International Court of Justice:
is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations The
International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of
the United Nations. Its seat is at the Peace Palace in The Hague
(Netherlands). It began work in 1946, when it replaced the
Permanent Court of International Justice which had functioned in
the Peace Palace since 1922. It operates under a Statute largely
similar to that of its predecessor, which is an integral part of
the Charter of the United Nations.
Delhi High Court was established
on 31st October, 1966. Initially, the High Court of Judicature at
Lahore, which was established by a Letters Patent dated 21st
March, 1919, exercised jurisdiction over the then provinces of the
Punjab and Delhi. This position continued till the Indian
Independence Act, 1947 when the dominions of India and Pakistan
Bombay High Court was
inaugurated on 14 August 1862. Although the name of the city was
changed from Bombay to Mumbai in 1995, the Court as an institution
did not follow suit and remained as the Bombay High Court. The
High Court of Bombay, which is the chartered High Court and one of
the oldest High Courts in the Country. It has Appellate
Jurisdiction over the State of Maharashtra, Goa, Daman & Diu and
Dadra & Nagar Haveli. In addition to the Principal Seat at Bombay,
it has benches at Aurangabad, Nagpur, Panaji (Goa)....
Calcutta High Court,
formerly known as the High Court of Judicature at Fort William,
was brought into existence by the Letters Patent dated 14th May,
1862, issued under the High Court's Act, 1861, which provided that
the jurisdiction and powers of the High Court were to be defined
by Letters Patent.
High Court of Madras,
one of the three High Courts in India established at the
Presidency Towns by Letters Patent granted by Her Majesty Queen
Victoria, bearing date 26th June 1862, is the highest Court in the
State of Tamil Nadu, exercising Original Jurisdiction over the
City of Madras and Appellate Jurisdiction over the entire State as
well as extra-ordinary Original Jurisdiction, Civil and Criminal,
under the Letters Patent and Special Original Jurisdiction for the
issue of writs under the Constitution of India.
Karnataka High Court history
can be traced back to the year 1884 when the Chief Court of Mysore
was created with three judges and was designated as the highest
court of appeal, reference and revision in the State of Mysore,
the earlier name of Karnataka. The court had District Courts,
Sub-ordinate Judges' Courts and Munsiff Courts to assist it on
civil cases and a Court of Sessions, District Magistrate and
First, Second and Third Class Magistrates to assist it on criminal
cases. In 1881, the office of the Chief Judge was created and the
designated person had the utmost authority in the court. In 1930,
it was renamed as the High Court of Mysore and the Chief Judge was
given the new name of Chief Justice. In 1973, it got its present
name of Karnataka High Court.
Gauhati High Court was
established on 1 March 1948 after the Government of India Act 1935
was passed. It was originally known as the High Court of Assam and
Nagaland, but renamed as Gauhati High Court in 1971 by the North
East Areas (Reorganization) Act, 1971.
Andhra Pradesh High Court is
the High Court was set up on 5 July 1954 under the Andhra State
Act, 1953. Situated in Hyderabad and has a sanctioned judge
strength of 39.
High Court of Rajasthan was
founded in 1949 at Jodhpur, and was inaugurated by the Rajpramukh,
Maharaja Sawai Man Singh on 29 August 1949. The first Chief
Justice was Kamala Kant Verma. A bench was formed at Jaipur which
was dissolved in 1958 and was again formed on 31 January 1977.
Currently the sanctioned strength of the judges is 40 and actual
strength is 22.
Punjab and Haryana High Court
is situated at Chandigarh, the capital of the States of Punjab and
Haryana. The sanctioned strenghth of this High Court is 68 judges
consisting of Chief Justice, 36 Permanent Judges and 31 Additional
Judges. As on 9th July 2012, there are 41 Judges (including the
Acting Chief Justice) working at High Court. There are 46 judges
on the strength of the High Court.
High Court of Kerala is the
highest court in the Indian state of Kerala and in the Union
Territory of Lakshadweep. The High Court of Kerala is
headquartered at Kochi. Drawing its powers under Article 226 of
the Constitution of India, the High Court has the power to issue
directions, orders and writs including the writs of habeas corpus,
mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari for ensuring
the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the
Constitution to citizens or for other specified purposes.
Allahabad High Court was
originally founded as the High Court of Judicature for the
North-Western Provinces at Agra on 17 March 1866 by the Indian
High Courts Act of 1861 replacing the old Sadr Diwani Adalat. Sir
Walter Morgan, Barrister-at-Law and Mr. Simpson were appointed the
first Chief Justice and the first Registrar respectively of the
High Court of North-Western Provinces.
Chhattisgarh High Court was
established on 1 November 2000 after the Madhya Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2000 was passed. It has jurisdiction over the
state of Chhattisgarh. The High Court of Bilaspur is the 19th High
Court of India.
Patna High Court was
established on 3 February 1916 and later affiliated under the
Government of India Act, 1915. The court is headquartered in Patna,
the administrative capital of the state. Proclamation made by the
Governor-General of India on the 22nd March, 1912 the territories
of Bihar and Orissa which were formerly subject to and included
within the limits of the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal,
were promoted to the status of a separate province, and by Letters
Patent, dated the 9th February, 1916 the Patna High Court was
ushered into existence with Circuit sittings at Cuttack, and form
the 26th February, 1916, the date on which the aforesaid Letters
Patent was published in the Gazette of India, the High Court of
Judicature at Fort William in Bengal ceased to exercise
jurisdiction, Civil, Criminal, Admiralty, Matrimonial,
Testamentary and Intestate, Enrolment, etc. in all matters in
which jurisdiction was given to the High Court of Judicature at
Jharkhand High Court was
established in 2000 under the Bihar Reorganization Act, 2000,
after the state of Jharkhand was carved out of the state of Bihar.
The court has jurisdiction over Jharkhand state.
Madhya Pradesh High Court was
established as the Nagpur High Court on 2 January 1936 under the
Government of India Act 1935. The Court was established in Nagpur,
but after the reorganisation of states on 1 November 1956, it was
moved to Jabalpur. The court has a sanctioned judge strength of
Gujarat High Court was
established on 1 May 1960 under the Bombay Re-organisation Act,
1960 after the state split from Bombay State.
High Court of Sikkim: Sikkim
became the 22nd State of India. Under Clause (i) of Article 371F,
the High Court functioning immediately prior to the date of merger
became the High Court for the State of Sikkim under the
Constitution like any other High Court in the country.
Orissa High Court: Government
of India issued the Orissa High Court Order, 1948, under the
Section 229(1) of the Government of India Act, 1935, on April 30,
1948. This order clearly stated that "from the 5th day of July,
1948, there shall be a Court for the Province of Orissa, which
shall be a Court of Record". Finally, on July 26, 1948, Orissa
High Court was formally inaugurated
High Court of Jammu and Kashmir
was established on the basis of the Order No. 1 issued by the
Maharaja on 26 March 1928. The Maharaja appointed Lala Kanwar Sain
as the first Chief Justice and Rai Bahadur Lala Bodh Raj Sawhney
and Khan Sahib Aga Syed Hussain as Puisne Judges. The seats of the
High Court were at Jammu and Srinagar. On 10 September 1943,
letters patent were conferred on the High Court by the Maharaja.
Himachal Pradesh High Court:
Precisely, the former Princely States had different systems of
Administration and set of laws and in most of the Princely States,
the administration was run on the whims of the Rulers or Wazirs
and their words were considered to be the law.
Uttarakhand High Court:
Uttarakhand state was carved out from erstwhile State of Uttar
Pradesh on 9 November 2000 under the Uttar Pradesh Reorganization
Act, 2000. At the time of the creation of the State, the High
Court of Uttarakhand was also established on the same day at