judiciary's Rights Beyond Information: Amongst the hundred million of us each one has the right to know! But how many of us really wish to know? For those of us who wish to know, doesn’t our system stifle the instinct to know? In the society which this country supports, there is no dearth of issues that cannot be raised.

    Property laws

    Uniform Land Revenue System in India
    The object of this paper is to look into the possibility of having a Uniform Land Revenue Code at the Centre. In this particular paper an attempt is made to study and analyze the prevailing state of affairs with regard to Land Revenue and an option of having a code at the Centre on the same subject instead of having individual Acts at the State level - - Sneha Snehal and Ajay Chaudhary

    Transfer of Property by Co Owner
    Temporary Occupation of land
    Downward trend of Real Estate A boon for NRI's
    Intestate Succession

    Land Acquisition Act:
    This article starts of by introducing the concept of land acquisition and gradually dwelves into the domain of its constitutional validity. - - Robin George

    Temporary Occupation of Land
    Land Acquisition can be referred to as the acquisition of land by the State. Land is a finite factor of production and the state has the responsibility and the right to make optimal use of this factor - - Sidhartha Mohapatra - Added Date: 22 Jul 2009

    Land Acquisition Act: This Article is mainly on the constitutional validity of land acquisition. The author has squarely covered the concept of right to property, doctrine of basic structure, eminent domain, definition of public purpose, doctrine of police power and has also referred to relevant cases of the Supreme Court of India. - - Sowmya Suman

    Downward trend of Real Estate - A boon for NRI’s : An article on the changing face of the Indian real estate in India and how this downfall could help the NRI's. - - Tushar B Bungley

    Law of Contracts

    Third Party Beneficiary Rights
    The rule of privity of contract is the principle that a third party cannot sue for damages on a contract to which he is not a party. This rule has been strongly criticized in recent times, - - Kartikeya Rawal
    Vicarious liability of Directors And officers on Bouncing of Cheques

    Predatory Pricing
    Choice of law by the Parties to the Contract
    ECheque System in India
    Relevance of Quasi Contracts
    Wagering Contracts
    Surrogacy Contracts

    Law of Jurisprudence

    Doctrine of Frustration & Force-Majeure Clause
    There is always a sense of confusion when it pertains to Doctrine of Frustration and clause of Force –Majeure in an operating contract. - - Priyadarshi Debashis Satapathy

    Crime against Woman Laws

    Changing Facets of Sexual offences
    This article mainly aims at the man’s illicit temptations, which makes him incompetent to realize the value and modesty of a woman. There can be no question of real civilization until a relentless campaign against the domination of sexual urges is well on its way - - Ashok Priyadarshi Nayak

    Rule of law in India & UK
    Role of law in E governance
    Judiciary of Engand and Wales
    American Judiciary
    National Commission For Women
    Accomplice Evidence in Sexual offenses
    Subjugation of women rights lead to violation of human rights
    Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act
    Trafficking in Women
    Section-498a IPC
    Indian Domestic Arbitration
    Dying Declaration by Rape Victims A Critical Analysis
    Victims of Trafficking
    Women Suffrage
    Condition of Women Working In the Unorganized Sector

    Rape - Texual or Psychological: The need to change Section 375 of the IPC, 1860:
    Is ‘Rape’ merely a word described in section 375 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, to be interpreted stricto senso? Or is it a psychological phenomenon to be understood and dealt with, with more empathy and less legality? - - Mishita Jethi

    Section 497 penalizes sexual intercourse of a man with a married woman without the consent of her husband when such sexual intercourse does not amount to rape. - - Varad Deore

    Section 498 IPC
    The article provides an insight to the meaning of cruelty as defined and to be dealt in context to the present section with reference to cases like ‘Kaliyaperumal vs. State of Tamil Nadu’. The article also provides with the constitutional validity of the section 498-A with references to cases like ‘Inder Raj Malik and others vs. Mrs. Sumita Malik’ and ‘Wazir Chand vs. State of Haryana’.

    Domestic Violence Act - Fundamental rights
    Domestic violence is sadly a reality in Indian society, a truism. In the Indian patriarchal setup, it became an acceptable practice to abuse women. - - Dr. G. Indira Priya Darsini & Dr. K. Uma Devi

    Dying Declaration by Rape Victims: A Critical Analysis
    Dying Declarations are the statements made by a dying person as to injuries which culminated in his death or the circumstances under which the injuries were inflicted - - Varsha Rajora

    Criminal Law

    Capital Punishment in the light of growing phenomena of Global Terrorism
    Many countries in the world has done away with the capital punishment as they see as a violation of the Human Rights. However the truth is far from that. Terrorists are people who are not worthy of these principles, they do not hesitate to take the lives of the innocents and yet when it comes to their trials there is a worlwide hue and cry against their execution. This article examines the same highlighting the anomalies which surrounds their execution. - - Poulami Sikdar

    Non Bail able Warrants
    Whether Section of IPC Constitutionally Valid
    To Kill or not to Kill
    Section 304 A of I.P.C. be a license to kill
    Justice Delayed is Justice Denied
    Circumstantial Evidence
    Hostile Witnesses
    Criminalization of Politics
    Clinical Trails In India
    Retrospective Operations of Criminal law
    Right To Speedy Trial
    What will you do when police is coming to arrest you
    Beyond Reasonable Doubt
    Terrorism And Human Rights
    Genocide Under International Criminal law
    Critical Analysis on Confession
    Capital Punishment in the light of growing phenomena of Global Terrorism
    International Criminal Court Terrorism

    Genocide Under International Criminal Law
    Genocide is not a wild beast or a natural disaster. It is mass murder deliberately planned and carried out by individuals, all of whom are responsible whether they made the plan - - Mohi Kumari

    section 304-A of I.P.C. be a license to kill
    Section 304-A was inserted in the I.P.C in the year 1870, for the crimes where neither intention nor knowledge to cause death is present. This section creates an offence which is of rash or negligent in nature. - - Bharat Maheshwari

    Privilege Against Self - Incrimination
    The main provision regarding crime investigation and trial in the Indian Constitution is Art. 20(3). It deals with the privilege against self-incrimination. The privilege against `self incrimination is a fundamental canon - - Harshit Khare

    Criminalization of Politics
    It is well known that all parties take the help of criminal elements to dominate the election scene in India. But this process is influencing the mind and the will of the people both to gain the majority to rule the country - - Nidhi Soni

    Status of Jails In Punjab
    The Indian prisons are no better for the reason that economic conditions do not permit to evolve better modes of prison management - - Sarju Gupta

    Non-Bailable Warrants
    The issuance of non-bailable warrants involves interference with personal liberty. Arrest and imprisonment means deprivation of the most precious right of an individual - - Amitabh Sengupta

    Motive Preparation and Previous or Subsequent Conduct:
    the article aims to give a complete understanding about the relevance of motive, preparation and conduct from evidence point of view as far as the criminal cases are concerned. - - Abhirup Ghosh

    Law of Evidence: Article focuses on how S.45 of Law of Evidence has been lacking in various aspects. Neither it is according to contemporary needs nor it has been made so to suit the present day need. - - Prateek Deol

    185th Report of the Law Commission of India: A Review:
    Unable to consider its 69th Report, the Central Government re-entrusted the task of reviewing the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 to the Law Commission - - Arun Soni

    Circumstantial Evidence:
    Circumstantial evidence is used in criminal courts to decide the fate of accused by establishing guilt or innocence through reasoning. According to Benthem witnesses are the "eyes and ears of justice". - - Sudershani Ray

    Accomplice Evidence in Sexual offenses:
    In sexual crimes, the other person usually the woman – may or may not be an accomplice, according as she is, by the nature of the crime, a victim of it or a voluntary partner in it. - - Pranaya Goyal

    Prison Reforms In Indian Prison System:
    All men are born equal and are endowed by their creator with some basic rights. These rights are mainly right to life and liberty, but if any person doesn’t comply with ethics of the society - - Arnav Sood

    Res Gestae:
    It is to know the concept of Res Gestae, to know as to what are the transactions which are admissible under this doctrine and most important is to know the test for res gestae - - Mita Barik

    Retrospective Operations of Criminal Law:
    The great myth of being protected by retrospective laws, especially criminal law is clearly analyzed and examined. The author also through citing various landmark cases portrays the emergence of retrospective laws and where they have been bluntly ignored - - Nikit Bala

    What will u do when police is coming to arrest you:
    situation of person while police come to arrest him - - Arun Soni & Pankaj Bansiwal

    Why Do Prosecution Witnesses Turn Hostile:
    The most controversial and dilemmatic situation in a judicial process arises when the prosecution witness turn hostile and thus result in the acquittal of the accused - - Manoj kumar bhati

    Beyond Reasonable Doubt:
    The Article deals with our Criminal justice system and how it sometimes fail to provide adequate justice on account of inability of the prosecution to prove the guilt of the accused "Beyond reasonable doubt". - - Sandeep Chauhan

    Gay Laws

    Victory for Gay Rights in India
    In a landmark ruling that could usher in an era of greater freedom for gay men and lesbians in India, New Delhi’s highest court decriminalized homosexuality. - - Manik Grover

    Right of Foreign Homosexuals To Have A Surrogate Child In India
    Gender Inequality
    Victory for Gay Rights in India
    Gender Justice
    Decriminalization of consensual sex between adults

    Whether Section 377 of IPC Constitutionally Valid
    It is humbly submitted that the Part III of the constitution primarily carries the common theme of human right. The international conventions and the principles of natural justice also focuses on the aspect of right to life with the full of dignity and liberty - - Jagruti Dekavadiya

    Decriminalization of consensual sex between adults
    The Delhi High Court dismissed the Petition in 2004 holding that the question was merely academic and there did not lay a cause of action. A subsequent review petition was also dismissed - - Joyjyoti Mahanta

    Company law

    Laws Regulating Mergers & Acquisition In India: A merger is a combination of two companies where one corporation is completely absorbed by another corporation. The less important company loses its identity and becomes part of the more important corporation, which retains its identity.- - Prabhanshu

    Duties and liabilities of officers of a Company
    Process of and Acquisition
    Indoor Management
    Insider Trading
    Alternate Dispute Resolution
    Listing and Delisting of Securities
    Mergers and Acquisitions
    Corporate Social Responsibility
    External Commercial Borrowings
    The Competition law
    Section 372A of the Companies Act
    Special Economic Zones
    LLP in India
    Infrastructure Investments in India
    Alternate Dispute Resolution and  the Common man
    Foreign Direct Investment In Telecommunications Sector
    Bank Frauds
    Chemical Disaster Management
    Strikes and lockouts
    Buy Back of Shares
    Arbitral Awards
    Retail Sector and FDI
    Land Acquisition Act
    Delay and Arrear Reduction in ADR
    Globalization challenges and opportunities
    Emergence of Knowedge Economy
    Limited liabiity Partnership
    Foreign Investors, Ukrainian Markets
    Directors of a Company
    Medical Negligence
    Special Economic Zone
    Nomination By Shareholders of a Director From The Promoter Company
    Promissory Estoppels
    Issue of Bonus Shares
    Business Connections
    Dishonour of Security Cheques
    RBIs Control of Inflation
    Cash Credit
    Concept of Demat Shares
    Share Transfer Restrictions
    Directors of a Company
    Distribution of Revenues
    Overseas Acquisitions Investments By Indian Companies
    Insider Trading And its legal Mechanism
    Shareholders Agreement
    From GATT to WTO
    Insurer and Insured
    Declaration and Distribution of Dividends by a Company
    Third Party Insurance
    Company law Board v Arbitral Tribunal
    SEBI on Insider Trading
    Section Goodwill of Parties
    liquidated Damages
    Laws Regulating Mergers and Acquisition In India
    How SEBI Should Deal With Disgorged Money
    Combating Hostile Takeovers
    Compulsory licensing
    The Code For Self Regulation In Advertising
    NRI Grievances Redressal Mechanism in India
    Promoter Promoter Group
    Incorporation of companies
    Companies Bill
    Odious Debt
    Changing Sovereignty In The light of WTO
    WTO and Development In Developing Countries Perspective
    Cooperative Federalism In India
    A Critique of limited liability Partnership Bill
    Single share holder
    Corporate Insolvency and Restructuring

    Directors of a Company
    A company is a legal entity and does not have any physical existence. It can act only through natural persons to run its affairs. The person, acting on its behalf, is called Director - - Harsh Vardhan Jajodia

    India’s FDI Policy in Trading & Retailing Sector
    India has developed very comprehensive and open policy towards Foreign Direct Investment (‘FDI’). Since the inception of economic reforms in early 1990s - - Ved Prakash

    Share Transfer Restrictions
    The article is about the restrictions on free transferability of shares in the case of companies with emphasis on section 111A of the Companies Act which provides for free transferability in the case of Public companies.- - Nishtha Kacholia

    Overseas Acquisitions/Investments By Indian Companies
    This Article analyses the emerging trend of overseas acquisition by Indian companies and the various methods of funding and a study of strategic deals. - - Adv. Bhuvana Veeraragavan

    Declaration and Distribution of Dividends by a Company
    The purpose of this article is to enunciate the procedure for declaration and distribution of dividends by a company under the Companies Act, 1956 (the “Act”). - - Tulika Sinha & Shashank Bijapur

    Directors of a Company
    company is a legal entity and does not have any physical existence. It can act only through natural persons to run its affairs. The person, acting on its behalf, is called Director. A Director is any person, occupying the position of Director, by whatever name called. - - Ankit Sethi

    Buy Back of Shares
    Provision related to buy back of shares introduced in the Companies Act in the year 1999. It delves into the reasons for buy back, how buy back is carried out by a company, when it is allowed, the formalities and the compliances required to be fulfilled - - Saurav Paul

    How SEBI Should Deal With Disgorged Money
    The Concept of ‘Disgorgement’ is gaining importance in the Indian Financial Market, as a mean of compensating Indian investors who were harmed or cheated in the Initial Public offering and other securities scams taking place in the country. The concept has developed very strongly in U.S.A and European Countries, where the regulators collect the disgorged money and distribute it to the harmed investors. - - Amit Bhaskar

    Globalization: challenges and opportunities
    During 1990 to 2003, the volume of world trade has increased and the higher and middle-income countries managed to increase their share in world trade mainly due to the opening up of economies because of globalization - - Prof. Loveleen Chawla

    Section 372A of the Companies Act
    Aim of the article is to discuss practical aspects and provisions of the Section 372A of the Companies Act, 1956 - - Suresh Savaliya

    Shareholders Agreement
    Whether an excercise of such "put option" ie a right to sell, can be enforced by the investors without violating SCRA, 1956 and the possible alternatives to prevent such violation with respect to private and public limited companies. - - Ankur Kashyap

    Most Favoured Nation Treatment
    Most Favoured Nation principle is one of the most fundamental principles of the WTO. It requires member states to accord the most favourable tariff and regulatory treatment given to the product of any one member - - Amit Bhaskar

    Listing & Delisting of Securities
    Listing & delisting of securities is one of the important process in trading.In the market condition it becomw more essential to know the rule which govern it and the regulating agency. The present article address this issue. - - Vinay Ranjan

    Protection of The Investors By Sebi
    This particular paper highlights the dedication of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) towards giving the investors a concrete roof where they can feel protected - - Sanjay Chatterjee

    Duties & Liabilities of officers of a Company
    The statutory principles of Corporate Law in India are enshrined primarily in the Companies Act, 1956 ("the Act") and other supplementary and complementary enactments and regulations.- - Neha Rai

    External Commercial Borrowings: It provides quite a few advantages to the borrower as well as the lender. But, uncontrolled influx of funds into the country may have certain adverse macro-economic effects namely, inflation, acceleration of domestic interest rates and uneconomic augmentation in foreign exchange reserves of the country among many others. - - Debomita Ghosh

    TRIPS: Developing countries have raised a range of different concerns with the TRIPS agreement. - - Gayatri U Avasak

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Standards and Guidelines – A Legal Perspective: Globalization has influenced trade all over the world; companies have looked for new opportunities in doing business outside their home country. In recent years Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has gained growing recognition as a new and emerging form of governance in business.

    Mergers and Acquisitions: Merger is defined as combination of two or more companies into a single company where one survives and the others lose their corporate existence. - - Lubna Yusuf

    Lacunae of Operational Risk: The scenario of banking all across the world has experienced a dynamic increase in its complexities and in its working. With the increasing number of transactions and increasing amount of human computer interaction, the world experiences a large amount of risk in case of combating the problems of operational risk. - - Ms.Shivangi Raman

    Incorporation of companies: A Private Limited Company is a Company limited by shares in which there can be maximum 50 shareholders, no invitation can be made to the public for subscription of shares or debentures. - - Roohina Dua

    WTO & Development In Developing Countries Perspective: The problem of our age is growing economic disparity between developed and industrialized country on the one hand, and the developing world on the other.- - Swapneshwar Goutam

    From GATT to WTO: In the article I have discussed how WTO has emerged. The World Trade Organisation, the primary international body regulating trade throughout the world, with majority of the countries as it's member, following its guidelines has a long history attached to it's establishment.- - Safia Gupta

    Odious Debt: It seems there are not too many lawyers who have an understanding of or about the technical meaning of “odious debts.” Nevertheless, this highly dubious concept has the potential of almost explosive power for many lender states in this world. “Odious debts” are now understood as a legal institution which by force of law, make certain debts automatically null and void. - - Ankita Manav

    Companies Bill, 2009: The Companies Act, 1956 is the principal landmark legislation that governs companies in India. The Act prescribes provisions for protection of the interests of the investors, creditors and public at large but at the same time permits the management to utilize its resources for optimum results and prosperity - - Sharada T.R.

    Changing Sovereignty In The Light of WTO : Sovereignty means the right of the nations to govern them. This concept has fostered world order by establishing legal protections against external intervention and by offering a diplomatic foundation for the negotiation of international treaties - - Rittika Chhetri

    Mergers In Pharma Sector Takeovers in the Pharmaceutical industry are the current rage ll over the world. The last decade has seen the Indian Pharma industry undergo a complete makeover. It has managed to create a distinct position in the Global scenario - - Ankita & Kalyani

    Strikes and Lockouts: In any Industrial endeavour co-operation of labour and capital is quite essential for its success, although they have interests contrary to each other. They have different strategies and weapons to ventilate their grievances and safeguard their interests. - - Sonakshi Verma

    Operational Risk Management under Basel II in the light of COSO—ERM & Maturity Model: Operational risk in today’s tech savvy organization is of great concern which emphasizes of shield mechanism to mitigate the loss at adverse instances. Looking to this very concept the Banking Sector, - - Shuchi Chandra

    Vicarious Liability of Directors And officers on Bouncing of Cheques: This Article attempts to examine, a few questions in the light of decisions of the Apex Court, the provisions relating to section 141(1) for the purpose of determining the persons who shall be responsible and can be made liable for an offence done by a company. - - G.P.Sahi

    Brokers: The article relates to the role of stock brokers and sub brokers in the stock exchange market. Their relation with stock exchange and clients is examined, while dealing with sale and purchase of securities. - - Neha Bahl

    Insurance Companies: Insurance Act came into force on July 1, 1939 to consolidate and amend the law relating to business of insurance both of life and general insurances - - Akanksha & Akshay Kumar

    Domicile of A Pseudo-Foreign Corporation: Article Is About How Indian Laws Are Ambiguous And Contradicting With Respect To The Determination of Domicile of A Corporation. - - Ankita Mathur

    Mergers & Takeovers: Businesses were competitive locally expanded to the national arena. Competitiveness in the national arena is now forcing business to go global. - - piyush singh & daphne menezes

    Retail Sector & FDI: The article gives an overview of the flashback, the present and future of retail trading in India. It also gives an overview of the expected investments in retail sector by the players and foreign investors, laws relating to FDI in retail sector and possibilities of growth of the sector. Lastly, it gives a brief information of the most talked about Bharti- Wal-Mart joint venture deal. - - Amritesh Mishra

    Concept of Demat Shares: The article talks about dematerialisation of securitites and how this has led to greater efficiency. Dematerialization is a process by which physical certificates of an investor are converted into electronic form. The article further gives the process, advantages and disadvantages of dematerialisation. - - Atul & Garima

    Limited Liability Partnership: The Article deals with the concept of Limited Liability partnership which has features of both a company and a partnership. The artcle further delves upon the views and recommendations of the Naresh Chandra Committee Report. There is discussion about the UK legislation on Limited Liability Partnerships and how would it be useful in India. - - Garima & T.Priyadarshini

    Special Economic Zones: G lobalization has prompted a shift from an import substitution based development strategy to an export promotion policy. Countries are viewing Special Economic Zones as engines of economic growth. Following the Chinese precedent, Indian government has also adopted the Special Economic Zones model. - - Shikha Ohri

    Insider Trading And its Legal Mechanism: Insider trading may be perfectly legal, but the term is frequently used to refer to a practice, illegal in many jurisdictions, in which an insider or a related party trades based on material non-public information obtained during the performance of the insider's duties at the corporation, or otherwise misappropriated. - - Sudershani & Kartik

    Alternate Dispute Resolution: Globalization has been a great stimulation in the process of integration of economies and societies of different countries across the globe. - - B.S. Ajatshatru Meena

    RBIs Control of Inflation: RBI has always looked to tackle inflation by concentrating on the demand aspect. However quite clearly that hasn't had the desired impact. By increasing the bank rates and pushing down demand, RBI may slow down the growth of the economy and further stifle the farmers and the Small and Medium sized Entreprises (SME). - - Tishampati Sen

    Takeovers: The author in his Paper has analysed the provisions of law for the regulation of the activity of takeovers in India and has attempted to determine the loopholes in the regulatory mechanisms with suggestions for reforms.- - Ankur Kashyap

    Insider Trading: Meaning of Insider Trading, the laws regulating it in India, an international overview of insider trading and some shortcomings of the regulations relating to insider trading in India along with suggestions for the same. - - Himanshu & Sumeer

    Indoor Management: The doctrine of Indoor management, popularly known as the Turquand’s rule initially arose some 150 years ago in the context of the doctrine of constructive notice. - - Kunvar Bharat Singh

    Issue of Bonus Shares: While the issue of bonus shares increases the total number of shares issued and owned, it does not increase the value of the company. - - Shagun Mehta

    Constitutional Law

    Informal Sector And Social Development
    Abolish Reservation
    Reservation Policy
    Right to Vote Vs Right Note to Vote
    Judicial Accountability and Separation of Power
    Free expression is the fundamental fountain head of democracy
    United Nation and Security Council
    Right to Information Act
    Constitutionalism changing paradigm
    office of Profit
    Hung Parliament
    Constitutional Position of Jammu and Kashmir
    Power of Pardon
    Exemptions from disclosure of information under RTI
    Right to Information in India
    Right To Employment of Persons living With Hiv Aids
    Constitutional Morality And Judicial Values
    Lok Adalat and Perspective of Paribarik Mahila lok Adalat
    Rule of law
    There Removal of Bonded Labor System In India
    Doctrine of Pleasure
    Res Judicata
    Doctrine of pleasure and its proviso article 311 of Indian Constitution
    Free and Compulsory education for every Child at last
    Access To Education In Private Schools
    Austin’s theory of Sovereignty in modern India and Pakistan
    Role of Writs In The Administrative law
    A Mandate To Pollution Free Environment
    Competition Act
    De Penning vs Coramandal Indag Products
    Is India actually developing
    International Status the Right to Vote
    Is Legality an obsolete concept in International law
    Becoming An English Solicitor
    The Kyoto Dilemma
    Prevention of Money laundering Act
    Prevention of Corruption Act
    legal system
    Euthanasia and Human Rights
    Doctrine of Frustration and Force Majeure Clause
    Environmental law
    Art and Expression shall respect Religious Sentiments
    Environmental Degradation and its Protection
    Amicus Curiae
    Presidential Pardon
    Indigenous Governance
    Ex Post Facto laws and Indian legal Scenario
    International Human Rights and Transnational Corporation
    Balance of Power in International Relations
    Granting Cultural And Education Rights To The Minority In India

    Education - a Fundamental Right of a child:
    Comparative Study of the provisions of The Persons with Disability Act 1995 [PWD Act] and The Constitution of India having a bearing on Education. - - Jagruti Dekavadiya

    Art & Expression shalt respect Religious Sentiments:
    Describing freedom of expression, a famous incident is quoted in common law. It runs- once a Russian went to London. He has heard a lot that it is the country where a person enjoys a lot of freedom. And so he starts walking on the road with rotating his umbrella in his hand. Suddenly a British who was passing from there was hurt on his nose by his umbrella. In the meantime a police officer arrived and arrested this Russian. When presented in front of the judge the Russian told that he have heard a lot about the freedom guaranteed in this country but now he felt that it is not true. The judge in reply told that indeed the country gives a lot of freedom but in his case his freedom ends where the nose of that British starts. - - Vinay Ranjan

    Justice Delayed is Justice Denied:
    Before I start I would like to highlight something about the origin of the quoted line "Justice delayed is justice denied." This line was written by William Ewart Gladstone - - Pradip Kumar Das

    Reservation Policy:
    The motive of having reservation then was the eagerness to modernize through the promotion of education and industry and maintaining unity among themselves. - - Samprikta ghosal

    Free expression is the fundamental fountain-head of democracy:
    The right of free expression does not however confer right to disparage others right of person and reputation as such the right of free expression - - pooja vatsh

    Gender Justice:
    The reasons for the gender differentiation in society. It primarily deals with loopholes in indian socail fabric and the legislations implemented to curb the gender biases and compares the laws in UK, USA & EU. - - Upasana Mukherjee

    Judicial Accountability & Separation of Power:
    Judiciary Unlimited - an unelected judiciary which is not accountable to anyone except its own temperament has taken over significant powers of Indian Governance - - Rimali Batra

    Application of lex mercatoria in International Commercial Arbitration:
    the article is about the application of laws other than national laws in international commercial arbitration, the role of arbitrators autonomy and parties autonomy and the pros and cons of the same - - sonia saini

    Article 21 and Constitutional validity of Right to Die:
    The Constitution of India provides a long list of fundamental rights under Part-III. Article 21 of our Constitution is one of the important fundamental rights among those rights. - - Nikhil Kumar Nath

    Article 20 (3) of Constitution of India And Narco Analysis:
    In any criminal investigation, interrogation of the suspects and accused plays a vital role in extracting the truth from them. - - Sehnaz Ahmed
    Added Date: 2 Sep 2009

    Human Rights of Person In Persistent Vegetative State:
    What is importance of a kidney, eye, hands or legs for considering a human in order to recognise human rights for him? Even if person having either a single kidney or handicapped, won’t devoid him of human rights in any way - - Premit Chopda

    Legalize Abortion In India:
    Abortion is defined by the Canadian Intermediate Dictionary as the deliberate ending of a pregnancy by causing the fetus to be expelled from a woman's womb" - - Chandraveer Singh Bhati

    Constitutionalism - changing paradigm:
    A constitution is a charter of government deriving its whole authority from the governed" (Black's Law Dictionary). The constitution sets out the form of the government. - - Adv.Sandeep Agrawal

    Supreme Court is the final Pedestal for justice:
    the supreme is the final and the highest authority for which a person ca go for appeal into. It is the superior authority to adjudicate a matter therewith. - - Mansi Trivedi

    Hung Parliament:
    The oxford dictionary defines Hung Parliament as “parliament in which no party has clear majority”. In Parliamentary systems, a Hung Parliament or a minority government is one - - Alipak Banerjee

    Role of Writs in the Administrative Law:
    Administrative law has greatly demarcated the checks, balances and permissible area of an exercise of power, authority and jurisdiction over administrative actions enforced by the any State, Governmental agencies and instrumentalities defined under Article 12 of the Constitution of India. - - Shivangi M. Rana

    Right To Die:
    Constitution is a social document. It is the society in its political aspect. We can't understand its nature without understanding the chief characteristics of the society. - - Foram Thakar

    Water Management:
    In any organized society, right to live, as meeting does not ensure a human being only the animal needs of men. It is secured only when he is assured of all facilities to develop - - Mohit Singhvi

    Prosecution of Public Servants:
    This article deals with the much disputed area of law, wherein the question relates to the appropriate authority in granting santion for the prosecution for public servants. - - Chahat Chawl

    Scheduled Castes and Tribes Act:
    The cure is part of the cause in this case; as members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SC/STs), also known as Dalits, avail themselves of the advantages of reservation, and awareness of rights increases - - Dhruvan , Mohan Roy & Shiv Shankar

    Cooperative Federalism In India:
    Historical roots of cooperative federalism to the Mughal Period and goes on to give a panoramic coverage of its dynamic functioning in the Indian Democracy from the 1950s to the present, in the light of, inter alia, the role of the judiciary, discipline in the political parties- Anusha Singh

    Doctrine of Pleasure:
    Effective and efficient governance is the expectation of every civilized society. This role is performed by the government which is one of the four essential elements of the state viz. The Executive - - Shashwat Agarwal - Added Date: 14 Feb 2010

    Res Judicata:
    Res Judicata is a phrase which has been evolved from a Latin maxim, which stand for ‘the thing has been judged’, meaning there by that the issue before the court has already been decided - - Shashwat Agarwal - Added Date: 14 Feb 2010

    Rule of Law in India & UK:
    Rule of law is the supreme manifestation of human civilization and culture and is a new ‘lingua franca’ of global moral thought. It is an eternal value of constitutionalism and inherent attribute of democracy and good governance - - Varsha

    Rule of law:
    For a purposeful rule of law to exist in a society, democracy is required and for a democratic state the prevalence of rule of law is required. Thus, it can be concluded that democracy and rule of law are interdependent and one cannot flourish without the other. India is world’s largest democracy. - - Chhavi Agarwal

    Silence of The Lambs - Article 20(3):
    Protection Prescribe By The Constitution In It’s Fundamental Right For Prohibition Against The Self-Incrimination, Which Are Being Proceedurely Vague & Unspoken In The Adminstrative Arena. - - Apurv Shah

    office of Profit:
    Article 102(1)(a) of the Constitution of India makes the holding of an office of profit by a member of Parliament a ground for disqualification from the membership of Parliament. - - Sachin Sachdeva

    Corruption: A Menace In India:
    Corruption literally means “Inducement of a public official by improper means (as bribery) to violate duty by committing a felony".In the author's view corruption is the root cause of all other problems that a country faces. - - Kunal. J. Vyas

    Private Defence:
    Section 96 to 106 of the penal code states the law relating to the right of private defence of person and property. The provisions contained in these sections give authority to a man to use necessary force - - Mohi Kumari

    Silence of The Lambs - Article 20(3) In Administrative Proceedings:
    It is always a good idea in most circumstances to begin at the beginning. And the beginning of the right against self-incrimination lies in the seventeenth-century trial of John Lilburne, a Puritan agitator - - Alekhya Prakash

    Separation of Powers:
    There are three distinct activities in every government through which the will of the people are expressed.

    Amendability of Indian Constitution:
    The institutions under which we live are being changed continually by the Parliament, because we are never satisfied with them. Sometimes they are - - Kapil Raina

    Nemo in propria causa judex, esse debet :THE RULE AGAINST BIAS:
    Nemo in propria causa judex , esse debet, i.e.; no one should be made a judge in his own cause. It is popularly known as the rule against bias. - - Divi Jain

    Preamble: A part of the Constitution or not:
    Authors have discussed the vexed question that whether preamble is a part of constitution or not. In this,, Authors have relied on two landmark cases i.e. Berubari case & Kesavananda Bharti case. Authors have concluded this brief comment by stating that Preamble is a part of Constitution. - -Mohit Agrawal & Romit Agrawal

    Constitutionality of a Constitutional Amendment:
    The present Article envisages to highlight as to what is the limit of constitutional validity of constitutional amendment - - Prateek Deol

    Waman Rao Vs Union of India:
    This article aims to explain how this case has settled the uncertainty which arose in the constitutional law immediately after Keshavananda Bharti Case. - - Abhirup Ghosh

    42nd Constitutional Amendment:
    Article stresses on what was 42nd Constitutional Amendment all about? How Parliament ensured through A.368 that they grow unfettered in their power? - - Prateek Deol

    Freedom of Press:
    The right to freedom of expression is probably the most universally accepted human right.[1]The freedom of the press is considered to be the most important right which must be protected in a democratic society - - Madan Singh Choudhary

    Protection against ex-post-facto laws:
    An ex-post-facto law is a law which imposes penalties retroactively, that is, upon acts already done, or which increases the penalty for the past acts - - Madan Singh Choudhary

    Causes for Introduction of Article 21 A:
    Author in this Article has tried to portray a unique link between Poverty and Education. And, how Indian Judiciary made the Parliament to amend the constitution and make right to education as a Fundamental right under Article 21 A by 82nd Constitutional Amendment - - Prateek Deol

    Article 368:
    The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign socialist democratic republic - - Arun Soni

    Personal Dignity:
    Inculcation of various international conventions and declarations in our domestic laws has been elaborately dealt. Finally, its presents that it’s only judiciary who can play the role of savior of human dignity, when such terms can’t be codified. - -Himanshu Choudhary

    Right to Food and Development in India:
    The Article at the begining presents a brief outline of the origin and development of the Right to Food, the most debated Socio-Economic Right, in the modern legal system. - - Priyanka Rathi

    Police Firing:
    The conduct of the police is an important indicator of the state of governance, and their performance can significantly shape the social well being of nations - - Pankaj Bansiwal & Jitendra Bansiwal

    Right To Information
    In India, the movement for the right to information has been as vibrant in the hearts of marginalized people as it is in the pages of academic journals and in the media.- - Vikas Kumar & Shashank Manish

    Right To Information
    This information deals with the power given to the public for accountability of Bureaucracies. - - Sudhir Kumar & Shashank Manish

    minorities rights
    it focuses on constitutional rights of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions - - Ajay bishnoi
    The State of Madras vs. Smt. Champakam Dorairajan
    This article is a case comment on The State of Madras vs. Smt. Champakam Dorairajan - - Sudhir Kumar and Shashank Manish

    A deliberate termination of life on an individual's request, by another, in medical terminology, the active and deliberate termination of life on patient's request, by a doctor - - Surya Bhan Singh Billawria

    Competition Act
    This article is all about the shortcomings of the Competition Act,2002. The Author tried to find out the source of the Competition Act, 2002 and also what more is required in the Act. Author has mainly consulted Halsboury’s books and European Union Regulations on Competition. - - Ashutosh

    International Status the Right to Vote
    The right to vote is a well-established norm of international law. Significant international treaties, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and regional agreements such as the American Convention on Human Rights, enshrine citizens’ - - Manish Lakhawat

    Role of Law in E-governance
    This paper specifically deals with E-governance in India, and prevalent laws applicable to it .Firstly, I have discussed the developments made by India with respect to e-governance. And later have highlighted the problems with the existing Law, compared the same with the other developed countries, and suggested requisite changes for better implementation of e-governance in India. - - Akanksha

    Judiciary of England & Wales
    General information about the judiciary of England & Wales - including who they are, what they do, key statistics, speeches and judgements - - Adv.Tarun .D Choudhury

    Presidential Pardon
    The dynamic nature & the changing dimensions round us impulses changes in the concept of morality & law. - - Abhishek Kumar Pandey

    Abolish Reservation
    Abolish Reservation -

    Should Judge be a Hermit
    A person who has withdrawn from society and lives a solitary existence; a recluse is the most simple inference that can be drawn. Hermit is someone who doesn’t look for answers - - Ritika Behl

    Rights of Senior Citizen
    The population of the elderly persons has been increasing over the years. As per the UNESCO estimates, the number of the aged(60+) is likely to 590 million in 2005 - - Dr. Rakesh Kumar Singh

    Public Interest Litigation
    This Article deals with the law and various caselaws on Public Interest Litigation in India and the mechanism for protection of human rights through Public Interest Litigation - - Vishal P. Bhat

    Indian Secularism And Subsidy For Religious Populism
    If India is to remain a secular country, the State must refrain from privileging any religion over another. Accommodation of minorities must not turn into minority communalism. - - Dr. Rakesh Kr. Singh


    Narco Analysis
    Article 20(3) of Constitution of India and Narco Anaysis
    Medical Negigence
    Human Organs Transplantation
    Forensic Evidence
    Narco Analysis
    Organ Transplantation law In India
    Organ Transplantation

    Intellectual Property

    Is India Geared Up For Business Method Patent:
    Today technology is changing expeditiously. New technical inventions are taking place in huge number. These new inventions open new field of subject-matter for protection under Intellectual Property Law - - Apoorva Yadav

    Unethical Drug Promotion
    Trade Secrets
    Patentability Criteria
    Making the Most of Copyright in the UK
    Business Method Patents
    Whether Patent law Protects Biotechnological Inventions
    Breach of privacy and Confidentiality
    Celebrity Rights
    Software Patenting
    Intellectual Property and Traditional knowledge
    Identity Theft
    Copyright in judgments
    Trademark Infringement and Passing off
    Patent and Its Effect In India
    Patenting Recent Biotechnological Inventions
    Pharmaceutical Product Patents
    IPR and Enforcement Mechanism
    Designs Act and the Designs Act
    Data Protection Act
    Copyright Infringement in Cyberspace & Network Security
    Protecting Trade Marks
    Intellectual Property
    Competition law and Intellectual Property laws
    Does perfume smell have its own copyright
    Copyright law in India
    Challenges to India Patent Regime
    Controversy of Section 3(D) of The Indian Patent Act
    Using Manufacturer Trademark son Compatible Consumables
    Genetic Engineering A Casual Acquaintance
    Licensing and Access to Medicine in Developing Countries
    Intellectual theft an essay on Plagiarism

    Trademark Protection in India:
    Intellectual Property is the most important part of the modern business. Intellectual property which is a combination of copyright, trademark, design, geographical indication, patent, industrial design, integrated circuit - - Binita Shahi

    Internet Linking:
    article is about the problems faced by copyright laws and how they are falling behind the developments taking place especially in the realms of cyber space. - - Ankita Mathur

    Domain Tasting - A Profiteering Venture:
    The article aims to aware the public about a foul game known as “Domain Tasting” practiced by techno-internet world in order to earn easy money. The article discusses harmful effects of it and proposed solutions to get rid of such practice. - - Jaideep Kharub

    Does the Language/Philosophy of property fit within the world of intangibles such as knowledge and culture. - - Naheed Patel

    Intellectual Property and Traditional knowledge:
    The article talks about how traditional knowledge forms a part of Intellectual Property n why how and the ways it should be protected.- - Juhi Chowdhary

    Business Method Patents:
    The article discusses two major opposing views regarding grant of patent protection to Business Methods. - - Jaideep Kharub

    Trade Secrets:
    The article basically deals with trade secrets, their importance and their protection. It defines what a trade secrets is, and deals with the protection of trade secrets in international as well as indian context. - - Kunal Arora

    YouTube case: A look at the infringement of copyright case against YouTube by T-Series - - Priyanka & Shachi

    Title of Films And Books:
    The article is about the latest IP issue in India. Students, Professors, and even some lawyers had a misconception that literary and film titles are governed by the copyright law, which are actually governed by the trademark law - - Amritesh Mishra

    E-Commerce, as the name suggests, is the practice of buying and selling goods and services through online consumer services on the internet - - Kapil Raina

    De Penning v/s Coramandal Indag Products:
    Case study. Suit filed for infringement of patent by Monsanto Company. one of the 2 patent related cases to ever be moved in the Apex Court - - Nikhil Danak

    Celebrity Rights:
    In the contemporary age the media is having growing importance in various sectors of our economy and especially with regard to mobilizing the public opinion. We have regular interface with the media in the form of newspapers, TV, Internet etc. - - Baijayanta Banerjee

    Software Patenting:
    Software patenting is currently one of the most heated areas of debate. So, this article is an overview of software patenting in the current scenario - - Kartik Dawar

    Advertising And Trademark Infringement:
    Since independence the Indian businessmen and industries faced limited competition – both from within and outside the country. But, in 1990’s India - - Pradip Kumar Das

    Comparative Advertising laws
    This article attempts to address the concept of comparative advertising, within the domain of intellectual property law, studying the various components involved, statutory enactments and stands taken by the courts of law in India and abroad, honest and unfair practices involved in CA, and finally, a comparative analysis of laws of other countries, thereby bringing to light the ambiguity and lack of comprehensive laws in India.- - Rashi & Yamini

    Copyright Law in India
    Under section 13 of the Copyright Act 1957, copyright protection is conferred on literary works, dramatic works, musical works, artistic works, cinematograph films and sound recording - - Mahendra Kumar Sunkar

    Licensing and Access to Medicine in Developing Countries
    In this paper we argue that compulsory licensing is a fundamental tool that developing countries may use in certain conditions to ensure that poor people have access to necessary medicines. This measure may produce positive social effects. - - Varun Maheshwari & Rahul Chaursia

    Trademark Infringement & Passing off
    A trademark can be used for identifying and distinguishing a particular seller’s goods from others. Trademark also shows the origin of the goods - - Avinash Gadhre

    Using Manufacturer Trademarks on Compatible Consumables
    As awareness of protecting the environment increases, recycling or reuse of goods and resources is also on the rise, which is highly beneficial to the environment. Consumers - - Poorvi Chothani

    Designs Act 1911 & the Designs Act 2000
    The article does a detailed comparison between the act of 1911 and the act of 2000 with the help of relevant case laws. Specific emphasis has been laid on the reasons which brought about the need for the new act - - Reshma Abraham

    Whether Patent Law Protects Biotechnological Inventions
    When biotechnology and patent law came parallel, again there was controversy which is still continuing. Whether plant, animal or human has to be made subject of research, ethics would always question such work - - Bhumika Sharma

    Patentability Criteria
    Considering the fact that nowadays ,more and more people are applying their intellect skills in making new inventions in any field of art, which are very useful to the general community - - Rishab Jain

    Competition Law and Intellectual Property Laws
    The Government of India in pursuit of increasing the economic efficiency of the country acknowledged the Liberalization Privatization Globalization (LPG) era by liberalizing the economy and reducing governmental control. - - Poorvi & Madhooja

    Does perfume smell have its own copyright
    I am presently indulged in doing my internship with India’s leading entertainment industry in its legal cell. - - Pooja Vatsh

    Protecting Domain Names as Trade Marks
    EasyGroup IP Licensing Limited applied in the U.K. to register the trade mark EASY.COM in association with a wide range of services including advertising - - Prashant Katara

    Juvenile Justice-A Comparative Study with U.K
    The minors were exempted from the punishments and the fines because there had to be a difference in the level of understanding of a 8 year old and an 18 year old. - - Ayushi Mittal

    Protecting Trade Marks
    India has seen a rapid growth in its economic structure and one of the major reason being the global presence of the India companies and therefore it becomes utmost important to protect their ‘trademarks’ internationally. - - Abhijit Mukherjee

    Challenges to India Patent Regime
    The significance of these rights can be observed by the various upcoming legislations in India and in International Arena to regulate the use and safeguard these patent rights and other IPRs. - - Arvind Thapliyal

    Intellectual Property
    Intellectual properties are the creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and the symbols, names, and designs used in commerce. - - Ravee Tanta

    Protecting Domain Names as Trade Marks
    Advertising And Trademark Infringement
    Comparative Advertising Laws

    Cyber Law

    Data Protection Law In India
    Probes into data protection & its Indian perspective ,Data Protection Law In Respect of Information Technology Enabled Services, its significance and challenges citing various instances of the frauds & mishaps - - Swati Sinha

    Electronic agents
    Data Retention Policies
    Cyber Crimes and General Principles
    Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge
    Data Theft in Cyber Space
    Geographical Indications
    Cyber Crime and  law
    Cyber Crimes and Cyber law
    Cyber Terrorism
    Servers and Routers in India by a foreign entity
    Data Protection law In India
    Data Exclusivity law
    Cyber Terrorism and Various legal Compliances
    E-contracts and issues involved in its formation

    Intellectual theft- an essay on Plagiarism
    Plagiarism is an issue of concern among people all around the world. It is a moral, ethical, legal issue which has been plaguing the world for centuries - - Soumo & Suvajit

    online Defamation
    The concept of defamation in India is defined under Section 499 of Indian Penal Code. The concept is very old and is backed up by various judicial pronouncements - - Vibhor Verdhan

    Does India have a Data Protection law
    This article mainly throws light on the absence of Data Protection law in India and its consequences - - Mohammed Nyamathulla Khan

    Breach of Confidentiality & Various Legal Issues
    Confidentiality has been defined as the "ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access" and is one of the cornerstones of information security. - - Vibhor Verdhan

    Data Retention Policies
    Document retention, especially the retention of electronic data has become a hot topic in the legal industry. In the 21st century business world, companies are creating and storing the electronic document and information at light speed. - - Vibhor Verdhan Verdhan

    Data Protection Act
    The Data Protection Act of England is an act that was made after the report of Lindop’s Commission that had spoken about the privacy of the citizens of the country of United Kingdom. The data protection act contributes its level best in maintaining the privacy of the citizens of the country - - Shivangi Raman

    Copyright Infringement in Cyberspace & Network Security
    Information Technology is growing faster than any other communication vehicle in the history mankind. Invention of digital technology was the most important revolution in the last century. The influence of digital technology - - Tabrez Ahmad

    Data Protection Law in India:
    The purpose of this article is to throw light upon the laws that are for the protection of data inh India. A comparative and critical analysis with the foreign laws relating to data protection has been made. - - Pankaj Kumar - Added Date: 6 Oct 2007

    Emergence of Knowledge Economy:
    In an agricultural economy land is the key resource. In an industrial economy natural resources, such as coal and iron ore, and labour are the main resources. - - Husain Nazish Irshad - Added Date: 2 Dec 2007

    Cyber Crime And Law:
    contributes an understanding of the effects of negative use of Information technology, and how far the present law in India is successful in dealing with the issue, and what way is the legal structure lagging to curb the crime. - - Akanksha & Akshay - Added Date: 14 Jan 2008

    Cyber Terrorism:
    Cyber terrorism is the premeditated use of disruptive activities, or the threat thereof, in cyber space, with the intention to further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives, or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives. - - Subhojyoti Acharya - Added Date: 6 Feb 2008

    Data Exclusivity Law:
    Data exclusivity is a matter of heated controversy now-a-days all over the world and a source of tussle between developing and developed countries - - Amit Bhaskar

    Legal Dimensions of Information Technology - issues of copyright:
    It is related to the cyber world and the main focus is given on the issues such as the cyber crimes, right to information and the copyright issues. - - Dr. (Ms.) Thrity D. Patel & Azim Pathan

    Digital Signatures:
    Digital Signatures have been provided for in the Information Technology Act, 2000, to bring about a minimum level of security in the increasing amount of data transfer over the Internet - - Nandini Devare

    Electronic agents:
    Undoubtedly, the influences of IT (‘Information Technology’) have already invaded every corner of our daily lives. Nowadays, it is unimaginable if one determines not to relevant with this new technology at all - - Sachin Mishra

    Data Theft in Cyber Space:
    This Article highlights the suseptibilty of data to theft in the digital age. It analyses as to what are the current provisions in the existing law on such theft and whether it can be brought under the ambit of the Indian Penal Code, 1860. - - Robin George

    Identity Theft:
    All across India, the fastest growing White Collar Crime in the nation has been identified as Identity Theft and its affecting each one of us in insidious ways - - Pulkit Tare

    Breach of privacy & Confidentiality:
    The article deals with Section 72 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 which speaks about penalty for Breach of Confidentiality and privacy - - Nimitha Salim

    Cyber Crimes & Cyber Law:
    Information technology deals with information system, data storage, access, retrieval, analysis and intelligent decision making. Information technology - - Jagruti Dekavadiya

    Cyber Terrorism & Various Legal Compliances:
    Terrorism is defined as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.

    E-contracts & issues involved in its formation:
    An attempt to reveal the incomplete character of the laws present in India w.r.t the econtratcs by analysing issues involved in the formation of an e-contract when it is analysed hand in hand with the conventional forms of contracts involving legal persons. - - Aniket Waghdhare

    Servers & Routers in India by a foreign entity:
    Countries negotiate bilateral tax treaties to govern the tax treatment of cross-border transactions. Under most tax treaties, a company that sells goods and services to foreign markets - - Swati Sinha

    Tax Laws

    Power to Tax in Territorial Waters: It examines that who has the power to impose tax in territorial waters.

    Tax implications in a product loan transaction
    Residence and Intentions under Tax laws
    Royalty Taxability Under Vat Laws
    International Tax
    Fringe Benefit Tax
    Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements
    Capital Gains Tax and Joint Development Agreement
    Protection of the Investors by Sebi
    Taxing Power In Democracy
    Dishonour of Cheque
    VAT in Asia Pacific
    overview of Fringe benefit tax
    Hutch Vodafone Merger - An Issue of Tax Panning
    Does Dividend Distribution Tax amount to Doube taxation

    Overview of Fringe benefit tax: Fringe Benefit Tax may seem new to India, but it's not a novel concept. This tax is already levied in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and some other nations. - - G.Vardini

    Household Savings: Savings is the difference between Income and Expenditure. A high level of savings helps the economy to progress on a continuous growth path since Investment is mainly financed out of savings. - - Vasudha tamrakar & Anoliba Mani

    Application of Income: There are certain fundamental concepts which play a very elementary role in the computation of income tax. one such concept is application of income - - Abhishek Singh

    SEZ: The emergence of SEZs in a conservative society like India is aimed at changing the Indian outdated thinking and environment. India converted eight of its existing export processing zones into SEZs six years ago. - - Priyanka Pali

    Cash Credit: Section 68 has been introduced into the taxing enactments in order to plug loopholes and in order to place certain situations beyond doubt even though there were judicial decisions covering some of the aspects - - Monica Sood

    Residence & Intentions under Tax Laws: The question of a person being a resident or not is identifiable after applying the test laid down in section 6 of the Income Tax Act, 1961. The scheme provided under the said section clearly lays - - Mehul Gupta

    New Dimension to India's Taxation Policy: The reflects on the change in taxation policy from the british raj to the independence and then during the liberalization, along with current trends and emeerging issues. It also contains comparisons between different countries. - - Harsh Vardhan Jajodia

    Does Dividend Distribution Tax amount to Double taxation: This discusses the conflict of law regarding the implication of Dividend Distribution Tax. It has been argued time and again by many that, DDT amounts to Double Taxation - - Devika Singh

    Business Connections: The term "Business connections" has always created confusion in its proper application and it has undergone lot of changes with the help of judicial pronouncements. After lot of misapplication and confusion the term has been rationalized to an extent over the period of time .This write up is an attempt to study the changes which happened over the period of time w.r.t. section 9 of the said act. The contains an extensive in relation to the subject matter. - - Swati Upadhyay

    VAT in Asia Pacific: This deals with the inception of VAT in European Union and the Asia Pacific countries - - Aakriti & Neelabh

    Fringe Benefit Tax: The is about Fringe Benefit Tax. Fringe Benefit Tax is a tax to be paid by an employer in addition to the income tax payable for every assessment year starting from the assessment year 2006-07 - - Nimitha Salim

    Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements: Fiscal jurisdiction is often the most aggressively guarded jurisdiction of any nation. As a consequence, even in times when economies are going global and borders fading, leading to liquid movement of goods, services and capital, double taxation is still one of the major obstacles - - Kumar Sumeet

    Capital Gains Tax & Joint Development Agreement: The scope of Capital Gains in Joint Development Agreement is a vast one and is made with an eye on the tax consequences of the transaction - - Aashish Srivastava

    International Tax: International Tax is a field where the taxing jurisdiction of two countries is involved. Tax is a sovereign issue and every state has its right to tax its residents -- Saurabh Kumar

    Immigration Law

    Future of Indian Immigration:
    Globalization, which helps businesses expand into new international markets, is eroding nation’s virtual borders through the Internet and blurring its geographic borders as the global mobility of resources and people is on the rise. - - Poorvi Chothani
    NRI Grievances Redressal Mechanism in India
    Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs - offers customized solutions to address the varied expectations of the diverse overseas Indian community; Protector General of Emigrants - System devised for hearing grievances; NRI Cells; Non-Governmental Forums - - Slahuddin Ahmed

    Consumer Laws

    Consumerism in the Globalized world:
    It would be in fitness of the fact to recall the greatest of Arab historians, Ibn Khaldun saying: “That in civilization there is a limit that cannot be overstepped. - - Pankaj Bansiwal and Jitendra Bansiwa

    Phenomenon of Consumerism
    Third Party Beneficiary Rights
    Medical Negligence

    Unethical Drug Promotion:
    This article aims to identify the aspects and practices which form a potential threat to consumers due to unethical drug promotion. - - Shubhang Setlur

    Phenomenon of Consumerism:
    Today, consumer is called the king of the market. He is at the centre stage of all market activities. It is constant endeavour of producers that the production of product must conform to the needs of consumer. In addition to the satisfaction of consumer, it also the endeavour of producer that their sale should be maximum. - - Abhishek Vinod Deshmukh

    Torts Laws In India

    Torts In India: The law of torts in India is mainly inspired by the English law of torts. The application of the English law of torts has however been selective to suit the Indian conditions. Tort law largely plays the function of aiding in the development of the judicial system - - Ms. Bhuvana Veeraragavan

    online Defamation
    Minors In Torts
    Torts In India
    Tortious Remedies Injunction
    Malicious Prosecution under law of Tort
    Torts in India
    Mass Torts and MNC’s Liability
    Vicarious liability of Employers in Sexual torts committed by employees

    Torts in India: Torts are civil wrongs resulting in personal injury or harm that constitutes grounds for a lawsuit. Thus, tort law addresses conflicts between private individuals or entities - - Mukesh Chouhan

    Mass Torts & MNC’s Liability: ‘Mass Torts’ can be explained as ‘Such activity of the defendant, the harm caused by which is wide and a large number or sector of society gets affected simultaneously’. - - Mukesh Chouhan

    Minors In Torts: Article tells about the legal position of minors in the law of torts in India and the Commonwealth countries along with some relavent caselaws. Child's capacity to be sued in cases of negligence, contract etc is surfaced comprehensively - - Mohd Umar

    Tortious Remedies - Injunction: Anyone moving the court in regard of some injury whether past or continuing must first ensure exhaustion of preferred relief measures of seeking damages. - - Ishita Bhaduri

    Malicious Prosecution under Law of Tort: Malicious prosecution is an abuse of the process of the court by wrongfully setting the law in motion on a criminal charge. In order to succeed the plaintiff must prove that there was a prosecution without any just and reasonable cause, initiated by malice and the case was decided in the plaintiff’s favour. - - Prateek Shanker Srivastava

    Case Laws

    Analysis of The Case of Avena And Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico V. USA):
    The judgment of the International Court of Justice in Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v United States of America) considers the obligations that a state bears towards detained foreign nationals under art 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.

    C.Golaknath V.State of Punjab
    M.C.Mehta v. Union of India
    State of Bihar V.Bihar Pensioner Samaj
    Danial Latifi v.Union of India
    The State of Madras vs. Smt.Champakam Dorairajan
    S.R.Bommai v.Union of India
    Vishakha  Judgment
    Priya Pate Vs State of M.P
    Case Comment on SK.ShukaV State of Uttar Pradesh
    Indian Railway Construction Kumar
    KK Modi Vs KN Modi
    Bhatia International Vs.Buk Trading S.A
    Bihar Assembly Dissolution Case

    Anti Dumping laws
    Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds
    New Dimension to India's Taxation Policy
    Sting Operation
    Child labour with special reference to construction business
    Indian Secularism And Subsidy For Religious Populism
    Res Gestae
    Domestic Waste
    Law of Outer Space
    Watching Television with family
    Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act,
    Legal Dimensions of Information Technology issues of copyright
    Changing Facets of Sexual offences
    legal Aid
    Digital Signatures
    Public Policy Zoroastrian
    Forest Management In India
    Child labour
    Abolition of Zamindari System in Rajasthan
    Uniform and Revenue System in India
    Singapore Arbitration
    Why Do Prosecution Witnesses Turn Hostile
    Future of Indian Immigration
    Legal Aid
    Conflict between Interest and Duties of a lawyer
    Globalization and the Indian legal Fraternity
    Truth detection methods
    Competition Protection
    Corruption in Decentralized Governance
    Analysis of the Police Act
    Services – Consumer Protection Act
    Contempt of Court
    Adoption under Juvenile Justice Act
    Juvenile Justice A Comparative Study with U.K
    Abandonment during Sunset Years
    Witness Protection Programme
    Legal Aid
    Domestic Violence in Marriage
    OECD Projection Harmful Tax Competition
    Powers of High Court to entertain election petitions
    Prostitution in India
    Peter Scott or Scotch
    Article 12
    Outer Space legal Perspective
    Independence of Judiciary
    Disability and Education
    Legal position of Eunuchs
    Poison Pills
    Legal Information Technology
    Education Fundamental Right of a child
    Psychological Effects of Poverty In Children
    Most Favoured Nation Treatment
    Legal Education To Meet Challenges of Globalization
    Combating noise pollution
    Food For Few Thought For Others
    Domestic Violence Act Fundamental rights
    Legal Aid Movement
    Presidential Pardon
    Right to Information an Anti Corruption Tool
    Article 21 and Constitutional validity of Right to Die
    Human Rights of Person In Persistent Vegetative State
    Supreme Court is the final Pedestal for justice
    Lacunae of Operational Risk
    Role of Advocates In Implementation of legal Aid Schemes
    Persons with Disabilities
    limits of Judicial Review
    Does India have a Data Protection law
    Section 17 of Indian Registration Act
    Indigenous population still carvings for their basic amenities
    Establishing the International Criminal Court
    Charter Party
    Breach of Confidentiality and Various legal issues
    Is Personal liberty a hindrance upon the development of the nation
    Back log of cases
    Inherent Power of the Court to Grant Restitution
    Water Management
    Power of Indian courts to issue Garnishee Order
    Salem Advocates Bar Association v.Union of India
    Role of legal Services Authority In Contemporary Scenario (Jharkhand)
    Mergers In Pharma Sector
    Contempt Power of Court
    Human Rights of Vulnerable Sections
    Pubic Participation in Environment Impact Assessment
    Trade Secret
    Prosecution of Pubic Servants
    Covering the Operational Risk Management under Basel II in the light of COSO - ERM and Maturity Model
    Scheduled Castes and Tribes Act
    Global Warming
    litigation & Delays in India
    Human Rights, Environment and Industrial Disaster
    Privilege Against Self Incrimination
    Corruption A Menace In India
    Privilege In Matrimonial Communication And The Abuse of Its Sanctity

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