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Harvest Inspection Rules Under Revenue Laws (Jammu And Kashmir).

Girdawari is a crop harvest inspection. When the crops ripen and become ready for harvesting, the Patwari must visit each field and record the result of crops in the register of Khasra Girdawari.

Objective Of Harvest Inspection: The object of harvest inspection is to make a realistic assessment of the produce, quality, and quantity of crops. The girdawari is conducted twice a year for Rabbi (winter) and Kharief (summer) crops and more than twice for areas under fruits and vegetables and is called Zaid Rabbi and Zaid Kharief. The object of harvest inspection (Girdawari) is to collect the information regarding:
  1. Changes in rights, rent, and possession of the land.
  2. Details as to the condition of crops.
  3. Changes in the kind of soil due to Natural and other reasons.
  4. Amendments required in village map (Shajra Kistwar).

Process Of Harvest Inspection: On completion of girdawari, a report about the total yield of crops is prepared which is called Goshwara Jinswar (agriculture abstract), is Prepared by the patwari and is sent to the Tehsil office. The data is collected at the district level by the Deputy Commissioner and is sent to the Government through the proper channel with a copy to the Director Land Records. This data indicates the condition of crops and the farming community at large, besides the basis for framing food policy and planning at the state and national level.

Dates of Harvest Inspections In Jammu Division: Maidani and Kandi areas:

  • Rabi Awal: 10th January to 10th February.
  • Rabi Doem: Ist April to 20th May.
  • Zaid Rabi: 15th May to 15th June.
  • Kharief: 15th September to 15th October.
  • Zaid Kharief: 15th November to 30th November.

Barfani Areas;
  • Rabi: 
    15th May to 15th July. 
    Kharief: Ist October to 15th November.
Kashmir Valley:
  • Rabi Awal: 15th April to 15th May.
  • Rabi Doem: 15th June to ending July.
  • Kharief: 15th September to 15th October.
  • Zaid Kharicf: 15th October to 30th November.

Ladakh and Kargil Districts: Rabi: (Ladakh)
  • Do fasli Ist July to 31 July.
  • Yak fasli 15th July to end July. 
  • Do fasli 15th June to end July. 
  • Yak fasli 15th July to end August. 
Kharief 
Ladakh Do fasli Ist September to end Oct.
In the district of Ladakh, these dates start late by nearly 15 days due to the climatic conditions. District collector is competent to change the dates by 15 days, in special circumstances when the conditions caused by the late maturity of crops or climatic changes would so demand. The intimation of such changes in dates has to be sent to the through Divisional Commissioner Financial Commissioner Revenue for his information.

Fard Raftar Girdawari:
Patwari shall prepare a Fard Raftar before the commencement of girdawari. It is prepared in a prescribed format showing Sr. No; Name of the Estate, Khasra No; date of commencement, date of completion, date of dispatch of Goshwara, and a remarks column. The Patwari has to send a copy of the Fard Raftar Girdawari to the Tehsil office well in advance and shall also inform the zamindars accordingly. This is also recorded in Roznamcha Karguzari. Fard Raftar shall be prepared in such a manner that Patwari could go around each field in presence of the Zamindars.

The Patwari should keep the following revenue record with him during conducting of Girdawari:

  1. Khasra girdawari registers.
  2. Aks Latha (cloth copy of field map).
  3. Jamabandi last prepared.
  4. Mutation registers.
  5. Roznamcha Waquati.
  6. Roznamcha Karguzari.
  7. Farad Partal.

Entries in Register Khasra Girdawari:

The entries in khasra girdawari column shall be made very carefully. The kind of crops, the changes in rights, rent, and possession should carefully be ascertained and entered in the columns provided in the register. Where the boundaries of the fields have been changed and require correction, the Patwari shall take the rough measurement and carry out the correction. In the course of making the entries, if a khasra number is quite big, it should be allotted a Batta number, with the approval of the Revenue Officers.

As for as possible, the unnecessary increase of such numbers should be avoided. The names of landholders and the tenants with full description are required to be given, with details of rent, crops, kind of soil as recorded in the last Jamabandi or girdawari, details of sources of irrigation, whether through Government canals, zamindari kohls, tanks, tube wells or any other source, shall be entered in the given column. While recording the condition of crops Kharaba if any due to some natural calamity should also be recorded.

The percentage of matured crops should be rationally assessed and recorded. Kind of crop sown or if the land is Khali (unsown), Tradadi, banjarjadid, or qadeem shall be entered. In case a mixed crop has been sown, it shall be recorded as Goji which is a mixture of two or more crops. Situations may also arise where the boundaries of the fields have been broken by way of partition or otherwise damaged by floods, a Milaan Shajara shall be prepared by taking the boundaries of each field from the Mustikal (permanent) Point. Pencil entries are not allowed in the register of khasra girdawari. Only entries with pen and ink are permissible.

Sehet Indraj (Correction of Girdawari):

Correction of girdawari entries is the exclusive jurisdiction of the Revenue Officers and the civil courts have no jurisdiction over the matter. The disputes arising out of the entries of girdawari are corrected on mutations of Sehet Indraj girdawari. A mutation may be entered either on the application of an applicant or the orders of a Revenue Officer. On entering a mutation, the process is set in motion by a Revenue Officer.

A Revenue Officer must conduct a spot inspection, hear the necessary parties and record their statements, the statements of the Lumberdar, Chowkidar, and witnesses to ascertain the factum of possession and to pass such orders as he deems appropriate. Tehsildar is competent to attest these mutations, however, Naib Tehsildar may attest undisputed and clear cases. Correction of girdawari entries of kharief 1971, under the Agrarian Reforms Act 1976, was being done by the Tehsildars under the Act till 1989. On the 26th of May, Government vides its order No; Rev. (LB) 133 0f 1989 Dated 26-5 -1989, delegated these powers to Assistant Commissioners (Collectors AR) but again on 30th of September 1989, the government laid a complete ban on correction of these entries by any class of Revenue Officers.

Duties of Patwari during Harvest Inspection: Patwari shall personally see each field and standing crops and shall enquire into the changes, if any, in respect of rights, rents, possession, and kinds of soil. Change, if any, shall be recorded by him in the register of Khasra Girdawari. Where the boundaries of a field have been changed which requires a correction in the field map, the Patwari will take the rough measurements and mark a red sign against that Khasra number to remind him that a change is required to be made in the shajra. Changes in rent, rights, and possession need to be recorded by the Patwari.

In the case of rent, he must show whether it is in cash or kind. In case of kind rent, the share of produce being shared by the landlord and the tenant and agriculture expenses, if to be deducted from the whole product or in some other manner, shall be mentioned. The share and disposal of fodder and the proportion of the cost of seed and manure to be borne by the parties, have to be specifically recorded during girdawari.

On the completion of the day’s work, the page-wise total has to be completed, called Maizan Safawar. The Patwari has also to record the work-done, in his Roznamcha Karguzari and Roznamcha Waquati. He must ensure that he is conducting Girdawari as per Fard Raftar girdawari, conveyed by him to the Tehsil Office. He must do Milaan Shajra, where two or more fields have been amalgamated during normal agricultural husbandry, by the farmers and landholders.

The Patwari shall not leave the headquarter during the period of harvest inspection unless specially called by the superior officers in the Tehsil office. Where, there is no change in the column of kashat the Patwari will draw khatchalippa in the column of kashat which shows that there is no change of tenancy. In case of damage to the crops, he shall record Kharaba very carefully, to the extent of damage to the crops, by way of drought, hailstorm, floods, excessive rains landslide, cloudburst, pest attack, or any other reason. The percentage of matured crops and Kharaba has to be recorded in the relevant column of the Khasra Girdawari quite carefully.

The duties of the Patwari:

  1. To prepare and send Fard Raftar girdawari through proper channel to Tehsil office well in advance, in the prescribed format.
  2. To inform all the zamindars and those having an interest in land, through Lamberdar and Chowkidar, in writing, one day earlier for the areas and the Khasra numbers for which the girdawari is to be conducted. Besides, notice the information should be conveyed through the beat of drums.
  3. Patwari shall besides, register girdawari and Aks Latha, carry with him the following revenue record during the girdawari: Jamabandi current, Mutation Register, Roznamcha Karguzari, Roznamcha Waquat, and Fard Partal.
  4. Patwari will visit each field to see the condition of the crops and the fields.
  5. Will have the Milaanshajra of the fields.
  6. He will record the maizan safawar (page total) of the girdawari at the end of the day.
  7. He will write up Roznamcha waquat at the end of the day, concerning changes, if any, in the girdawari entries and the visit of the Revenue officers to the field or any other matter which needs a special mention. It may be in place to mention that the routine entries of this document are admissible as evidence, both in the Revenue and Civil Courts and therefore, should be done carefully.
  8. Will record the details of work done, in his Karguzari register at the end of the day
  9. Patwari is duty-bound to adhere to the instructions, passed on to him by the higher authorities, concerning the Hidayat girdawari, from time to time. The Inspecting Officers are also under an obligation to keep the field functionaries updated with the latest instructions on the subject from the higher authorities.
  10. While recording the conditions of the crops, the Patwari shall record very carefully, the Kharaba (damages), if any, to the crops. It is pertinent to mention that these entries in the girdawari, form the basis of crop relief to the farmers being paid by the Government.
  11. Patwari will make entries in the columns of the register with due care and caution. Mutilation or overwriting in the girdawari register is not only illegal but highly objectionable and attracts legal and disciplinary action against such functionaries.

Duties and functions of Girdawar and another inspecting Supervisory Officers during Girdawari: The supervisory officers have to supervise and ensure that the Patwari is conducting girdawari as per the schedule laid down 'in Farad Raftaar" girdawarhi and shall not be called for partal girdawari to the adjoining Village. As for as possible, Patwari should not also be called to the Tehsil office during the period, the harvest inspection is going on. Girdawar circle shall conduct partal of each Patwar circle at least 2/3 times and shall verify from the zamindars about the changes incorporated by the Patwari in girdawari register and shall record his findings in Inspection Book known as Farad Partal register.

Besides, Girdawar Qanungo and other supervisory officers like Naib Tehsildar, Tehsildar, and Assistant Commissioner, need to conduct a random Dartal of villages in a Patwar circle and shall record their observations in the register of Farad Partal. The Tehsildar, the Naib Tehsildar and The Assistant Commissioner shall plan their program of inspection in such a manner that no village or a part thereof, is left without inspection.

The supervisory officers must ensure that the zamindars do attend to the girdawari as and when called for and also in their interest, to see that the girdawari is being done as the position prevailing on the spot, to avoid future litigation. The Revenue Officials and Officers must understand the importance of the harvest inspection that this is a very significant and effective mode of land administration. On completion of the girdawari of a village by the Patwari, he shall check all totals (Maizan Safawar). The second report of the forecast of crops (Goshwara Jinswar), shall be prepared in time and sent to the Tehsil office by or before the dates fixed after getting it verified by the Girdawar.

The entry of all sum totals of crops shall also be entered into Lal-Kitab of the village and will send a copy to office Qanungo of Tehsil office. The copy of Fard Partal and changes which have taken place during the crop inspection shall also be sent to the Tehsil office for examining the same by the Tehsil Qanungo for the record. After completion of the girdawari, the Patwari will also prepare a Dhal-Bachh showing the demand of the village and shall send it to Tehsil Office. He shall also write a mutation register concerning the changes, for the orders of the attesting officers.

Special Girdawari: Any time during girdawari or when the crops are matured for harvesting, some natural calamity like excessive rains, floods, or any such unnatural episode happens and on receipt of the report from the field agency, the Deputy Commissioner of the district shall issue orders for conducting the special girdawari, of the affected estate or part thereof. Special girdawari is conducted in Red Ink.

Procedure for Preventing Errors in khasra Girdawari: Erasing or washing out the entries once made, in the khasra girdawari are strictly prohibited and forbidden and nothing should be interpolated between the words and lines. Correction if any, noticed to be made and ordered by the competent officer concerning changes in rights, cultivation, and rent should be made in red ink and a note to this effect recorded in Roznamcha Waqiati. During the usual round when the Girdawar goes to the Patwar Halqa, he is duty-bound to inspect the Roznamcha Waqiati.

 All corrections made shall also be signed by the Girdawar. In villages where quaderennial Jamabandi has not been prepared, the entries of Khasra Girdawari may be corrected, on the application of the party interested through orders passed on the mutation register, by an Assistant Collector of the Ist Class.

Important Points to remember:
  1. Girdawari is done generally twice a year both for Rabbi and Kharief crops, otherwise where Zaid or special Girdawari is required to be done.
  2. The objectives of the girdawari are very important for revenue administration, to know the condition of crops, changes in rights, rents, possession, kind of soil and Nautors, etc.
  3. Patwari must visit each field personally at the time of girdawari.
  4. Patwari has to send Fard Raftar girdawari to the Tehsil office much in advance before the commencement of the girdawari and shall proceed according to this.
  5. Lambardar, Chokidar, 1andhoders, tenants, and all those having an interest in land must be informed to remain present at the time of conducting of girdawari.
  6. Patwari shall carry along with him the requested revenue record including Roznamchas.
  7. Roznamcha Karguzari, Waqati, maizan safawar shall be completed by the Patwari at the close of each day’s work.
  8. Girdawar Qanungo and other inspecting officers should plan partal girdawari in such a way that no village is left without partal.
  9. Patwari must complete the girdawari before the close of the given calendar. However, partal and inspections can be done by the inspecting officers for about a fortnight after the close of the girdawari.
  10. Patwari shall read out the entries of Khasra girdawari to the zamindars present to ensure that the rent, rights, and possession are correctly recorded.
  11. The officers shall ensure that the Patwari is not called to the Tehsil headquarters during the girdawari period unless it is unavoidable.
  12. The Goshwara Zinswar (crop abstract) should be sent to the Tehsil office after completion of the girdawari within the specified period.
  13. Patwari shall send a certificate to the Tehsil office that all entries made In the Fard Partal by the inspecting officers have been incorporated in the record.
  14. Encroachments on the state, shamilat, or any other common lands shall be reported to the Tehsil office by the Patwari after completion of the girdawari.
  15. Making of pencil entries in the register of Khasra girdawari is not permitted.
  16. Mutilation of any entry made in the girdawari register is not only objectionable but illegal also and warrants strict action against the revenue functionaries.

Reference:
  1. The Jammu and Kashmir Land Revenue Act Svt. 1996.
  2. The Jammu and Kashmir Partition Rules 1970.
  3. The Jammu and Kashmir Agrarian Reforms Act 1976.
  4. The Jammu & Kashmir Agrarian Reforms Rules, 1977, vide SRO No. 58 of Ist February 1977. 
  5. Government Order No. Rev.(LB) 133 of 1989, regarding the correction of girdawari entries of Kharief 1971.
  6. Chowkidar Act and Rules.
  7. Lambardari Act and Rules.
  8. The Jammu and Kashmir Kahcharai Act Svt. 2011 (1954 AD).
  9. Standing Order No. 22-Girdawari.
  10. Standing Order No.23-B Record of Rights and Jamabandi.

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